Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035

Becoming a 21st-Century Force

VOLUME 6 Platforms

Panel on Platforms

Committee on Technology for Future Naval Forces

Naval Studies Board

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1997



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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000–2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 6 Platforms Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035 Becoming a 21st-Century Force VOLUME 6 Platforms Panel on Platforms Committee on Technology for Future Naval Forces Naval Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000–2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 6 Platforms NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This work was performed under Department of the Navy Contract N00014-96-D-0169/0001 issued by the Office of Naval Research under contract authority NR 201-124. However, the content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Department of the Navy or the government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. The United States Government has at least a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable license throughout the world for government purposes to publish, translate, reproduce, deliver, perform, and dispose of all or any of this work, and to authorize others so to do. Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Copies available from: Naval Studies Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000–2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 6 Platforms PANEL ON PLATFORMS GERALD A. CANN, Raytheon Company, Chair WILLIAM D. O'NEIL, Center for Naval Analyses, Vice Chair STEVEN D. ADAMS, Bath Iron Works Corporation JAMES P. BROOKS, Litton/Ingalls Shipbuilding, Inc. ROY R. BUEHLER, Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Systems DANIEL L. COOPER, Wyomissing, Pennsylvania RICHARD M. DUNLEAVY, Virginia Beach, Virginia STANLEY F. DUNN, Florida Atlantic University ROBERT H. GORMLEY, The Oceanus Company JAMES C. HAY, Potomac, Maryland CHARLES F. HORNE III, Mount Pleasant, South Carolina ANN R. KARAGOZIAN, University of California at Los Angeles RONALD K. KISS, Rockville, Maryland THOMAS C. MALONEY, General Dynamics DAVID W. McCALL, Far Hills, New Jersey IRWIN MENDELSON, Singer Island, Florida JOSEPH METCALF III, Washington, D.C. RICHARDS T. MILLER, Annapolis, Maryland MICHAEL L. POWELL, Newport News Shipbuilding, Inc. JAMES M. SINNETT, McDonnell Douglas Corporation KEITH A. SMITH, Vienna, Virginia JAMES J. TURNER, SR., Alexandria, Virginia Invited Participant MICHAEL T. BOYCE, Boeing Defense and Space Group Navy Liaison Representatives CAPT JOHN McGILLVRAY, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N863J CDR DENNIS MURPHY, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N87C1 LCDR PETE McSHEA, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N88W3 Consultants LEE M. HUNT SIDNEY G. REED, JR. JAMES G. WILSON

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000–2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 6 Platforms Staff RONALD D. TAYLOR, Director, Naval Studies Board PETER W. ROONEY, Program Officer SUSAN G. CAMPBELL, Administrative Assistant MARY G. GORDON, Information Officer CHRISTOPHER A. HANNA, Project Assistant

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000–2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 6 Platforms COMMITTEE ON TECHNOLOGY FOR FUTURE NAVAL FORCES DAVID R. HEEBNER, Science Applications International Corporation (retired), Study Director ALBERT J. BACIOCCO, JR., The Baciocco Group, Inc. ALAN BERMAN, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University NORMAN E. BETAQUE, Logistics Management Institute GERALD A. CANN, Raytheon Company GEORGE F. CARRIER, Harvard University SEYMOUR J. DEITCHMAN, Institute for Defense Analyses (retired) ALEXANDER FLAX, Potomac, Maryland WILLIAM J. MORAN, Redwood City, California ROBERT J. MURRAY, Center for Naval Analyses ROBERT B. OAKLEY, National Defense University JOSEPH B. REAGAN, Saratoga, California VINCENT VITTO, Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Navy Liaison Representatives RADM JOHN W. CRAINE, JR., USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N81 (as of July 4, 1996) VADM THOMAS B. FARGO, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N81 (through July 3, 1996) RADM RICHARD A. RIDDELL, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N91 CDR DOUGLASS BIESEL, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N812C1 PAUL G. BLATCH, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N911T1 Marine Corps Liaison Representative LtGen PAUL K. VAN RIPER, USMC, Marine Corps Combat Development Command Consultants LEE M. HUNT SIDNEY G. REED, JR. JAMES G. WILSON Staff RONALD D. TAYLOR, Director, Naval Studies Board PETER W. ROONEY, Program Officer SUSAN G. CAMPBELL, Administrative Assistant MARY G. GORDON, Information Officer CHRISTOPHER A. HANNA, Project Assistant

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000–2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 6 Platforms NAVAL STUDIES BOARD DAVID R. HEEBNER, Science Applications International Corporation (retired), Chair GEORGE M. WHITESIDES, Harvard University, Vice Chair ALBERT J. BACIOCCO, JR., The Baciocco Group, Inc. ALAN BERMAN, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University NORMAN E. BETAQUE, Logistics Management Institute NORVAL L. BROOME, Mitre Corporation GERALD A. CANN, Raytheon Company SEYMOUR J. DEITCHMAN, Institute for Defense Analyses (retired), Special Advisor ANTHONY J. DeMARIA, DeMaria ElectroOptics Systems, Inc. JOHN F. EGAN, Lockheed Martin Corporation ROBERT HUMMEL, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University DAVID W. McCALL, Far Hills, New Jersey ROBERT J. MURRAY, Center for Naval Analyses ROBERT B. OAKLEY, National Defense University WILLIAM J. PHILLIPS, Northstar Associates, Inc. MARA G. PRENTISS, Jefferson Laboratory, Harvard University HERBERT RABIN, University of Maryland JULIE JCH RYAN, Booz, Allen and Hamilton HARRISON SHULL, Monterey, California KEITH A. SMITH, Vienna, Virginia ROBERT C. SPINDEL, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington DAVID L. STANFORD, Science Applications International Corporation H. GREGORY TORNATORE, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University J. PACE VanDEVENDER, Prosperity Institute VINCENT VITTO, Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology BRUCE WALD, Arlington Education Consultants Navy Liaison Representatives RADM JOHN W. CRAINE, JR., USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N81 (as of July 4, 1996) VADM THOMAS B. FARGO, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N81 (through July 3, 1996) RADM RICHARD A. RIDDELL, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N91 RONALD N. KOSTOFF, Office of Naval Research

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000–2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 6 Platforms Marine Corps Liaison Representative LtGen PAUL K. VAN RIPER, USMC, Marine Corps Combat Development Command RONALD D. TAYLOR, Director PETER W. ROONEY, Program Officer SUSAN G. CAMPBELL, Administrative Assistant MARY G. GORDON, Information Officer CHRISTOPHER A. HANNA, Project Assistant

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000–2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 6 Platforms COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS ROBERT J. HERMANN, United Technologies Corporation, Co-Chair W. CARL LINEBERGER, University of Colorado, Co-Chair PETER M. BANKS, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan LAWRENCE D. BROWN, University of Pennsylvania RONALD G. DOUGLAS, Texas A&M University JOHN E. ESTES, University of California at Santa Barbara L. LOUIS HEGEDUS, Elf Atochem North America, Inc. JOHN E. HOPCROFT, Cornell University RHONDA J. HUGHES, Bryn Mawr College SHIRLEY A. JACKSON, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission KENNETH H. KELLER, University of Minnesota KENNETH I. KELLERMANN, National Radio Astronomy Observatory MARGARET G. KIVELSON, University of California at Los Angeles DANIEL KLEPPNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN KREICK, Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company MARSHA I. LESTER, University of Pennsylvania THOMAS A. PRINCE, California Institute of Technology NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS, Brookhaven National Laboratory L.E. SCRIVEN, University of Minnesota SHMUEL WINOGRAD, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center CHARLES A. ZRAKET, Mitre Corporation (retired) NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000–2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 6 Platforms Preface This report is part of the nine-volume series entitled Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force. The series is the product of an 18-month study requested by the Chief of Naval Operations. To carry out this study, eight technical panels were organized under the Committee on Technology for Future Naval Forces to examine all of the specific technical areas called out in the terms of reference. On November 28, 1995, the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) requested that the National Research Council initiate, through its Naval Studies Board, a thorough examination of the impact of advancing technology on the form and capability of the naval forces to the year 2035. The terms of reference of the study specifically asked for an identification of "present and emerging technologies that relate to the full breadth of Navy and Marine Corps mission capabilities," with specific attention to "(1) information warfare, electronic warfare, and the use of surveillance assets; (2) mine warfare and submarine warfare; (3) Navy and Marine Corps weaponry in the context of effectiveness on target; [and] (4) issues in caring for and maximizing effectiveness of Navy and Marine Corps human resources." Ten specific technical areas were identified to which attention should be broadly directed. The CNO's letter of request with the full terms of reference is given in Appendix A of this report. The Panel on Platforms was constituted to address technology issues related to military platforms—surface, air, and subsurface—that will support future Navy and Marine Corps missions. As part of its effort, particular attention was directed to item 6 of the terms of reference: Navy and Marine Corps platforms, including propulsion systems, should be evaluated for suitability to future missions and operating environments. For

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000–2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 6 Platforms example, compliance with environmental issues is becoming increasingly expensive for the naval service and affects operations. The review should take known issues into account and anticipate those likely to affect the Navy and Marine Corps in the future. The terms of reference for the study charged the Panel on Platforms with examining how new directions in technology development can be brought to bear to enhance the effectiveness of future naval platforms, taking note of recent changes in the national security environment (threat, tasking, resources) and those that can be expected to occur in the future. The panel realized that (1) resource availability will be the controlling factor; (2) the threat will remain diffuse in origin and broad in scope, with a consequent need for a viable, up-to-date naval force structure; and (3) the Navy and Marine Corps missions in the uncertain future will continue to be defined broadly as the application of sea power in the national interest. Panel membership included expertise in systems engineering; naval architecture; electrical and mechanical engineering; propulsion engineering; ship, aircraft, and submarine design and manufacturing; large enterprise management; and direct operational experience. The panel held 10 meetings over the course of a year, during which it received input from scientists, engineers, and decision-makers from government, industry, and academia with specialized expertise in platform technologies.

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000–2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 6 Platforms Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   9     Operations Other Than War,   10     Objectives for Technological Advance,   11 2   SURFACE PLATFORM TECHNOLOGY   13     Overview of Future Surface Platform Technology,   13     Technology Focus Areas,   15     Conclusions and Recommendations,   35 3   NAVAL AIR PLATFORM TECHNOLOGY   37     Overview of Future Naval Air Technology,   37     Technology Development Plan,   39     Technology Focus Areas,   42     Summary of Enabling Technologies,   75     Recommendation,   83 4   SUBMARINE PLATFORM TECHNOLOGY   85     Overview of Future Submarine Platform Technology,   85     Technology Focus Areas,   90     Summary and Conclusions,   108     APPENDIXES         A Terms of Reference   115     B Acronyms and Abbreviations   120

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