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APPENDIX A Supplementary Data Engineering Employment Characteristics The following tables [A-1 through A-5 end figures {A-1 through A-14) provide supplementary data on engineering employment characteris- tics. Specifically, Tables A-1 through A-4 provide information on changes in the primary work activities of experienced engineers between 1972 and 1978, showing [in percentages the flow of engineers into and out of management, production, R&D, and teaching. Table A-5 gives concentration ratios of engineers, engineering technicians, and computer specialists in major industries for 1960, 1970, and 1980. Figures A-1 through A-7 show age distributions for engineers, by discipline, and for computer specialists; Figures A-8 and A-9 compare primary activities of all scientists and engineers as a group and of engi- neers in 1976, 1978, and 1980; and Figures A-10 through A-14 show concentration ratios of engineers, by discipline, in selected major industries for 1960 through 1978. 45

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46 APPENDIX A TABLE A-1 Changes In Primary Work Activity of Experienced Engineers: Flows Into/Out of Management, 1972-1978 {percent) Moved Into Moved Out of In Manage- In Manage- Management, Management, Discipline meet, 1972 meet, 1978 1972-1978 1972-1978 All engineers 22.9 32.8 18.5 8.6 Aeronautical 28.8 32.4 13.9 10.3 Chemical 18.1 31.7 20.2 6.6 Civil 33.4 42.3 20.5 11.6 Electrical 20.9 41.6 28.3 7-.6 Industrial 26.4 37.7 22.7 11.4 Mechanical 20.2 31.5 18.7 7.4 SOURCE: Based on National Science Foundation data for experienced scientists and engineers t1972-1978). TABLE A-2 Changes in Primary Work Activity of Experienced Engineers: Elows Into/Out of Production, 1972-1978 {percents Moved Into Moved Out of In Produc- In Produc- Production, Production, Discipline lion, 1972 lion, 1978 1972-1978 1972-1978 All engineers 15.0 14.1 7.9 8.8 Aeronautical 7.4 7.3 4.4 4.5 Chemical 16.6 15.0 8.2 9.8 Civil 14.4 15.0 9.5 8.9 Electrical 5.4 5.5 7.1 7.0 Industrial 24.6 23.6 13.5 14.5 Mechanical 4.4 3.2 6.7 7.9 SOURCE: Based on National Science Foundation data for experienced scientists and engineers {1972-1978J. TABLE A-3 Changes in Primary Work Activity of Experienced Engineers: Flows Into/Out of R&D, 1972-1978 Percent) Moved Moved In ROD, In R&D, Into ROD, Out of ROD, Discipline 1972 1978 1972-1978 1972-1978 All engineers 38.0 29.8 9.3 17.5 Aeronautical 43.7 42.7 15.5 16.5 Chemical 50.1 35.2 8.4 23.3 Civil 26.3 12.2 3.2 17.3 Electrical 42.9 37.7 10.7 15.9 Industrial 18.7 13.1 8.8 14.4 Mechanical 51.9 40.5 10.5 21.9 SOURCE: Based on National Science Foundation data for experienced scientists and engineers (1972-1978J.

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APPENDIX A TABLE A-4 Changes in Primary Work Activity of Experienced Engineers: Flows Into/Out of Teaching, 1972-1978 Percent) 47 In In Moved Into Moved Out of Teaching, Teaching, Teaching, Teaching, Discipline 1972 1978 1972-1978 1972-1978 All engineers 2.4 2.3 .9 1.0 Aeronautical 1.1 1.5 .9 .5 Chemical 2.3 2.6 1.3 1.0 Civil 2.1 1.9 .6 .8 Electrical 3.6 3.5 1.1 1.2 Industrial 2.7 3.0 1.5 1.2 Mechanical 2.7 2.0 .4 1.1 SOURCE: Based on National Science Foundation data for experienced scientists and engineers (1972-1978). TABLE A-5 Concentration Ratios of Engineers, Technicians, and Computer Specialists in Major Industries, 1960, 1970, and 1980 fin percent of total employment) Industry Computer Engineers Techniciansa Specialists 1960 1970 1980 1960 1970 1980 1960 1970 19.80 Primary metals 2.19 2.11 2.16 1.40 1.65 1.71 - ;0.~5 Q.~S Fabricated metals 4.10 2.30 2.33 3.11 1.98 2.03 - 0.36 0.39 Chemicals 3.79 4.25 4.03 4.93 5.30 5.54 - O.81 0.85 Communication 4.00 4.13 3.88 1.55 2.08 1.63 - 0.61 1.22 Machinery (except elect) 4.20 5.19 4.80 2.97 3.05 2.98 - 1.78 2.30 Electrical machinery 6.97 8.02 7.10 5.07 4.74 5.03 - 1.20 1.31 Electronic computers - 10.71 9.55 - 6.76 6.68 - 10.67 10.87 Professional and scientific equipment 6.66 6.32 6.08 5.39 4.31 4.85 - 1.17 1.39 Motor vehicles 7.49 3.03 3.73 1 79 1.66 1.46 - 0.56 0.19 Aircraft 12.~i4 14.31 15.68 4.97 4.29 4.22 - 2.24 2.66 Engineering services 27.07 26.73 25.24 20.50 25.09 18.80 - 0.75 1.12 Commercial R&D - 15.01 12.74 - 17.98 14.71 - 3.78 4.17 Computer programming - 3.77 9.48 - 1.77 2.58 - 2-6.44 23 33 Business management - 6.47 1.28 - 1.78 1.07 - 3.73 2.13 a Includes both~gi-neering and science technicians. SOURCE: Bureau office Census.

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48 APPENDIX A 20% _ 1 5% lo% 5% _ - - ,e~ tee . .- e e e e e TOTA L ENGINEERS e ~ e e e e e e ~ e e , TOTAL EMPLOYED IN TOTAL SCIENCE OR ENGINEERING EMPLOYED _ 1 1 1 ~e 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 l 24 & UNDER 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70 & OVER FIGURE A-1 Age distribution of aeronautical/astronautical engineers. SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Bureau of the Census. 20%- 15% 10% _ 5% TOTA L ~ e E N G I N E E RS Ne e >~` TOTAL ~ e e e e e EMPLOYED e / -~ ~ ~ e TOTAL EMPLOYED IN SCIENCE OR ENGINEERING 1 1 N;\ e ~,:_ e ~ee . ~ e Ne e ~; 24 & UNDER 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70 & OVER FIGURE A-2 Age distribution of chemical engineers. SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Bureau of the Census.

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APPENDIX A 20% _ 15% . TOTA L . EAGLE EERS / TOTAL EMPLOYED I N SCIENCE OR ENGINEERING - TOTA L EMPLOYED 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 24 & UNDER 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70 & OVER 49 FIGURE A-3 Age distribution of civil engineers. SOURCES: National Science Founda- tion, Bureau of the Census. 20% 10% -~W . ~ TOTA L ENGINEERS .. ~ -~' _--\ Hi:- TOTA L EMPLOYED TOTAL EMPLOYED IN `' SCIENCE OR ENGINEERING N; ~- ~ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 24 & UNDER 25-29 30-34 35-39 4044 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70 & OVER FIGURE A-4 Age distribution of electrical/electronic engineers. SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Bureau of the Census.

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50 APPENDIX A 20% 1 5% lo% _ 5 ~ EMPLOY ED TOTAL EMPLOYED IN ~ J SCIENCE OR ENGINEERING ~ TOTAL ENGINEERS ~ / Elf 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 24 & UNDER 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70 & OVER FIGURE A-5 Age distribution of mechanical engineers. SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Bureau of the Census. 20%- . . ... , TOTAL ENGINEERS _,> - . 5% _ TOTA L EMPLOYED 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 W\--e TOTA L EMP LOYED I N SCIENCE OR ENGINEERING ~ . 24 & UNDER 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60~4 65-69 70 & OVER FIGURE A-6 Age distribution of other engineers. SOURCES: National Science Founda- tion, Bureau of the Census.

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APPENDIX A 20%- 1 5% . - . - . TOTA L ;. ENG I N EE RS S-./ By- TOTAL ma-. EM P LOY ED TOTA L EMPLOYED I N SCI ENCE OR ENG I N EER I NG ~ 10% _ \. 5% 51 1 1 1' 1 1 1 - 24 & UNDER 25-29 30-34 35-39 40 44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70 & OVER FIGURE A-7 Age distribution of computer specialists. SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Bureau of the Census.

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APPENDIX A 10 9 8 In U) 6 z 5 UJ LO 4 3 1 o 53 r MECHANICAL METALLURGICAL ELECTRICAL 1 960 3970 1 978 FIGURE A-10 Concentration ratios of engineers in machinery {except electrical) industry, 1960-1978. SOURCES: BLS Occupation/Industry Matrices, 1960, 1980, 1978.

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54 APPENDIX A 10 9 8 6 4 3 2 n ............ INDUSTRIAL MECHANICAL . CHEMICAL 1 960 1 970 1 978 FIGURE A-ll Concentration ratios of engineers in electrical machinery industry, 1960-1978.SouRcEs:BLSOccupation/IndustryMatrices, 1960,1970, 1978. lo . 9 8 _ 7 A: aid 4 AERONAUTICAL - .- 6 - . - . _ ELECTR ICAL MECHANICAL _ _~ Em- ---_ .----------- - l~lnl ICTRIAI METALLURGICAL CHEMICAL ~IVII 1 960 1 970 1 978 FIGURE A-12 Concentration ratios of engineers in aircraft industry, 1960-1978. SOURCES: BLS Occupation/Industry Matrices, 1960, 1970, 1978.

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APPENDIX A lo 9 8 al) 6 Z 5 LO En: LLJ 2 1 . - . - _ MECHAN ICAL ELECTR I CAL eeeeeaeeeee here eve INDUSTRIAL CHEMICAL. 1960 1970 1978 55 FIGURE A-13 Concentration ratios of engineers in electronic computing industry, 1960-1978. SOURCES: BLS Occupation/Industry Matrices, 1960, 1970, 1978. 10 9 8 6 ad: By UJ C) CL 5 4 l 0 _ _ _ INDUSTRIAL ELECTRICAL \ MECHANICAL / CIVIL _~ - \ 1---5- - - f ~ - - ~ ~ - - - - ~- ~--~--it- -- ~ ~ 1 960 1 970 1 978 FIGURE A-14 Concentration ratios of engineers in chemicals industry, 1960-1978. SouRcEs:BLS Occupation/Industry Matrices, 1960,1970, 1978.