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APPENDIX E Report on the Role of the Federal Government In the Education arid Utilization of the Engineer W. Edward Lear and Donald G. Wemert Almost every agency of the federal government has some involve- ment in the education and utilization of engineers in the nation, and several play a major role. With respect to utilization, federal agencies employ approximately 100,000 engineers in their various headquarters offices, branch offices, and laboratories. However, the federal influence on the engineering labor market goes far beyond direct employment of engineers in gov- emment installations. The demand for engineers in several private- sector areas depends heavily on the availability of federal contracts for development and research. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration MASAI cutback of more than a decade ago still serves as a strong reminder of the disruption that can occur in engineering employment following a sudden change in federal spending priorities. Direct and indirect support of engineering education by federal agen- cies had taken a variety of forms-research contracts and grants; stu- dent scholarships, fellowships, and work-study programs; job and guaranteed loans; equipment and facility grants; summer or longer- term employment of faculty in government laboratories; curriculum development grants; funding of specialized research and training insti- tutes; travel grants; faculty incentive grants; and specialized studies of various facets of the engineering education system. W. Edward Lear and Donald G. Weinert are members of the Committee on the Education and Utilization of the Engineer. Appendix E was completed in May 1984. 69

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70 APPENDIX E Following is a compilation of available data on the employment of engineers and support of engineering education by the federal govem- ment. Employment of Engineers The most recent data available (1981) on federal employment of engineers that include all the major agencies :are shown in Table E- 1. The U.S. Department of Defense {DOD) is seen to be by far the largest employer. About one-fourth t14,500) of DOD engineers are employed in the various laboratories of the department. Among labora- tory engineering employees, electrical/electronic engineers are the predominant disciplinary group, as shown in Table E-2. As stated earlier, the impact of the federal government on engineer- ing employment is indicated only partially by the direct employment statistics for the various agencies. The Department of Defense, for example, has a large and growing influence on engineering manpower demand through its multitude of contractors and subcontractors. It is estimated that, in addition to the numbers shown in Table E-1, another 13 -percent of the total science and engineering work force in the-nation is linked to DOD budgets and programs. This can be trans- lated into numbers of engineers involved by noting that of the approxi- mately 2.9 million scientists and engineers in the nonfederal work force, about 48 percent are engineers. The result isthat roughly 181,000 nongovernment engineers depend on DOD for employment. There are obviously 'other agencies that substantially influence the engineering labor market beyond direct employment of engineers in civil service positions. Unfortunately, reliable figures are not available on their total impact on engineering employment, but it is' clear that for those agencies that have a prime technological mission and which have substantial research and development contracts with the private sec- tor,'indirect engineering employment far exceeds direct employment. For example, the Department of Energy has 2,813 civil service' engi- neering employees [Table E-1J, but estimates that another 10,000 to 11,000 engineers are employed in its contractor-operated laboratories alone. And the National'Aeronautics and Space Administration, which is second only to DOD in direct employment 'of engineers, has an estimated 50,000 non-civil' service engineering positions tied to its research and development contracts. Based on the 1981 data, therefore, the number of engineering employees partially or totally supported by the federal government was not simply the 91 jO00 civil service positions listed in Table E-1, but

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APPENDIX E 71 probably totaled more than 300,000 in direct and indirect employment just~for the three agencies for which some estimates are available. A different approach to the determination of the federal role in engi- neering employment is available through the 1982 "postcensal" data collected by the National Science Foundation, as shown in Table E-3. These data represent responses from what is purported to be about one- half of the nation's engineers to the question of whether the individ- ual's job is supported, either partially or totally, from federal sources. The first panel of Table E-3 provides the summation of responses from all engineering disciplines. Of the 1.05 million engineers who responded, 29 percent {301,000) stated that they had federal support. jAn interesting sidelight in these figures is that if these are truly the responses from about half of the nation's engineers, the total engineer- ing work force would be nearer 2 million rather than the 1.3 million figure frequently used. ~ It is apparent, too, from Table E-3 that there are other agencies {Department of Transportation and Environmental Pro- tection Agency) besides DOD, the Department of Energy {DOE), and NASA that have a significant effect on non-civil service engineering employment. There is an obvious discrepancy in the absolute number of engineer- ing jobs with federal support indicated by the two approaches. The figure of approximately 300~000 positions obtained from the 1981 data reflected in Tables E-1 end E-2 includes only three agencies and depends heavily on agency estimates of contractor jobs supported. It also assumes a total science and engineering work force of 2.7 million, of which 48 percent jl.29 million) are engineers. The postcensal data, on the other hand, depend on responses of individual engineers for those who class themselves as engineers), and there are obvious questions raised regarding the accuracy of response when we note iTable K-3 J that only 94 percent of federal government engineers and 84 percent of militaryJcommissioned corps engineers reported federal support for their jobs. In any event, the postcensal data indicate that the absolute number of engineers employed in jobs partially or totally supported by the federal government is about 600,000, assuming that the 301,452 positions shown in Table E-3 are the response from half the engineering work force and represent the situation in the total work force. In summary, although there is uncertainty regarding the absolute number of engineering jobs with federal support, it seems reasonable to believe that the percentage of such jobs reported by engineers in the postcensal survey is approximately correct. That figure is 28.7 percent {301,452/1,050,872, Table E-3) and suggests that there are 373,100 federally supported engineers if the work force totals 1.3 million, and

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72 APPENDIX E 574,000 if the engineering work force is 2.0 million. In either case, the federal influence is substantial. Table E-3 also details the postcensal data for the individual engineering disciplines. Support of Engineering Education Research The federal government has obligated an estimated $3.487 billion for basic and applied research in engineering for Fiscal Year {F7J 1984. Of this amount, $446 million is for engineering research carried out in colleges and universities. For FY 1982, the last year for which actual expenditures rather than estimates are available, the comparable figures are $3.386 billion and $361 million. Levels of support by agency and by engineering discipline for university-based basic and applied engineering research are shown in Tables E-4 through E-7. A very sizable difference exists between the data collected from grantors and grantees. Tables E-4 through E-7 show dollars obligated for engineering research in universities as reported by the various agencies and tabulated by NSF. An analogous survey is conducted annually by the American Society for Engineering Education {ASEE), in which the engineering colleges report annual research expenditures broken down by source of support. Figures for the federal FY 1983 and for the 1982- 1983 university year should be comparable, but the sum of basic and applied research support for FY 1983 as given in Tables E-4 and E-6 is $389 million, while the engineering colleges report in the ASEE surveys an expenditure in 1982-1983 of $761 million from federal government sources. The most probable reason for this $372 million difference is that many engineering schools are reporting under research expendi- tures work that is classified as development in the NSF reporting. The total federal support for development projects in universities in FY 1983 is estimated at $589 million, and it seems reasonable to expect that a substantial fraction of this is done in the colleges of engineering. Financial Aid A rough estimate of the amount of federal financial aid going to engineering undergraduate students is obtained starting with the cur- rent fraction of engineers in the total undergraduate population of the nation, or 415,000/ 12,400,000 = .0335. Total student aid in the univer- sities was $7.7 billions in 1982-1983, and approximately half {$3.85 billion) of this came from federal sources. Assuming that engineering

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APPENDIX E 73 students receive financial aid in the same proportion as other under- graduates gives a figure of $129 million for the engineers. This appears to be a large amount but averages out to only $620 from federal sources per engineering aid recipient, making the further assumption that engi- neering follows the pattern of all undergraduates, in which roughly half the students have some form of financial aid. Another form of aid to undergraduate students in engineering is the support of a substantial number of undergraduate research assistants by federally funded research contracts and grants in the engineering col- leges. The amount of this support is not available and lies embedded in the figures given earlier for support of engineering research and devel . . . . Opment in t :le universities. Graduate Fellowships Several federal agencies provide competitive fellowships for graduate students in engineering. The fellowships provide an annual stipend for the student, usually renewable for three years, plus an institutional allowance and/or tuition. The major federal engineering graduate fellowship programs are shown in Table E-8. In several cases the numbers shown are for the engineering portion of a larger science and engineering program. In the NSF program, for example, engineering students were awarded 112 of the 600 fellowships currently available. The NASA program provides three-year support and adds 40 new fellows each year for a total of approximately 120 students in the program at one time. Of that total number, 36 are engineers. In contrast, in the Navy {Office of Naval Research tONR] ~ program, 66 of 80 current fellowship holders are engi neers. The numbers of fellowships and stipend levels indicated in Table E-8 are for early 1984. Thirty-two new students will be added to the Navy IONS program in the fall of 1984 for a total of 112. NASA has plans to add 80 new fellows per year rather than 40, although most of these will be in the sciences as a part of the space platform effort. Both NASA and NSF plan some increase in the stipends awarded during the coming fiscal year. It should be noted that the 417 fellowships shown in Table E-8 are not the total effort of the federal government in support of engineering graduate students. Most of the federal contracts and grants for engineer- ing research in universities have provisions for the employment of graduate students as research assistants. The number of engineering students supported in this fashion is not available, but an estimate Can

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74 APPENDIX E be made using data available in the 1982-1983 ASEE surveys of engi- neering college research and graduate study. The survey shows that 65 percent of the research support of the engineering colleges came from the federal government and that 25,484 graduate students were involved in research supported from all sources. Assuming students were employed on the research projects in proportion to dollars avail- able gives an estimated 16, 600 graduate research assistants with federal government support. Also involved in engineering research at universities are postdoctoral fellows, although postdoctoral appointments are not nearly as com- mon in engineering as in the sciences. The ASEE survey for 1982-1983 lists 862 postdoctoral fellows engaged in research. Again, assuming that 65 percent of this number have federal support ;a number that is probably low) gives an estimated 560 postdoctoral appointees. Since these engineers are almost all supported from research contracts and grants, the federal dollar involvement is included in the research figures quoted earlier. An estimate of the amount devoted to postdoc- toral appointees can be obtained from data collected by NSF on postdoc- toral student employment by its engineering research grantees. In FY 1983 there were 155 postdoctoral employees working for varying lengths of time on NSF grants at a total cost of $1.75 million. This gives an average cost per employee of $11,300 and translates to $6.3 million of support for the 560 postdoctoral appointees estimated to be employed on engineering college research contracts and grants from federal agencies. Equipment Obsolescence of undergraduate instructional equipment for engi- neering is a critical issue that is not being addressed by the federal government. The modest NSF program of matching grants for instruc- tional equipment was phased out in 1981, and plans to revive it are tenuous. There is, however, an effort to address the shortage of research laboratory equipment in some areas, and both DOD and DOE have initiated programs that provide equipment for science and engineering in research areas which support the missions of the agencies. The DOE program is funded at $4 million in FY 1984 and will increase to $6 million in FY 1985. Awards are only available to researchers who cur- rently have at least $150,000 in DOE research support, and the equip- ment to be purchased must cost at least $100,000. The DOD program provided $30 million for research equipment in selected areas in FY 1983, and an additional $60 million has been awarded to university

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APPENDIX E 75 researchers for the two-year period, FY 1984 and- FY 1985. There is unfortunately no information available on the fraction of the money in either of these programs that was awarded to engineering. A listing of the eligible research areas would suggest, however, a reasonable guess that half of the money was-awarded for the purchase of engineering research equipment. Under this assumption engineers received from the two agencies $15 million in FY 1983, $17 million in FY 1984, and will receive $18 million in FY 1985 for the purchase of research equip- ment. Research equipment can, of course, be purchased as a part of-the research and development grants and contracts of many agencies. For example, DOD now allows up to 10 percent of a research contract amount to be spent for equipment, and NSF anticipates an expenditure of approximately $17 million {about 14 percent of the NSF engineering research budget) for this purpose in FY 1984 as a part of the grants made to universities for engineering research. This latter figure, incidentally, compares with $8 million in FY 1983 and represents a conscious effort by NSF to improve the research equipment base of the engineering colleges. Continuing Professional Development Federal civil service regulations provide for federal agency support for continuing professional development of engineers directly employed by the federal government. Activities under these regulations occur in two major categories: {1) support for attendance by federal employees at professional meetings and for participation in other activities of professional and technical engineering societies; and t2) support for participation in continuing-education activities, including technical seminars, short courses, and degree-producing courses. Continuing- education programs include both those presented by universities and technical engineering societies and those presented by the federal agen- cies themselves. The level of resource commitment by the federal government to continuing education of its engineering employees is probably very substantial. Unfortunately, however, the system is so decentralized that no reliable data are available. Summary of Direct Support A summary of the estimated major direct support of engineering education by agencies of the federal government is given in Table E-9.

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76 APPENDIX E In addition to the various forms of direct support for engineering education that have been discussed above, the federal government spends an undetermined amount for what can be classified as indirect support. A leading program in this category is provision by the various agencies of short-term employment of faculty members in research laboratories. Perhaps the largest of these is the NASA summer faculty fellowship program, which brings to NASA laboratories each year about 300 faculty members, approximately 120 of whom are engineers. Similar programs of the Navy, Air Force, and Department of Energy involve a total of 50 to 75 engineers each summer, depending on the disciplinary distribution of applicants. Total government cost of the engineering part of these four programs for the summer months is in the range of $1.5 million. The Army also employs faculty members for short consulting assignments, usually a few months to a year in dura- tion, as do a number of other government agencies. Unfortunately, no figures are readily available for the total engineering involvement or the amounts expanded. Finally, federal funds for construction of university facilities for engi- neering and science {e.g., NASA space sciences buildings have been available at times in the past, but have essentially disappeared from the scene today. Notes 1. Report of the DOD-University Forum Working Group on Engineering and Science Education, July 1983. 2. Engineenng Education, vol. 74, no. 6, March 1984. 3. Higher Education and National Affairs, American Council on Education, April 9, 1984. 4. Engineering Education, vol. 74, no. 6, March 1984.

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APPENDIX E Agency Total TABLE E-1 Total Number of Engineers Employed by the FederalGovemment, by agency t1981) Number 90,914 U.S. Department of Defense Veterans Administration U.S. Department of Agriculture U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Department of the Interior National Aeronautics and Space Administration U.S. Department of Commerce U.S. Department of Transportation U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Protection Agency Tennessee Valley Authority Other 56,473 992 3,306 473 3,058 8,819 748 4,653 2,813 1,618 3,922 4,038 NOTE: Data indicate full-time permanent employees only. SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Studies. TABLE E-2 Number of U. S. Department of Defense Laboratory Scientists and Engineers, by Discipline, September30, 1981 Civilian Military Engineers Electrical/electronic5,916 256 Mechanical2, 663 283 Aeronautical1,364 250 General1,893 18 Other1,661 199 Total engineers13,497 1,006 Scientists Physics 3,303 ~364 Chemistry 1,198 ~ Math/statistics 1,931 ~10 Computer science 275 ~ Other 1,563 541 Total scientists 8,270 915 Total scientists and engineers 21,767 1,921 SOURCE: " Study of Scientists and Engineers in DOD Laboratories, " conducted by the DOD Laboratory Management Task Force, November 1981-April 1982. 77

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90 APPENDIX E TABLE E-4 Federal Obligations for Basic Research in Engineering Performed at Universities and Colleges: Fiscal Years 1982, 1983, and 1984 [thousands of dollarsJ Actual, Estimates Field of Science 1982 1983 1984 Engineering, total 259,013 277,886 333,393 Aeronautical 25,203 25,747 28,954 Astronautical 3,532 7,405 10,079 Chemical 16,802 18,582 22,841 Civil 18,966 21,260 26,669 Electrical 61,064 59,856 75,793 Mechanical - 32,106 33,831 40,171 Metallurgy &materials 69,648 74,320 87,372 Engineering, NEC 31,692 36,885 41,514 SOURCE: Adapted from Federal Funds forResearch and Development: Fiscal Years 1982, 1983, and 1984. Vol.32. Surveys of Science Resources Series. NSF 83-319 (Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation, Table C-85).

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91 - _1 a' as by ho by o en ~ o ~ o - o ~ ~ 4= c'] Go v ~ > c\: v co ~ GIL, To co ~ ~ v o no 4= ~ ~ o o ~ ,~ v To ~ ~ ~ z e .- .= et ~ en ~5 C) Ct . _ c) .Q O - Cal Ct A: ~ - . O ~ ~ ~ , ~O ~ _ O ~ 00 a US , ~o c~ ~ 1 1 1 C~ ~ oo ~ Cx U~ ~ 00 C ~_ ~ ~ _ t_ P_ - Ioc 1 1 =) O ~ ~) O , , ~ ,~ ~ ~ oo o u~ ~ ~ ~ c~ G~ O ~ Gs oo oo 1 o 0 ~ ~ 1 ~ ~o ~Cx oo C~ eM oo - ~o <~ 1 ~G~ oo o _ ~ Cx oo ~ U~ U) ~ o Cx ~ G~ Io o ~oo I ~G ~1- 1 oO 1 1 1 O O O~ ~ 00 ~ '_ 1 1 oo t_ o r 04 C~ .~ O C~ ~ ~ ~ ~ _ e~ ~ I C;s 1 1 C~ o o oo C~ ~ o Cx t_ oo ~ o U~ ~ ~ GN C~ ~ oo ~ oo oo o ~ ~ oo Gs ~ c~ ~t_ _ au ._ C~ - ,s: ~V C~ =; ~ _ .> ec i, o ~4 o ~ c) - ~ E ~ p=, ~ ,, ~ ~ ~ o o o ~ ~ 4 - 4 - o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ t C~ ~ ~ C~ e~ ~ ~ C) - C o 4 - - a' .c~ ~ ~ ~ D O ~ CC _ ~ C) ~ C~ V~ (- ~ ~ O . ~> ~ ~ e~ ~ ~ ~7 ~ O oo ~ _ _ oo ~ _ _ Cx ~ ~ O _ _ \0 ~ ~ oo _ _ O C~ 1 oo 1 oo - ~_ ~ G~ - oo ~ oo - _I oo V o~ _ _ C~ 0N ._ O S~, - C~ CO ~ o O ~ `.T, - <( C/) ~ _ _ O O e~ Z Z o C) ._ C~ _ au _ C~ 4 - O O C~ G~ _ 4= e~ ._ O 7 - Ct CC o~ e~ 4= CO .= z v 'o .~ v hO e~ Q) ,= ~ - ~o ~ u) ~ o c,0 <~: b4 - - c'0 - ~ o ~ . - ~v ~ ~ o ~ 4= cn c~0 v - o . - ~ co ~ e~ b4 ~ - a~ ~Q ~ o v .. e~ z ~ z co - au ~ cc v o Cl7 a c~ - c) ~ o co :^ co c~ - oo cN - cO oo c\ cM oo cN G~ cO ~ G t_, _ . O ~ ._ O O V V ~ _ C~ ~ O ._ CO ~ Z .. 4 ~_ L~ . . g o cn o 4 - b4 .= - oo

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92 APPENDIX E TABLE E-6 Federal Obligations for Applied Research in Engineering Performed at Universities and Colleges: Fiscal Years 1982, 1983, and 1984 Thousands of collars J Actual, Estimates Field of Science 1982 1983 1984 Engineering, total 102,495 111,382 113,328 Aeronautical 13,292 13,594 14,062 Astronautical 6,050 8,444 6,173 Chemical 2,617 2,915 3,011 Civil 8,172 7,173 6,808 Electrical 27,547 28,741 32,582 Mechanical 8,380 9,074 8,605 Metallurgy ~ materials 5,694 6,276 7,200 Engineering, NEC 30,743 35,165 34,887 SOURCE: Adapted from Federal Funds for Research and Develop- ment: Fiscal Years 1982, 1983, and 1984. Vol. 32. Surveys of Sci- ence Resources Series. NSF 83-319 (Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation, Table C-91 ~ .

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93 - bC _' b4 _1 cn a; be o en a' _' 4= ._, ~ Call - - ~, o o cn - ~ cn o I-' o PA Cal V oo ~ GO cn ~ Cal ~4 V .m o V ~ as - V o Ha ~ o .~= O ~ Cal ~ - ,~ Van be Em to C) of .= to CC ~ C) - ~ tC ~ _ ~ .o C) .o . . - e~ . Cal t.) o - Cal Ct TIC So ~ CC <: o .> 5: ~ o ~ ~ oo o ~ - ~ ~ - o c~ ~n ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Gs oo ~ ~ ~0 \0 d. C~ - - aN - ~ ~ u: ~ ~ ~o ~ o ~ - ~ ~ - oo o o c~ z ~-- I oO ~ ~ 0 1 1 ~ CJ~ O oo C~ G~ CV) _ 1 1 ~ o U: ~ _ ~ ~ ~ _ _ _ - IO ~ \0 - ~ oo ~1 ~1 1 ~ C~ o ~ ~) C~ Gs O _ 1 C ~1 1 00 Cx ~ oo ~ o ~ _ oo ~ C ~C~ _ - ~ ~1 ~ ~ ~1 C ~1 1 0 _ ~_ _ 1 ~ Cb~ O ~ ~ ~1 1 U ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o C~ ~ C~ _ _ (V) _ I C ~00C~ ~ ~ ~) 00 1 1 1 o 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~1 1 1 - - - ~ ~ C~ _ U~ oo _ _ _ o 0 1 ~ ~ ~ ~1 ~1 1 u, ~ _ e~ ~:) <) O O t ~1 1- 1 1 ~ O _ _ ~ _ _ ~_ oo C~ o 1 1 1 G~ 0 1 oo _ ~1 1 ~ _ U ~o o ~ ~ C ~o o ~ _ ~ oo c U~ 1 1 1~ ~ ~ ~1 1 1 - G ~ c~ - - oo - _ o o~ _ ~o oo ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ o ~ _ G ~ ~ oN - ~- ~ ~ ~t - ~ ~ - ~ \0 oo oo ~ - ~ d- oo ~t _ c ~u: _ ~ oo, ~o c~ _ ~ ~i 0 0 - 0 O ~ ~ _ _ _ _ _ ~ _ - co O u ~ I O ~ ., ~, - u ~ j a E ~ ~ ~ E E E a ~ c a, _ _- tt ~ ~ ~ s~ ~ ~ ~ ~ cL. ~ z )l ~ _ O ~a ~ oc ~zz ~0 ._ _ e~ _ e~ _ C~ O 4= 4= 00 a' .s X O e~ 4= a ~ ~G _ c ~00 ce 1_ C~l =O ~_ .= . ~ c~ ~ oo - _ ~ Gs ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .0 x a ~ a .~-U) ~ ~ ~ a) ~ ~ 4= _ O 0 0 04-~ - C5 V-= ~ . CD ~ ~ L~ 00 ._ .~ ~ ~ ~ _ ~ U) ,5: 0 ~ ~ . . .. V O cn z .~ cn ~q V o C~ ._ V C~ o U) . -

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94 APPENDIX E TABLE E-8 Graduate Predoctoral Fellowships in Engineering Funded by Federal Agencies Approximate Approximate Annual Number Institutional TuitionSupport Agency of Fellows Stipend Allowance Paid{in thousands Dept. of Defense Air Force 90 $13,000-14,000 $2,000 yes$1,800 Army 35 13,000-14,000 2,000 yes700 Navy 66 13,000-14,000 2,000 yes1,320 Dept. of Energy 64 12,000 6,000 no1,675 NASA 36 10,000 2,000 no540 ( +3,000') NSF 112 8,100 4,900 no1,456 Total 417 $7,491 NOTE: Numbers of fellowships and stipend levels are for early 1984. Allowance for Fellow to conduct research at NASA-Laboratory. TABLE E-9 Estimated Annual Direct Support of Engineering Education by Agencies of the Federal Government Category Research and development contracts and grants Undergraduate student aid (graduate fellowships] Research equipment! Total Estimated Annual Expenditure {thousands of dollars) 761,000 129,000 7,500 15,000 905,000 l In addition to amounts provided through research contracts and grants.