Humanities Doctorates in the United States

1995 Profile

Linda Ingram

Prudence Brown

Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1997



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Humanities Doctorates in the United States 1995 Profile Linda Ingram Prudence Brown Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The survey project is part of the program of the Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel (OSEP). This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This report is based on research conducted by OSEP with the support of the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) under National Science Foundation Contract No. SRS-9531746. Opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of OSEP and do not necessarily reflect the views of the NEH. Recommended citation: Ingram, L., and P. Brown. 1997. Humanities Doctorates in the United States: 1995 Profile. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. (The report gives the results of data collected in the 1995 Survey of Humanities Doctorates sponsored by the National Endowment for the Humanities and conducted by the National Research Council.) Available from Survey of Humanities Doctorates National Research Council Room TJ 2006 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 Phone: (202) 334-3152 Fax: (202) 334-2753 E-mail: phdsurvy@nas.edu Data contained in this publication are in the public domain and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced without permission. Printed in the United States of America

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Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel Advisory Committee M. R. C. Greenwood (Chair), University of California David Breneman, University of Virginia Nancy Cantor, University of Michigan Carlos Gutierrez, California State University Stephen J. Lukasik, Independent Consultant Barry Munitz, California State University Janet Norwood, The Urban Institute John D. Wiley, University of Wisconsin Tadataka Yamada, SmithKline Beecham Corporation A. Thomas Young, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired)

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Acknowledgments The conduct of the 1995 Survey of Humanities Doctorates, maintenance of the resulting data file, and publication of this report were funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH). Jeffrey Thomas, who serves as project officer for NEH, assisted the project staff of the Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel (OSEP) with helpful advice about revisions to the draft report. The 1995 survey was conducted under the administrative supervision of Susan Mitchell. Linda Ingram and Prudence Brown analyzed the survey results and drafted the text. Ramal Moonesinghe, survey statistician, verified the accuracy of the analysis and the technical notes. Dan Pasquini and Martha Bohman prepared the tables and graphics and finalized the manuscript for publication. Peter Henderson conducted a final review of the report. Special appreciation is expressed to Eileen Milner, who supervised the coding and editing of the data, and to her staff—Kevin Williams, Gedamu Abraha, Kevin Kocur, and Jacinta Kelly—who provided support in the processing of the data. Thanks are also extended to Cindy Woods, senior analyst, and SiuChong Wan, statistical programmer, who were responsible for system design and file generation. The work of this project was overseen by the Advisory Committee of OSEP, which is concerned with the activities of the National Research Council that contribute to the effective development and utilization of the nation's scholars and research personnel. During the development of this report, Charlotte V. Kuh, Executive Director of OSEP, provided helpful guidance, as did Marilyn Baker, Associate Executive Director. Finally, thanks go to all of the doctorate recipients who have completed the survey over the years. Without their continuing cooperation, this survey project would not be possible. M. R. C. GREENWOOD, CHAIR ADVISORY COMMITTEE OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING PERSONNEL

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Contents Page     Introduction   1 1   Doctoral Population in the Humanities   3     Distribution by Field   3     Demographic Characteristics   4     Gender   4     Race/Ethnicity   4     Age in 1995   5     Year of Doctorate   5     Citizenship Status   6 2   Employment and Unemployment   7     Employment Status   7     Reasons for Not Working   8     Reasons for Part-Time Employment   8     Unemployment Rates   8 3   Principal Job   11     Employment Sector   11     Occupation   12     Focus on Academe   13     Academic Rank   13     Tenure   14     Primary Work Activity   16     Salary   17     Government Support Status   18     Relationship of Principal Job to Doctoral Degree   19 4   Second Job   21 5   Changes in Employment Since 1993   23 6   Publications and Other Activities   25     Detailed Statistical Tables   27     Appendixes     A   1995 Survey Methodology   61 B   1995 Survey Cover Letters and Questionnaire   73

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List of Figures Page 1   Humanities Ph.D. population, by field of doctorate, 1995.   3 2   Field composition of humanities Ph.D.s, by gender, 1995.   4 3   Humanities Ph.D.s, by field and employment status, 1995.   7 4   Unemployment rates for all humanities Ph.D.s and recent graduates, by field, 1995.   9 5   Employed humanities Ph.D.s, by sector of employment, 1995.   11 6   Faculty status of academically employed humanities Ph.D.s, by field, 1995.   14 7   Proportion of academically employed humanities Ph.D.s with tenure, by time since Ph.D. and gender, 1995.   15 8   Employed humanities Ph.D.s, by primary work activity and field, 1995   16 9   Median annual salaries of humanities Ph.D.s, by field and gender, 1995.   18 10   Humanities Ph.D.s, by relationship of job to doctoral field, 1995.   19 11   Humanities Ph.D.s with second jobs, by field, 1995.   21 12   Changes in employment of humanities Ph.D.s, from 1993 to 1995.   23 13   Mean number of publications by humanities Ph.D.s between April 1994 and April 1995, by field.   26