Detailed Statistical Tables

Page

1

 

Distribution of Humanities Ph.D.s in the United States, by Field of Doctorate, 1995

 

29

2

 

Demographic Characteristics of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)

 

30

3

 

Demographic Characteristics of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Years Since Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)

 

31

4

 

Employment Status of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)

 

32

5

 

Reasons for Not Working as Reported by Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)

 

33

6

 

Reasons for Working Part-Time as Reported by Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)

 

34

7

 

Labor Force Status of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate and Gender, 1995 (in percent)

 

35

8

 

Labor Force Status of Recent Humanities Ph.D.s (1990-1994 Graduates), by Field of Doctorate and Gender, 1995 (in percent)

 

36

9

 

Employment Sector of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)

 

37

10

 

Occupation of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)

 

38

11

 

Occupation of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Employment Sector, 1995 (in percent)

 

39

12

 

Occupation of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Years Since Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)

 

40

13

 

Academically Employed Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate and Academic Rank, 1995 (in percent)

 

41

14

 

Academically Employed Humanities Ph.D.s, by Years Since Doctorate, Academic Rank, and Gender 1995 (in percent)

 

42

15

 

Academically Employed Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate and Tenure Status, 1995 (in percent)

 

43

16

 

Academically Employed Humanities Ph.D.s, by Years Since Doctorate, Tenure Status, and Gender, 1995 (in percent)

 

44

17

 

Primary Work Activity of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)

 

45

18

 

Primary Work Activity of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Years Since Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)

 

46

19

 

Median Annual Salaries of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, Years Since Doctorate, and Gender, 1995

 

47

20

 

Median Annual Salaries of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Type of Employer and Gender, 1995

 

48

21

 

Government Support Status of Employed Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)

 

49

22

 

Government Support Status of Employed Humanities Ph.D.s, by Employment Sector, 1995 (in percent)

 

49



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Detailed Statistical Tables Page 1   Distribution of Humanities Ph.D.s in the United States, by Field of Doctorate, 1995   29 2   Demographic Characteristics of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   30 3   Demographic Characteristics of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Years Since Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   31 4   Employment Status of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   32 5   Reasons for Not Working as Reported by Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   33 6   Reasons for Working Part-Time as Reported by Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   34 7   Labor Force Status of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate and Gender, 1995 (in percent)   35 8   Labor Force Status of Recent Humanities Ph.D.s (1990-1994 Graduates), by Field of Doctorate and Gender, 1995 (in percent)   36 9   Employment Sector of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   37 10   Occupation of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   38 11   Occupation of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Employment Sector, 1995 (in percent)   39 12   Occupation of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Years Since Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   40 13   Academically Employed Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate and Academic Rank, 1995 (in percent)   41 14   Academically Employed Humanities Ph.D.s, by Years Since Doctorate, Academic Rank, and Gender 1995 (in percent)   42 15   Academically Employed Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate and Tenure Status, 1995 (in percent)   43 16   Academically Employed Humanities Ph.D.s, by Years Since Doctorate, Tenure Status, and Gender, 1995 (in percent)   44 17   Primary Work Activity of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   45 18   Primary Work Activity of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Years Since Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   46 19   Median Annual Salaries of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, Years Since Doctorate, and Gender, 1995   47 20   Median Annual Salaries of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Type of Employer and Gender, 1995   48 21   Government Support Status of Employed Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   49 22   Government Support Status of Employed Humanities Ph.D.s, by Employment Sector, 1995 (in percent)   49

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23   Humanities Ph.D.s, by Relationship of Principal Job to Doctoral Degree, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   50 24   Most Important Reason for Humanities Ph.D.s Working Outside Field of Degree, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   51 25   Second Job Status and Occupation of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   52 26   Second Job Status of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Years Since Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   53 27   Relationship of Second Job of Humanities Ph.D.s to Doctoral Degree, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   53 28   Changes in Employment of Humanities Ph.D.s Since 1993, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   54 29   Reasons for Changing Employer or Occupation Between 1993 and 1995 for Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   55 30   Number of Publications of Humanities Ph.D.s Between April 1994 and April 1995, by Field of Doctorate and Employment Sector, 1995 (in percent)   56 31   Number of Publications of Humanities Ph.D.s Between April 1994 and April 1995, by Academic Rank and Tenure Status, 1995 (in percent)   57 32   Membership of Humanities Ph.D.s in Professional Societies, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   58 33   Work-Related Training Activities of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   59 34   Committee Service and Position Held of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   60

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TABLE 1 Distribution of Humanities Ph.D.s in the United States, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 Field of Degree Number Percent All Fields 113,700 100.0 History 23,800 20.9 Art History 3,500 3.1 Music 10,800 9.5 Philosophy 8,300 7.3 English/American Language/Literature 28,300 24.9 Classics 2,100 1.9 Modern Language/Literature 18,600 16.3 Other Humanities 18,300 16.1 American Studies 1,600 1.4 Linguistics 3,800 3.3 Religious Studies 3,600 3.1 Speech 4,100 3.6 Theater 1,700 1.5 Unspecified Other Humanities 3,400 3.0 NOTE: Numbers are rounded to the nearest hundred; therefore, subcategories may not add to totals. SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Humanities Doctorates.

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TABLE 2 Demographic Characteristics of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   Field of Doctorate Demographic Characteristics All Fields Art History History Music Philosophy Engl/Am Lang/Lit Classics Modern Lang/Lit Other Humanities Total Population (No.) 113,700 23,800 3,500 10,800 8,300 28,300 2,100 18,600 18,300 Gender                   Male 64.6 78.7 41.4 71.6 82.6 58.8 67.9 49.7 61.9 Female 35.4 21.3 58.6 28.4 17.4 41.2 32.1 50.3 38.1 Race/Ethnic Group                   White 93.5 95.2 97.5 94.6 95.9 95.8 97.5 86.1 91.9 Black 1.5 2.0 0.3 1.8 0.4 1.4 1.1 0.8 2.3 Asian 1.5 1.3 0.0 0.8 1.1 0.8 0.2 2.2 3.4 Native American 0.4 0.1 0.3 0.7 0.5 1.0 0.9 0.2 0.2 Hispanic 3.0 1.4 1.9 1.8 1.8 0.9 0.2 10.6 2.1 Other 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 Age in 1995                   34 or Younger 5.4 3.9 2.8 9.2 5.7 5.0 7.0 6.3 5.2 35-44 22.9 19.0 27.2 33.9 25.2 19.8 19.8 22.1 25.7 45-54 36.4 36.3 40.0 30.9 37.3 37.4 35.1 36.0 37.4 55-64 23.1 26.4 20.8 18.0 20.3 24.2 25.8 23.1 22.6 65-75 12.2 14.4 9.1 8.0 11.5 13.6 12.2 12.5 10.3 Year of Doctorate                   1942-49 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.3 1.3 0.4 0.1 1950-59 5.2 7.3 4.7 1.9 7.4 5.5 6.6 4.2 3.9 1960-69 16.1 20.1 9.9 8.9 16.4 18.8 25.0 13.2 14.0 1970-79 35.5 37.9 31.0 27.2 37.1 37.8 31.8 39.8 29.8 1980-89 27.6 22.8 38.0 37.1 26.0 24.0 23.1 26.6 34.0 1990-94 15.4 12.0 16.4 24.9 12.3 13.6 12.3 15.8 18.2 Citizenship                   U.S. Citizen 96.8 98.0 96.6 98.3 98.3 98.5 96.9 91.3 96.5 Non-U.S. Citizen 3.2 2.0 3.4 1.7 1.7 1.5 3.1 8.7 3.5   SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Humanities Doctorates.

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TABLE 3 Demographic Characteristics of Humanities Ph.D.s. by Years Since Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   Years Since Doctorate Demographic Characteristics Total 5 Years or Less 6-15 Years 16-25 Years More Than 25 Years Total Population (No.) 113,700 19,200 31,300 39,900 23,300 Gender           Male 64.6 52.0 54.3 67.6 83.4 Female 35.4 48.0 45.7 32.4 16.6 Race/Ethnic Group           White 93.5 89.1 92.6 94.3 96.8 Black 1.5 1.2 1.9 1.8 0.7 Asian 1.5 3.5 1.6 0.8 1.0 Native American 0.4 0.4 0.7 0.5 0.1 Hispanic 3.0 5.4 3.2 2.5 1.5 Other 0.1 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 Citizenship           U.S. Citizen 96.8 89.9 96.9 98.6 99.0 Non-U.S. Citizen 3.2 10.1 3.1 1.4 1.0   SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Humanities Doctorates.

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TABLE 4 Employment Status of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   Field of Doctorate Employment Status All Fields History Art History Music Philosophy Engl/Am Lang/Lit Classics Modern Lang/Lit Other Humanities Total Population (No.) 113,700 23,800 3,500 10,800 8,300 28,300 2,100 18,600 18,300 Full-Time Employed 79.3 80.0 79.4 78.6 84.1 77.2 85.0 77.9 80.4 Part-Time Employed 7.8 6.6 9.1 12.6 6.5 7.3 5.4 8.2 7.4 Not Employed* 12.9 13.3 11.5 8.8 9.4 15.6 9.6 14.0 12.2 Seeking Employment 1.6 1.6 2.4 0.8 1.0 1.9 1.2 1.8 1.8 Not Seeking Employment 2.4 2.0 3.4 2.4 1.3 2.8 1.7 2.7 2.5 Retired 8.9 9.7 5.7 5.6 7.1 10.9 6.7 9.5 7.9 *Percentages are not unemployment rates because they are based on the total population, which includes those retired and those not seeking employment; none of these is considered part of the labor force in this report. Unemployment rates are shown in Table 7. SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Humanities Doctorates.

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TABLE 5 Reasons for Not Working as Reported by Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   Field of Doctorate Reasons for Not Working All Fields History Art History Music Philosophy Engl/Am Lang/Lit Classics Modern Lang/Lit Other Humanities Total Not Working (No.) 14,700 3,200 400 1,000 800 4,400 200 2,600 2,200 Retired 69.8 74.4 * * * 70.7 * 69.0 66.0 On Layoff 4.3 6.6 * * * 2.9 * 5.3 6.4 Student 0.9 1.7 * * * 0.9 * 0.0 0.9 Family Responsibilities 6.8 3.5 * * * 4.2 * 11.6 9.1 Ill/Disabled 6.8 2.5 * * * 5.8 * 7.5 14.9 Suitable Job Not Available 12.4 8.8 * * * 12.4 * 12.1 14.3 No Need or Desire to Work 10.9 8.4 * * * 12.2 * 11.0 12.8 Other Reason 6.9 6.3 * * * 9.8 * 7.4 4.2 NOTE: Numbers are rounded to the nearest hundred; therefore, subcategories may not add to total. Percentages may total more than 100 because multiple answers were allowed. * Too few cases to estimate. SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Humanities Doctorates.

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TABLE 6 Reasons for Working Part-Time as Reported by Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   Field of Doctorate Reasons for Working Part-Time All Fields History Art History Music Philosophy Engl/Am Lang/Lit Classics Modern Lang/Lit Other Humanities Total Employed Part-Time (No.) 8,800 1,600 300 1,400 500 2,100 100 1,500 1,300 Retired 23.9 24.7 * 17.5 * 33.3 * 18.6 21.0 Student 1.1 0.0 * 1.6 * 0.9 * 0.0 1.5 Family Responsibilities 15.2 14.6 * 22.3 * 12.9 * 14.5 19.2 Ill/Disabled 1.0 0.0 * 0.0 * 1.2 * 3.0 1.0 Suitable Job Not Available 43.2 42.2 * 41.5 * 38.0 * 48.2 50.0 No Need or Desire for Full-Time Work 29.0 32.1 * 26.6 * 30.5 * 22.4 19.7 Other Reason 15.1 20.1 * 24.6 * 11.8 * 15.9 9.7 NOTE: Percentages may total more than 100 because multiple answers were allowed. *Too few cases to estimate. SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Humanities Doctorates.

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TABLE 7 Labor Force Status of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate and Gender, 1995 (in percent)   Field of Doctorate Labor Force Status and Gender All Fields History Art History Music Philosophy Engl/Am Lang/Lit Classics Modern Lang/Lit Other Humanities Total Ph.D. Labor Force (No.) 100,800 21,000 3,200 9,900 7,600 24,400 2,000 16,300 16,400 Full-Time Employed 89.4 90.7 87.4 85.4 91.8 89.4 92.8 88.7 89.7 Part-Time Employed 8.8 7.5 10.0 13.7 7.1 8.5 5.9 9.3 8.2 Unemployed and Seeking 1.8 1.8 2.7 0.9 1.1 2.1 1.3 2.0 2.0 Male 64,900 16,700 1,200 7,100 6,300 14,100 1,300 8,100 10,100 Full-Time Employed 92.1 91.6 93.0 90.0 94.4 92.1 95.1 92.6 92.3 Part-Time Employed 6.6 6.8 4.8 9.4 4.6 6.4 4.5 6.5 6.2 Unemployed and Seeking 1.3 1.6 2.2 0.6 1.1 1.5 0.4 0.9 1.4 Female 35,900 4,300 2,000 2,800 1,300 10,300 600 8,300 6,300 Full-Time Employed 84.4 87.1 83.9 73.8 79.4 85.7 87.9 84.9 85.6 Part-Time Employed 12.7 10.2 13.2 24.6 19.2 11.3 9.0 12.0 11.4 Unemployed and Seeking 2.8 2.6 2.9 1.7 1.3 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.0   SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Humanities Doctorates.

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TABLE 8 Labor Force Status of Recent Humanities Ph.D.s (1990-1994 Graduates), by Field of Doctorate and Gender, 1995 (in percent)   Field of Doctorate Gender   Labor Force Status All Fields History Art History Music Philosophy Engl/Am Lang/Lit Classics Modern Lang/Lit Other Humanities Male Female Total Ph.D. Labor Force (No.) 18,600 3,000 600 2,900 1,100 4,100 300 3,100 3,600 9,900 8,800 Full-Time Employed 84.7 90.9 82.5 76.1 89.4 86.0 * 84.3 84.1 88.3 80.7 Part-Time Employed 12.3 6.0 14.7 20.8 8.1 12.0 * 11.1 13.4 9.9 14.9 Seeking 3.0 3.0 2.8 3.1 2.6 2.0 * 4.6 2.5 1.7 4.4 NOTE: Numbers are rounded to the nearest hundred; therefore, subcategories may not add to total. * Too few cases to report. SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Humanities Doctorates.

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TABLE 9 Employment Sector of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   Field of Doctorate Employment Sector All Fields History Art History Music Philosophy Engl/Am Lang/Lit Classics Modern Lang/Lit Other Humanities Employed Population (No.) 99,000 20,700 3,100 9,800 7,500 23,900 1,900 16,000 16,000 Educational Institution 79.7 79.6 71.5 78.0 79.7 81.9 80.9 83.0 76.5 2-Year College 5.6 6.4 1.3 6.3 4.4 7.4 1.0 4.6 4.7 4-Year College/University 66.5 64.4 64.1 64.0 69.7 68.0 69.4 69.9 63.9 University-Affiliated Research Institute 3.0 3.3 3.7 1.6 3.9 2.7 4.2 3.2 3.2 Elementary or Secondary School 3.4 4.1 0.0 4.1 1.4 3.2 5.6 4.7 2.2 Other Educational Institution 1.2 1.4 2.4 2.0 0.3 0.6 0.7 0.6 2.5 Private For-Profit Company 5.8 3.7 4.8 5.7 6.9 7.2 6.6 6.0 5.9 Self-Employed 5.0 3.1 8.0 5.5 4.4 5.7 3.3 5.6 5.3 Private Not-for-Profit Organization 5.4 5.7 9.6 8.8 4.6 3.6 7.6 2.2 8.1 State/Local Government 1.7 2.4 3.8 1.0 2.7 1.0 0.0 1.5 1.9 U.S. Government 2.1 5.2 1.7 1.1 1.4 0.7 1.6 1.7 1.9 Other Employer 0.2 0.3 0.7 0.0 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.5 NOTE: Numbers are rounded to the nearest hundred; therefore, subcategories may not add to total. SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Humanities Doctorates.

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TABLE 23 Humanities Ph.D.s, by Relationship of Principal Job to Doctoral Degree, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   Field of Doctorate Relationship of Principal Job to Doctoral Degree All Fields History Art History Music Philosophy Engl/Am Lang/Lit Classics Modern Lang/Lit Other Humanities Employed Population (No.) 99,000 20,700 3,100 9,800 7,500 23,900 1,900 16,000 16,000 Closely Related 67.3 66.8 79.0 70.9 67.4 65.4 65.3 68.2 65.5 Somewhat Related 19.1 19.9 12.1 17.9 16.4 20.3 12.1 16.0 23.4 Not Related 13.6 13.3 8.9 11.3 16.2 14.2 22.6 15.8 11.1 NOTE: Numbers are rounded to the nearest hundred; therefore, subcategories may not add to total. SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Humanities Doctorates.

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TABLE 24 Most Important Reason for Humanities Ph.D.s Working Outside Field of Degree, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   Field of Doctorate Most Important Reason All Fields History Art History Music Philosophy Engl/Am Lang/Lit Classics Modern Lang/Lit Other Humanities Total Working Outside Degree Field (No.) 13,500 2,700 300 1,100 1,200 3,400 400 2,500 1,800 Pay/Promotion Opportunities 17.0 18.4 * 22.3 22.3 15.4 * 12.3 15.8 Working Conditions 3.1 3.6 * 3.8 0.0 4.0 * 3.9 1.4 Job Location 2.9 3.8 * 0.0 2.9 3.3 * 3.3 3.0 Change in Career or Professional Interest 21.5 19.7 * 17.7 17.8 26.9 * 23.7 18.5 Family-Related Reasons 5.2 2.0 * 3.8 6.0 6.7 * 3.1 9.5 No Job in Doctoral Field 43.8 48.1 * 48.5 46.9 36.4 * 43.5 45.2 Other Reason 6.6 4.4 * 3.9 4.2 7.4 * 10.2 6.6 NOTE: Numbers are rounded to the nearest hundred; therefore, subcategories may not add to totals. * Too few cases to estimate. SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Humanities Doctorates.

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TABLE 25 Second Job Status and Occupation of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   Field of Doctorate Second Job Status All   Art     Engl/Am   Modern Other and Occupation Fields History History Music Philosophy Lang/Lit Classics Lang/Lit Humanities Employed Population (No.) 99,000 20,700 3,100 9,800 7,500 23,900 1,900 16,000 16,000 Held Second Job 19.7 16.5 14.8 50.0 16.7 13.9 18.3 14.0 22.4 No Second Job 80.3 83.5 85.2 50.0 83.3 86.1 81.7 86.0 77.6 Total Holding Second Job (No.) 19,500 3,400 500 4,900 1,300 3,300 400 2,200 3,600 Occupation of Second Job                   Artists, Writers, Media Specialists 31.6 11.3 * 56.0 11.8 41.0 * 24.5 21.9 Clerical/Administrative Support 0.4 0.6 * 0.0 1.5 0.0 * 0.6 0.9 Clergy/Religious Workers 4.1 3.5 * 5.7 5.8 2.3 * 2.0 5.2 Computer Occupations 0.7 0.6 * 0.4 1.8 0.9 * 1.9 0.0 Counselors 0.3 0.0 * 0.0 0.0 1.5 * 0.8 0.0 Curators 0.3 0.4 * 0.0 0.0 0.0 * 0.0 0.0 Health Occupations 0.5 0.4 * 0.0 3.6 0.0 * 0.0 0.7 Historians 4.3 22.9 * 0.0 0.0 0.0 * 0.0 0.7 Lawyers, Judges 0.4 0.0 * 0.5 1.8 0.0 * 1.4 0.0 Librarians, Archivists 0.8 0.8 * 0.4 1.8 0.8 * 1.0 1.1 Linguists 0.8 0.0 * 0.0 0.0 0.0 * 6.6 0.0 Managers, Executives, Administrators 0.8 0.1 * 0.4 1.8 0.4 * 0.9 2.2 Management-Related Occupations 2.4 6.1 * 0.0 1.8 2.9 * 1.9 3.0 Scientists/Engineers 0.1 0.0 * 0.0 0.0 0.0 * 0.0 0.5 Elementary/Secondary Teachers 2.3 0.3 * 5.2 1.8 0.7 * 0.9 2.4 Postsecondary Teachers/Professors 36.9 33.1 * 25.5 51.8 39.3 * 41.3 44.5 Sales and Marketing Occupations 2.7 6.0 * 1.7 0.0 0.0 * 4.7 1.8 Service Occupations 0.9 1.2 * 0.0 0.0 1.2 * 3.0 0.0 Social Scientists 1.5 1.4 * 0.0 2.4 0.0 * 0.0 6.1 Craftsmen, Mechanics, Operators 1.0 0.0 * 0.9 1.8 1.7 * 0.0 2.1 Other Occupations 7.0 11.2 * 3.2 10.6 7.2 * 8.5 7.2 NOTE: Numbers are rounded to the nearest hundred; therefore, subcategories may not add to totals. * Too few cases to estimate. SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Humanities Doctorates.

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TABLE 26 Second Job Status of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Years Since Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   Years Since Doctorate Second Job Status Total 5 Years or Less 6-15 Years 16-25 Years More Than 25 Years Employed Population (No.) 99,000 18,100 29,600 36,200 15,100 Held Second Job 19.7 24.0 21.0 17.9 16.7 No Second Job 80.3 76.0 79.0 82.1 83.3   SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Humanities Doctorates. TABLE 27 Relationship of Second Job of Humanities Ph.D.s to Doctoral Degree, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   Field of Doctorate Relationship All Fields History Art History Music Philosophy Engl/Am Lang/Lit Classics Modern Lang/Lit Other Humanities Total Holding Second Job (No.) 19,500 3,400 500 4,900 1,300 3,300 400 2,200 3,600 Closely Related 57.2 61.7 * 71.6 53.5 41.0 * 41.1 60.3 Somewhat Related 26.6 20.7 * 24.7 22.5 34.9 * 30.4 27.2 Not Related 16.2 17.6 * 3.7 24.0 24.1 * 28.6 12.5 NOTE: Numbers are rounded to the nearest hundred; therefore, subcategories may not add to totals. * Too few cases to estimate. SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Humanities Doctorates.

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TABLE 28 Changes in Employment of Humanities Ph.D.s Since 1993 by Field of Doctorate 1995 (in percent)   Field of Doctorate 1995 Status All Fields History Art History Music Philosophy Engl/Am Lang/Lit Classics Modern Lang/Lit Other Humanities Total Employed in 1995 (No.) 99,000 20,700 3,100 9,800 7,500 23,900 1,900 16,000 16,000 Not Employed in 1993 4.1 5.2 8.7 3.2 4.8 3.1 3.0 4.1 3.3 No Change Since 1993 81.1 80.6 77.5 81.7 84.5 82.1 82.5 80.9 79.1 Change in Employer and Occupation 7.0 6.4 8.0 8.2 4.0 6.7 5.2 6.4 9.2 Change in Employer Only 3.5 3.3 1.8 3.6 2.2 3.6 3.1 4.2 3.9 Change in Occupation Only 4.4 4.5 4.0 3.4 4.6 4.5 6.2 4.3 4.5 NOTE: Numbers are rounded to the nearest hundred; therefore subcategories may not add to total. SOURCE: National Research Council Survey of Humanities Doctorates.

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TABLE 29 Reasons for Changing Employer or Occupation Between 1993 and 1995 for Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   Field of Doctorate Reasons for Changing* All Fields History Art History Music Philosophy Engl/Am Lang/Lit Classics Modern Lang/Lit Other Humanities Total Changing (No.) 14,700 2,900 400 1,500 800 3,500 300 2,400 2,800 Pay/Promotion Opportunities 52.6 47.3 ** 56.6 ** 56.2 ** 52.4 56.3 Working Conditions 33.1 31.9 ** 41.5 ** 32.9 ** 29.6 38.5 Job Location 23.6 27.8 ** 28.9 ** 18.5 ** 21.3 27.9 Family-Related Reasons 9.9 9.9 ** 15.9 ** 8.8 ** 6.2 11.6 School-Related Reasons 10.6 6.7 ** 11.9 ** 12.0 ** 8.0 14.7 Laid Off/Job Terminated 20.9 23.0 ** 22.4 ** 21.6 ** 15.5 19.2 Retired 4.2 8.9 ** 2.5 ** 4.4 ** 4.2 0.9 Other Reason 14.1 15.8 ** 15.2 ** 12.7 ** 14.9 10.4 NOTE: Numbers are rounded to the nearest hundred; therefore, subcategories may not add to total. *Percentages may total more than 100 because multiple answers were allowed. **Too few cases to estimate. SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Humanities Doctorates.

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TABLE 30 Number of Publications of Humanities Ph.D.s, Between April 1994 and April 1995, by Field of Doctorate and Employment Sector, 1995 (in percent)   Total Number of Publications**s Field of Doctorate and Employment Sector Total Number Employed* None 1-2 3-5 6 or More Mean Total 94,700 43.4 26.4 19.0 11.2 2.5 Field of Doctorate             History 20,200 33.6 27.0 24.3 15.1 3.1 Art History 3,100 31.4 35.0 21.2 12.3 2.8 Music 9,800 67.0 19.4 9.1 4.5 1.4 Philosophy 7,500 42.0 26.8 21.2 9.9 2.2 English/American Language/Literature 23,900 45.8 25.5 17.9 10.9 2.5 Classics 1,900 50.0 24.5 16.6 8.8 1.9 Modern Language/Literature 16,000 39.5 27.8 20.0 2.7 2.6 Other Humanities 12,300 44.0 28.7 17.3 10.0 2.2 Employment Sector             Educational Institution 76,100 37.9 27.8 21.8 12.4 2.7 Private For-Profit Company 5,300 72.8 18.5 4.2 4.5 1.2 Self-Employed 4,600 66.6 17.4 8.0 8.0 2.0 Private Not-for-Profit Company 5,100 59.4 25.0 10.9 4.6 1.6 Government 3,500 65.0 21.0 6.0 10.2 1.4 NOTE: Numbers are rounded to the nearest hundred; therefore, subcategories may not add to totals. Those reporting ''other'' types of employers are not included in this table. *Data are missing for Ph.D.s in linguistics, archeology, and history/philosophy of science because those individuals received a different questionnaire. **Types of publications included are articles in refereed journals, creative works in juried media, book/article reviews, chapters in edited volumes, textbooks, and other books. SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Humanities Doctorates.

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TABLE 31 Number of Publications of Humanities Ph.D.s Between April 1994 and April 1995, by Academic Rank and Tenure Status, 1995 (in percent)   Total Number of Publications** Academic Rank and Tenure Status Total Number Academically Employed* None 1-2 3-5 6 or More Mean Total 72,800 36.4 28.1 22.7 12.8 2.8 Academic Rank             Professor 27,700 32.0 25.9 24.4 17.7 3.3 Associate Professor 18,400 33.9 30.1 22.9 13.2 2.9 Assistant Professor 13,300 26.6 35.8 28.5 9.1 2.4 Instructor 1,900 55.9 19.0 14.6 10.4 3.2 Lecturer 1,900 55.3 24.0 15.2 5.5 1.9 Adjunct Faculty Member 2,900 60.3 22.1 14.7 2.9 1.1 Other 500 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Not Applicable at Institution 1,600 60.2 24.8 10.6 4.5 1.2 Not Applicable for Position 4,600 59.9 20.7 12.4 7.0 1.8 Tenure Status             Tenured 44,500 32.8 27.9 23.8 15.5 3.2 On Tenure Track 11,700 24.7 34.8 29.9 10.6 2.6 Not on Tenure Track 4,800 42.5 29.2 19.1 9.2 2.7 No Tenure System at Institution 3,700 53.7 24.1 15.3 6.9 1.6 No Tenure for My Position 8,100 62.0 20.6 11.6 5.8 1.5 *Data are missing for Ph.D.s in linguistics, archeology, and history/philosophy of science because those individuals received a different questionnaire. **Types of publications included are articles in refereed journals, creative works in juried media, book/article reviews, chapters in edited volumes, textbooks, and other books. ‡Too few cases to estimate. SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Humanities Doctorates.

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TABLE 32 Membership of Humanities Ph.D.s in Professional Societies, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   Field of Doctorate Membership All Fields History Art History Music Philosophy Engl/Am Lang/Lit Classics Modern Lang/Lit Other Humanities Total Population (No.)* 113,500 23,800 3,500 10,800 8,300 28,200 2,100 18,500 18,200 None 17.4 15.6 13.7 12.3 15.7 22.0 12.7 18.7 16.6 One 13.4 10.9 12.3 13.8 15.1 15.2 20.8 12.3 13.1 Two 19.2 18.9 21.4 23.0 17.1 20.0 20.6 16.0 19.8 Three 18.4 16.8 22.0 24.0 21.6 15.8 19.7 17.3 20.1 Four or More 31.6 37.7 30.6 26.9 30.5 27.0 26.2 35.7 30.5 NOTE: Numbers are rounded to the nearest hundred; therefore, subcategories may not add to total. *Those who reported that they had never worked were excluded. SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Humanities Doctorates.

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TABLE 33 Work-Related Training Activities of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   Field of Doctorate   All Fields History Art History Music Philosophy Engl/Am Lang/Lit Classics Modern Lang/Lit Other Humanities Total Population (No.)* 113,500 23,800 3,500 10,800 8,300 28,200 2,100 18,500 18,200 Work-Related Training 44.3 44.2 28.3 47.8 41.2 43.9 32.5 45.7 47.6 No Work-Related Training 55.7 55.8 71.7 52.2 58.8 56.1 67.5 54.3 52.4 Total with Training (No.) 50,300 10,500 1,000 5,100 3,400 12,400 700 8,500 8,700 Types of Work-Related Training**                   Management/Supervisory Training 21.1 24.2 22.5 15.7 16.9 21.0 21.5 15.8 27.5 Technical Training 69.0 64.4 63.6 79.3 66.8 65.9 75.3 70.5 72.3 General Professional Training 23.1 24.7 18.6 19.1 20.6 23.3 4.9 23.7 25.5 Other Work-Related Training 18.2 20.6 28.0 11.2 21.3 16.9 23.3 19.0 17.6 Reasons for Taking Training**                   Change Fields 8.1 6.1 6.6 6.5 6.5 8.1 0.7 11.6 9.6 Further Skills in Field 89.3 90.3 85.2 95.4 81.9 88.7 90.5 88.3 89.5 Licensure/Certification 6.4 4.8 1.0 5.6 7.6 5.5 5.5 7.9 9.1 Increase Opportunities for Promotion/Advancement 26.1 24.6 23.2 30.4 24.2 25.1 22.2 28.4 Learn Skills for Recently Acquired Position 20.0 19.3 19.7 15.4 18.9 22.5 24.3 18.7 Required or Expected by Employer 35.6 41.0 22.7 30.2 35.2 36.8 44.3 35.4 31.9 Other Reasons 8.9 8.5 12.0 6.0 9.2 10.0 5.2 9.1 9.2 NOTE: Numbers are rounded to the nearest hundred; therefore, subcategories may not add to totals. *Those who reported that they had never worked were excluded. **Percentages may total more than 100 because multiple answers were allowed. SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Humanities Doctorates.

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TABLE 34 Committee Service and Position Held of Humanities Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   Field of Doctorates Committee Service and position All Fields History Art History Music Philosophy Engl/Am Lang/Lit Classics Modern Lang/Lit Other Humanities Total Population (No.)* 108,600 23,300 3,500 10,800 8,300 28,200 2,100 18,500 13,800 Committee Service 34.1 39.8 40.2 32.4 29.2 31.4 30.3 33.3 34.5 No Committee Service 65.9 60.2 59.8 67.6 70.8 68.6 69.7 66.7 65.5 Total with Committee Service (No.) 37,100 9,300 1,400 3,500 2,400 8,800 600 6,200 4,800 Position on Committee**                   Chair 38.7 37.0 32.6 40.2 36.5 40.7 40.0 38.3 40.1 Member 86.1 88.3 86.4 84.4 83.9 84.2 91.2 86.7 86.4 Other Position 5.0 3.9 3.1 3.0 7.2 7.0 6.2 4.4 5.3 NOTE: Numbers are rounded to the nearest hundred; therefore, subcategories may not add to totals. *Data are missing for Ph.D.s in linguistics, archeology, and history/philosophy of science because those individuals received a different questionnaire. **Percentages may not add to 100 because multiple answers were allowed. SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Humanities Doctorates.