3
LONG-TERM CARE

Long-term housing for chimpanzees should meet high standards for quality of care and should be cost effective. The following housing and management criteria were developed with that goal in mind after the committee visited and viewed photographs of facilities (including sanctuaries), met with facility directors and several chimpanzee behaviorists, reviewed publications on wild chimpanzee behavior, and reviewed information provided during public sessions. The results of the information-gathering process are reported in the section ''Housing Standards and Behavioral Well-Being."

Long-term care facilities must be designed with awareness that many chimpanzees will spend most of their natural lives there—which might span several decades. Design considerations often dictate much of the operating cost of the facility. Those issues are discussed in the subsection "Housing Models."

Provisions for the special behavioral, cognitive, social, and emotional needs of chimpanzees are crucial to their well-being. That is a basic assumption woven into the recommendations of this report and is specifically addressed in the subsection "Provisions for Behavioral Well-Being."

Euthanasia received extensive consideration in the development of this report. Discussions and recommendations of euthanasia of debilitated and sick animals, of animals in nonrecovery scientific protocols, and as a strategy for population control of animals no longer useful for research or breeding are provided in the section "Euthanasia."

Definitions for categorizing chimpanzees into subpopulations according



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Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for their Ethical Care, Management, and Use 3 LONG-TERM CARE Long-term housing for chimpanzees should meet high standards for quality of care and should be cost effective. The following housing and management criteria were developed with that goal in mind after the committee visited and viewed photographs of facilities (including sanctuaries), met with facility directors and several chimpanzee behaviorists, reviewed publications on wild chimpanzee behavior, and reviewed information provided during public sessions. The results of the information-gathering process are reported in the section ''Housing Standards and Behavioral Well-Being." Long-term care facilities must be designed with awareness that many chimpanzees will spend most of their natural lives there—which might span several decades. Design considerations often dictate much of the operating cost of the facility. Those issues are discussed in the subsection "Housing Models." Provisions for the special behavioral, cognitive, social, and emotional needs of chimpanzees are crucial to their well-being. That is a basic assumption woven into the recommendations of this report and is specifically addressed in the subsection "Provisions for Behavioral Well-Being." Euthanasia received extensive consideration in the development of this report. Discussions and recommendations of euthanasia of debilitated and sick animals, of animals in nonrecovery scientific protocols, and as a strategy for population control of animals no longer useful for research or breeding are provided in the section "Euthanasia." Definitions for categorizing chimpanzees into subpopulations according

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Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for their Ethical Care, Management, and Use to history and present status are presented in this chapter. Recommendations for the specific housing and management requirements and related special issues were developed for each of these subpopulations. Because the issue of long-term care of chimpanzees is of concern to many, these recommendations are intended to provide guidance for all chimpanzee holding facilities, including facilities that are government-funded (nationally and internationally), private for-profit and nonprofit research institutions, private sanctuaries, zoos, and performing acts that use chimpanzees. The definitions and recommendations are presented in the section "Chimpanzee Population Subgroups: Definitions and Recommendations." Transfer of ownership to another entity requires consideration of issues related to animal welfare, public health, and fiscal responsibility; and these issues are discussed in the section "Ownership Transfer." HOUSING STANDARDS AND BEHAVIORAL WELL-BEING Animals from government-sponsored long-term care facilities are supplied to biomedical research, and the majority of support for chimpanzees in these facilities for research and breeding comes from the federal government and the biomedical industry. Nongovernment sanctuaries normally receive the majority of their funding from public donations, although funding partnerships with the government might receive future consideration. Sanctuary animals require less intensive management than animals in research facilities, and therefore entail lower costs of daily care. Animals in non-government-operated sanctuaries would not be used in medical research, although it is recommended they be used in behavioral research to increase understanding of optimal housing, management, and captive behavior. See also "Special Considerations" in this chapter. "Long-term" refers to any housing circumstance that exceeds six mo. Long-term facilities include both research facilities and sanctuaries. This definition is thought to be especially applicable for animals in biomedical research that might require some time in relative social isolation. Social isolation beyond 6 mo deprives infants and juveniles,

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Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for their Ethical Care, Management, and Use still in their formative years, of the time needed for learning and the development of skills that will be needed the remainder of their lives. Also, socialized adults isolated for more than six mo can develop behavioral abnormalities that will require intervention during and after the nonsocial period. Thus, being in restrictive housing for more than six mo could require extensive, expensive socialization or resocialization (Fritz 1986, 1989; Fritz and Fritz, 1979). Innovative sanctuary concepts and developmental plans are encouraged. These should include less-intensive management, lower costs, and high quality of life for animals no longer needed for research or breeding. We are not aware of long-term success in managing groups of more than 20 captive chimpanzees outside research facilities, but thoughtful, humane approaches might be found that will work and that will reduce housing and management costs. Long-term care facilities exist in different forms, but some previously used models are not recommended, such as water-moated areas and free-ranging islands. Some island and free-ranging projects have been successful in rehabilitating chimpanzees (Bourne 1977, Hannah and McGrew 1991, Pfeiffer and Koebner 1978), but they have not been acceptable with respect to chimpanzee death or loss rates (Hannah and McGrew 1991). Animals released to islands must be provisioned with food and water. If provisioners can reach the islands, so can the general public, and that increases the risk of disease in the animals and the risk of injury to the general public. Native or transplanted trees in such habitats would likely be denuded, so artificial shade and climbing structures would have to be provided (Pfeiffer and Koebner 1978). Providing medical care to the animals is at best difficult and at worst impossible. Chimpanzees do not swim, and thus risk drowning in moats or offshore water (T. Butler, personal communication, van Hooff 1967). Reintroduction of chimpanzees into wild populations of chimpanzees might pose a risk of disease in both groups—the wild population would not have immunity to pathogens from captive animals, and the formerly captive animals would have lower immunity to pathogens tolerated by the wild population. Ex-captive animals would not likely compete successfully with wild animals for food and shelter. Free-ranging or island housing for ex-research chimpanzees would place them in a "survival of the fittest" situation, and so is not recommended.

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Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for their Ethical Care, Management, and Use Some chimpanzees entering long-term care facilities will have had little or no social contact and therefore no opportunity to acquire the social experience necessary for compatible group living (Fritz 1986, 1989; Fritz and Fritz 1979); they should be considered asocial animals. They might require resocialization or group-formation facilities, which could be separate or incorporated into a long-term housing facility. In any case, the situation must be acknowledged and documented, and the well-being of each individual chimpanzee must be taken into consideration. HOUSING MODELS Chimpanzees are complex, social animals that require special housing if they are to express a full range of species-typical behaviors. Two types of housing are recommended: corrals and indoor-outdoor caging systems. All chimpanzees in long-term housing should have access to the outdoors through one or both of these models. Corrals are areas of land enclosed by some type of barrier, such as high concrete or metal walls that connect to a section of indoor housing. The size requirements of corrals depend on the composition of the social group. Outdoor areas should provide shelter, shade, trees or artificial trees for climbing, and platforms for resting. Indoor-outdoor caging systems provide outdoor caging that is larger than the corresponding indoor areas. Like corrals, they are connected. Outdoor caging should contain the same type of provisions as corrals, that is, climbing structures and shade. The caging is usually constructed as a building rather than an enclosed portion of land like corrals. Both models include Outdoor housing that would allow all chimpanzees daily access to the outside unless medical, behavioral, or research exceptions are obtained from an institutional animal care and use committee or another animal welfare oversight committee. Indoor housing large enough to house all animals in case of inclement weather or repairs to outside areas. A housing design that would permit each chimpanzee to be

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Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for their Ethical Care, Management, and Use observed daily and a single animal to be easily separated for medical treatment or movement to another group. The ability to feed animals in both the indoor and outdoor areas, which facilitates training of the animals to come inside regularly so that individual animals can be observed and provision of occupation and "travel" to outside feeding station. Structural and organizational complexity to provide sufficient environmental stimulation and opportunity to perform species-specific behaviors. Existing facilities might not satisfy all those specific recommendations, but new facilities and major renovations should satisfy them in their design and existing facilities should attempt to achieve them. Cage-size recommendations for chimpanzees described in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (NRC 1996), referred to as the Guide, apply to the inside housing component of the indoor-outdoor and corral long-term housing systems. Compliance with those recommendations should be monitored by the ChiMP office (proposed in Chapter 5). Cost-efficient care and use of chimpanzees should consider the risk of contaminating experimentally naive animals by those involved in infectious disease studies. The routine exchange of animals among facilities adds to the risk of introducing epizootics, such as multipledrug-resistant tuberculosis. Currently, most biomedical facilities have animals that range from "clean" breeders to highly infectious "dirty" animals. Consideration should be given to housing potentially infectious and experimentally naive animals at different facilities. Breeding colonies should continue to exist at more than one location to reduce the possibility that an epizootic at one facility will seriously affect the production capability of a limited population. Dedicated centers might be established around unique abilities of the existing biomedical chimpanzee facilities, such as infectious disease research, behavioral research, or breeding. And, some might be selected as government-sponsored long-term care facilities for either infectious or clean animals; this would enable the recall of the animals for breeding or research, which is probably not in the case of publicly sponsored sanctuary facilities.

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Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for their Ethical Care, Management, and Use PROVISIONS FOR BEHAVIORAL WELL-BEING Current knowledge regarding captive chimpanzee behavior suggests that well-being is most likely achieved when facilities provide for and promote a wide range of natural behaviors (NRC in press). Information regarding the nature of these behaviors and their time budgets can be gleaned from a study of the behavior of wild chimpanzees. Although time budgets generally have to be modified for captive animals, the expressions of behavior in the wild provide important insights into maintaining them in captivity. Individual and species-specific preferences must be taken into consideration in all long-term housing. Consideration of the following issues should be incorporated into the design and operation of long-term care facilities: DAILY ACTIVITY PERCENTAGES AND TRAVEL. In the wild, adult chimpanzees spend about 10% of their waking time traveling (or generally locomoting), 20-30% resting, and most of their day—50-60%—foraging or eating (Ghiglieri 1984, Goodall 1986, Wrangham 1977). Wild chimpanzees' travel several miles per day (Goodall 1986, Wrangham 1977). Their travel includes foraging, moving from one food source to another, searching for females in estrus by males, and patrolling the perimeter of the territory (Ghiglieri 1984, Goodall 1986, Wrangham 1977). Every effort should be made to achieve activity percentages representative of wild behavior. Suggestions for increasing both travel time and distance include periodic movement of feeding stations, variation in feeding schedule, and provision of feeding-enrichment devices. In addition, a complex environment that encourages climbing or moving from one location to another should be provided. Absolute space might not be as important as compatible social partners, the complexity of the environment, and the provision of enrichment by knowledgeable caregivers. Housing should be designed to allow a chimpanzee to see beyond its immediate environment and expand the perception of space. ABOVE-GROUND AREAS. In the wild, female chimpanzees spend about 50-70% of their time above ground, and males spend about 35-50% above ground (Doran and Hunt 1994). Studies in captivity have also indicated that captive chimpanzees express a preference for aboveground

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Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for their Ethical Care, Management, and Use sites (Goff and others 1994, Traylor-Holzer and Fritz 1985). All long-term housing should incorporate climbing apparatus and resting areas above ground. GROUP SIZES. In the wild, group size varies considerably. A group of chimpanzees might consist of as many as 100 individuals, but several investigators have reported never seeing such a large group together at one time. Subgroups or parties range in size from one to eight individuals (Ghiglieri 1984, Goodall 1986, Sakura 1994, Wrangham 1977). Average group size in Kibale is one to three (Ghiglieri 1984). In Gombe, groups with more than six members are considered large (Goodall 1986), and parties of two to four individuals were observed in about half the observations (Goodall 1968). All chimpanzees in long-term situations should be housed minimally in pairs and preferably in social groups of three or more compatible individuals. Long-term housing should be constructed to accommodate multiple small groups and to enhance formation of larger groups. INDIVIDUAL SPACE. To eat alone, wild chimpanzees attempt to space themselves at least an arm's length apart (Wrangham 1977). In addition, wild chimpanzees nest alone, with the exception of a mother and her infant (Goodall 1968, 1986). SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS Other aspects of the care and management of chimpanzees should be considered: STANDARDS. Standards should be developed for sanctuaries. These standards can be less rigorous than those for research facilities, but they should ensure the well-being of animals and the health and safety of the animals and people. Sanctuaries should strive for accreditation similar to that provided by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International (AAALAC I). Accreditation should be based on standards developed by interested nongovernment parties in consultation with the ChiMP office (see chapter 5).

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Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for their Ethical Care, Management, and Use Sections of the Guide that are important to the care and well-being of chimpanzees in sanctuary situations should be consulted in the development of sanctuary standards. All sanctuaries should comply with the Animal Welfare Regulations and be inspected by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) annually. Sanctuaries that are not required to register with USDA can request "courtesy" USDA inspections. Sanctuaries should seek active participation of informed primatologists that would help to incorporate the best knowledge of chimpanzee free-ranging biology and social dynamics. RESEARCH. Chimpanzees in government and nongovernment long-term care facilities can continue to provide important information even when they are determined not to be needed for biomedical research. Both types of facilities should develop policies that would permit and encourage studies in various subjects, such as aging, social behavior, contraception and other birth-control strategies, husbandry, facilities design, and basic biology. Animals in government-sponsored biomedical long-term care facilities might become important for future research in infectious disease. PERSONNEL. There should be sufficient numbers—one animal-care technician per day for every 10-15 chimpanzees according to industry standards—of well-trained personnel to provide appropriate care to the chimpanzees 7 d per week. ANIMAL WELL-BEING. The goal of all chimpanzee housing and management is a high degree of well-being. To provide the necessary enriched environments, knowledge of chimpanzee behavior and of the animals' use of space and equipment is required. Long-term care facilities should have the expertise and the commitment to plan, administer, and evaluate the effectiveness of the well-being program. It is also recommended that facility staff include a trained chimpanzee behaviorist who can evaluate the well-being of individual animals and perform behavioral research and publish the results to improve the life of captive chimpanzees. Funding for such research is necessary to achieve the general goals of improved long-term care.

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Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for their Ethical Care, Management, and Use IDENTIFICATION. All animals should have implanted microchip identification and be tracked for life by a single agency, such as the International Species Information System (ISIS). Some microchips permit programmable encoding of life, clinical, and experimental histories, a desirable feature for this valuable population of animals. SUBSPECIES. Common chimpanzees are considered to belong to a single species, Pan troglodytes. Recognized subspecies are P. t. troglodytes, P. t. schweinfurthi, and P. t. verus. Subspecies are not clearly distinguishable morphologically but have been discriminated on the basis of mitochondrial DNA sequence differences (Morin and others 1994). Animals in the research chimpanzee population have not been characterized for subspecies to any great extent. Demographic analyses (see Chapter 4) have provided no indication that any hybridization that might have occurred has negatively affected the population as a whole. However, characterization of subspecies would provide additional information on levels of intrapopulation variability in the research chimpanzee population. RECORDS. Records should be maintained for each animal, and a copy should always be transferred with the animal. They should include standard information (Dyke 1993), such as lifetime identification, subspecies designation, current and past research use, reproductive status (past and present), medical and behavioral problems, and facility transfers. Even in retirement, an animal's historical records should contain important information for health care and retrospective studies. Therefore, easily retrievable records should be maintained for every animal, regardless of ownership or whether the animals are in breeding, research, or retirement. The ChiMP office (see Chapter 5) should review all historical and current records, as appropriate, in carrying out its responsibilities. SUPPORT FACILITIES. In accordance with the Guide and the Animal Welfare Regulations, several types of support facilities are needed, including veterinary treatment and quarantine facilities, food storage, bedding storage (if used), administrative space and equipment, dry

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Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for their Ethical Care, Management, and Use storage, security systems, vehicles, and transfer cages. Support facilities should be appropriate for the goals of the facility. EUTHANASIA The committee considered several aspects of the practice of euthanasia as it applies to chimpanzees. Euthanasia has been and continues to be appropriate as a means of alleviating the suffering of individual animals, but its potential use for population control is much more complex and controversial. We discuss here some considerations for and against euthanasia, and provide some recommendations. It is commonly agreed that if a chimpanzee's health or quality of life is seriously compromised and there are no available means to alleviate the problem, euthanasia is appropriate. The decision should be made by a veterinarian in consultation with the investigator or facility director. Euthanasia has also long been accepted as a response to conditions that threaten the well-being of nonhuman animal populations, for example, to cull deer where their numbers exceed the carrying capacity of the population. In statements at open public meetings with this committee, a strong sentiment was voiced that researchers are not justified in using chimpanzees without concurrent commitment for their lifetime care and that euthanasia as a means of population control is unacceptable. Many members of the public and the scientific community have called for continuing support for chimpanzees in an acceptable environment, rather than euthanizing them, even when they are no longer wanted for breeding or research. The committee fully recognizes the financial implication of this position in regard to lifetime funding for all animals and for additional space and facilities for an aging population. The phylogenetic status and psychological complexity of chimpanzees indicate that they should be accorded a special status with regard to euthanasia that might not apply to other research animals, for example, rats, dogs, or some other nonhuman primates. Simply put, killing a chimpanzee currently requires more ethical and scientific justification than killing a dog, and it should continue to do so. This argument does not suggest that chimpanzees are "the moral equivalent" of humans,

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Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for their Ethical Care, Management, and Use only that they are more like humans than other laboratory species might be with respect to some features relevant to the question of euthanasia. There are practical, as well as theoretical, reasons to reject euthanasia as a general policy. Some of the best and most caring members of the support staff, such as veterinarians and technicians would, for personal and emotional reasons, find it impossible to function effectively in an atmosphere in which euthanasia is a general policy, and might resign. A facility that adopted such a policy could expect to lose some of its best employees. Similarly, facilities that depend on donations from the public for part of their income, or even just on the good will of their community, might expect strong negative reactions to the use of euthanasia. Those losses might well outweigh any savings that might be accrued through euthanasia. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE PRACTICE OF EUTHANASIA ENDORSED BY THE COMMITTEE The committee seriously considered the issues raised above and offers the following recommendations: Euthanasia should be permitted for reasons of health or quality of life of the individual, for example, terminal disease, in connection with trauma, or complications of aging. Methods should be consistent with the 1993 Report of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia. The decision to euthanize should be left to the veterinarian in consultation with the investigator or facility director. The committee does not recommend euthanasia as a general means of population control (that is, to dispose of chimpanzees no longer useful for research or breeding). The committee contends that funding must be made available to maintain an appropriate level of care; otherwise, directors of chimpanzee colonies would be placed in an unacceptable position in which selective euthanasia might come to be seen as the only available means of maintaining the quality of life of the remaining research chimpanzee population.

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Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for their Ethical Care, Management, and Use CHIMPANZEE POPULATION SUBGROUPS: DEFINITIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The biomedical chimpanzee population is not homogeneous, but is made up of subpopulations. Its management requires understanding of that fact and careful assignment of individual chimpanzees to appropriate subgroups, as defined below. The grouping takes into account past research use and the potential for public health liability, as well as the needs of human-health research. In some instances, an individual chimpanzee can be classified nonexclusively into each of several subgroups, but research, clinical, and breeding histories can be used to identify the relevant ''primary" subgroup. The long-term housing criteria and specific recommendations that follow are applicable to each of the subgroups of chimpanzees. GROUP A: BREEDING POPULATION This category consists of the breeders and their offspring supported by National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the National Chimpanzee Breeding and Research Program (table 3.1). The facilities in which they are housed and the associated personnel constitute a unique, irreplaceable resource. The breeding resource should remain within the present group of facilities. In addition, during the proposed breeding moratorium, it is important to maintain social groups that will promote appropriate behavioral growth and development of juveniles. Ownership of these animals should be transferred to the government, and the ChiMP office (see Chapter 5) should work with demographers, geneticists, and scientists to establish the appropriate size of the population (see also population models in Chapter 4). Alternatively, a mechanism to provide for lifetime support should be established. GROUP B: AVAILABLE FOR RESEARCH This category consists of chimpanzees that are available for research projects. They might or might not be research-naive, they vary from

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Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for their Ethical Care, Management, and Use TABLE 3.1 NIH Breeding-Colony Age Distribution Age Males Females Total Birth–30 d 1 2 3 31 d–12 m 7 8 15 13 m–3 y 29 35 64 4–6 yr 41 42 83 7– yr 27 48 75 10–15 yr 30 58 88 16–20 yr 13 20 33 21–30 yr 40 84 124 >31 yr 16 37 53 Total 204 334 538 juvenile to old, and they are recommended for ownership (or lifetime support) by the government. These animals require a controlled environment. They should remain in the present facilities, whose management understands the need to maintain standards of health required for biomedical research. There should be a greater focus on increased research use of the animals in this category, which will provide needed program income to offset maintenance costs. Investigators using chimpanzees in NIH-funded research should use animals from this category whenever possible, avoiding the payment of "use fees" and "endowments." Some animals that are now designated as belonging to this group might be determined to be no longer needed in research (see group D, below). See Table 3.2 for numbers of animals in subgroups A, B, C, and D-3. GROUP C: CURRENTLY IN RESEARCH PROTOCOLS This category consists of chimpanzees that are in research protocols. These animals need to remain in a controlled environment with knowledgeable management, biocontainment facilities, and trained personnel. When assigned to research projects lasting longer than six mo, the

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Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for their Ethical Care, Management, and Use animals should have access to the outside and have social and tactile contact with other chimpanzees, unless an exception has been obtained consistent with the needs of research protocols. Some biocontainment research facilities do not comply with the standards for long-term care established by this committee. Funding is required to improve facilities and provide new alternative group housing that will satisfy appropriate biohazard precautions while meeting long-term housing guidelines. It is recommended that government agencies and commercial organizations that have used or plan to use chimpanzees cooperate in meeting those funding needs. Congress should provide sufficient funding to the affected agencies to ensure that their biomedical-research programs are not harmed because of their contributing funds for such facilities and housing. Estimates of funding required must be developed by ChiMP after an assessment of the health status of all animals and the number of animals to be housed in each long-term care housing type has been determined. Some animals are suitable and available for infectious disease research, but are not being used, for at least two reasons: some holding and breeding facilities do not have appropriate housing for this type of research, and some research facilities do not have suitable housing for large chimpanzees being studied. A moratorium in breeding is called for but can be adhered to only if investigators find alternatives for two-to four-yr-old animals for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) research. The ChiMP office should seek assurance from Public Health Service (PHS) investigators that only young animals are suitable for RSV research and that use is based on scientific grounds, rather than on convenience or caging limitations. Older animals might be suitable if screened and found negative for RSV. Existing facilities that can support the use of larger and stronger chimpanzees should be better used, or caging for infectious disease research should be modified to allow the work to be conducted on older juvenile and adult animals. GROUP D: NOT NEEDED FOR RESEARCH OR BREEDING This category consists of chimpanzees that are no longer needed for research projects or breeding. The committee divided this into three subgroups as listed below:

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Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for their Ethical Care, Management, and Use Chimpanzees That are Not Needed for Breeding and That Have Not Been and Will Never Be Used for Research. This subgroup has the greatest potential for ownership transfer to private long-term care facilities, such as sanctuaries, zoos, and private compounds. Transfer of these animals has the potential to provide financial benefits to the government and improvement in the quality of life of the animals. This subgroup includes animals from group A that are not needed for breeding. Chimpanzees That Have Been Used in at Least One Research Protocol and That Pose No Public Health Threat. Some chimpanzees used in infectious disease or other studies can be placed in the public sector or returned to the breeding population. Under appropriate housing conditions, management, and staff protection, these animals could be considered to pose no disease threat to humans. However, staff should be appropriately immunized, medically monitored, and experienced in the care and handling of potentially infected chimpanzees. The health status of these animals should be evaluated regularly. If private funding is available and the criteria stated above are met, these animals could be removed from PHS-supported colonies and their ownership transferred to a nongovernment institution. The government should be aware of possible liability due to zoonotic disease transmission to humans after the animals are transferred to long-term care facilities. Chimpanzees assigned to this subgroup could include animals that are not hepatitis B carriers; animals that were immunized with a potential vaccine that did not stimulate the immune system and that therefore were not challenged with an infectious agent; animals that are HIV-seropositive from a vaccine but were not challenged; and animals from the breeding program used for RSV research. Chimpanzees That Have Been Used in at Least One Research Protocol, Are No Longer Needed, and Might Pose a Public Health Threat. Some of these animals have been used in infectious disease studies and are viremic with the inoculated virus. Others are seropositive for infectious agents and have uncertain public-health status. The animals in this subgroup could remain at their present facilities or be housed at a specifically designated government-supported centralized facility that has appropriate housing and manpower experienced in handling infected chimpanzees. These animals should be government-owned. If such animals are moved to a privately owned and operated

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Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for their Ethical Care, Management, and Use facility, that facility must be able to contain these animals according to procedures recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The sizes of the subgroups discussed above and their costs are provided in Table 3.2. Another accounting of the approximately 1,500 chimpanzees in the research population is provided in Chapter 5. Although the accountings subdivide the population differently and are based on different information provided to the committee, the totals are similar and provide the basis for the committee's recommendation that the government own or provide lifetime support for approximately 1,000 animals. OWNERSHIP TRANSFER The federal government should accept ownership or provide lifetime care for chimpanzees from the above groups (see also Chapter 5). Government ownership or lifetime support is thought to be an essential early step in implementing these recommendations. However, some animals for which government ownership or support is recommended are no longer needed for research or breeding. The government should identify those animals and seek to transfer them to long-term care facilities. If any chimpanzees are transferred to nongovernment, long-term care facilities, it would assist in reducing overcrowding in existing facilities. However, reproduction, long-term financial stability, expertise in care, and elimination of risk to public health must all be addressed. Thus, the committee offers the following recommendations. Before transfer, the government should Ensure that all chimpanzees to be transferred are permanently incapable of reproduction, for example, because of vasectomy or tubal ligation. Provide complete health and research-use histories for each animal. Any animal missing documentation for any period of research use should not be transferred to the public sector until its complete research history is made available. Perform appropriate screening of each animal as further

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Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for their Ethical Care, Management, and Use TABLE 3.2 Current Estimates of Chimpanzees in Six Colonies by Subgroup and Cost Subgroups Current Number Current Annual Cost at $20 per day A. Breeders and offspringa 573 $4,182,900 B. Available for researchb 549 $4,007,700 C. Currently on research protocolsb 360 $2,628,000 Subtotal 1,482 $10,818,600 D-1. Breeding colony and offspring not needed for breeding or research—candidates for sanctuariesc ? (included in above categories) D-2. Used in research but not posing public health threat—candidates for sanctuariesc ? (included in above categories) D-3. Used in research and posing a public health threat —candidates for nonsanctuary long-term cared 260 $1,898,000 Subtotal 1,742   Adjusted for double count in several categories <248>   Total 1,494 $10,906,200 a Category A consists of 325 animals of mixed ages from the initial 1986 NIH breeding program, 121 offspring ranging in age from infancy to 10-yr, and 127 offspring produced and available for research but currently supported by NIH under the breeding program. The 573 figure includes 35 animals from an institution not supported under the NIH breeding program. b As reported to ISIS in survey dated September 1996. c Unknown. See projections for number of animals not needed for breeding in Chapter 4. d As reported to the committee by the six major institutions holding chimpanzees primarily for hepatitis B virus and HIV protocols. It is likely that an additional 100 to 150 animals have been used in hepatitis C virus, malaria, kuru, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob and other infectious protocols. See Chapter 2. assurance of little or no possibility of a public health threat. NIH and other agencies initiating new activities or renewing existing ones with the research chimpanzee facilities should identify this need at the earliest opportunity.

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Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for their Ethical Care, Management, and Use Agree to provide immediate assistance, advice, and housing if any animal transferred to the public sector later develops signs of illness resulting from previous exposure that might pose a public health threat. Ensure fiscal-management expertise and long-term financial stability and strength of the recipient. Implant in each animal a microchip that contains the animal's unique identification number (assigned by ISIS). Any important research history could also be encoded at this time. Before transfer, the proposed recipient should Provide evidence of expertise in captive chimpanzee biology, husbandry, and veterinary care. Provide evidence of ability to meet or exceed the long-term care recommendations in this report. Provide written documentation of the proposed use of the individual animals, including public viewing of the animals, and noninvasive or nonmanipulative research. Provide demonstration of fiscal responsibility. Agree to report required information to a national tracking system, as designated by the ChiMP office. Agree to maintain detailed health records and to contact the ChiMP office immediately if there is any question of a public health threat, and agree to abide by the decision of the ChiMP office to eliminate such a threat—even if euthanasia is determined to be warranted. Agree to adhere to the euthanasia policy endorsed in this report. Agree to adhere to a personnel health policy, as outlined by the ChiMP office, which would include appropriate immunization of staff. Agree to notify the ChiMP office of any potential later ownership transfer or loan or lease of individual animals and agree to make reasonable efforts to ensure that any subsequent owner will also abide by all of the agreements required for transfer of ownership. This is recommended as a means of tracking public health threats from an animal transferred out of biomedical facilities.

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Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for their Ethical Care, Management, and Use CONCLUSIONS Euthanasia of chimpanzees should be permitted for reasons of health or quality of life. Euthanasia is not recommended as a general means of population control. With the assistance of colony managers and investigators, the ChiMP office should classify all animals in supported facilities in the categories defined here. When they have been classified, strategic management of the entire population will become possible. Long-term management programs as defined herein, including sanctuaries, should meet or exceed all recommendations in this report. Funding will be required to bring current facilities into compliance with the guidelines in this report. Long-term savings can be expected, depending on the success of transferring animals to the nongovernment sector and increasing efficiency by centralizing management.