to history and present status are presented in this chapter. Recommendations for the specific housing and management requirements and related special issues were developed for each of these subpopulations. Because the issue of long-term care of chimpanzees is of concern to many, these recommendations are intended to provide guidance for all chimpanzee holding facilities, including facilities that are government-funded (nationally and internationally), private for-profit and nonprofit research institutions, private sanctuaries, zoos, and performing acts that use chimpanzees. The definitions and recommendations are presented in the section "Chimpanzee Population Subgroups: Definitions and Recommendations."

Transfer of ownership to another entity requires consideration of issues related to animal welfare, public health, and fiscal responsibility; and these issues are discussed in the section "Ownership Transfer."

HOUSING STANDARDS AND BEHAVIORAL WELL-BEING

Animals from government-sponsored long-term care facilities are supplied to biomedical research, and the majority of support for chimpanzees in these facilities for research and breeding comes from the federal government and the biomedical industry. Nongovernment sanctuaries normally receive the majority of their funding from public donations, although funding partnerships with the government might receive future consideration. Sanctuary animals require less intensive management than animals in research facilities, and therefore entail lower costs of daily care. Animals in non-government-operated sanctuaries would not be used in medical research, although it is recommended they be used in behavioral research to increase understanding of optimal housing, management, and captive behavior. See also "Special Considerations" in this chapter.

"Long-term" refers to any housing circumstance that exceeds six mo. Long-term facilities include both research facilities and sanctuaries. This definition is thought to be especially applicable for animals in biomedical research that might require some time in relative social isolation. Social isolation beyond 6 mo deprives infants and juveniles,



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