the Long-Term Care of Chimpanzees represent platforms for carrying out its core recommendations. If the committee's recommendations are followed, biomedical and behavioral research using chimpanzees can continue to thrive in a productive, ethically responsible, and cost-effective manner. If, however, the current lack of long-range planning and coordination continues, the combination of excess captive chimpanzees in the US biomedical population and lack of facilities and resources to care for increasing numbers adequately will soon become an insurmountable problem of enormous complexity, cost, and ethical concern. Lacking the ability to relocate their animals to acceptable alternative facilities, colony managers will be forced to reduce population numbers through euthanasia. The likelihood of this ''train wreck" scenario must be considered in light of the broader issues surrounding the well-being of chimpanzees. In the final analysis, it is difficult to conceive that our society would accept a system that deteriorated to the point where euthanasia of chimpanzees became the best or only humane option.