SIXTH LECTURE

INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE LECTURE SERIES

ASPECTS OF WEATHER AND SPACE WEATHER IN THE EARTH'S UPPER ATMOSPHERE: THE ROLE OF INTERNAL ATMOSPHERIC WAVES

by

Michael C. Kelley

Professor of Electrical Engineering Cornell University

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C. 1997



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ASPECTS OF WEATHER AND SPACE WEATHER IN THE EARTH'S UPPER ATMOSPHERE: THE ROLE OF INTERNAL ATMOSPHERIC WAVES SIXTH LECTURE INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE LECTURE SERIES ASPECTS OF WEATHER AND SPACE WEATHER IN THE EARTH'S UPPER ATMOSPHERE: THE ROLE OF INTERNAL ATMOSPHERIC WAVES by Michael C. Kelley Professor of Electrical Engineering Cornell University NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997

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ASPECTS OF WEATHER AND SPACE WEATHER IN THE EARTH'S UPPER ATMOSPHERE: THE ROLE OF INTERNAL ATMOSPHERIC WAVES The National Research Council serves as an independent advisor to the federal government on scientific and technical questions of national importance. Established in 1916 under the congressional charter of the private, nonprofit National Academy of Sciences, the Research Council brings the resources of the entire scientific and technical community to bear on national problems through its volunteer advisory committees. Today the Research Council stands as the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering and is administered jointly by the two academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Research Council has numerous operating units. One of these is the Naval Studies Board, which is charged with conducting and reporting upon surveys and studies in the field of scientific research and development applicable to the operation and function of the Navy. A portion of the work done to prepare this document was performed under Department of Navy Grant N00014-94-1-0200 issued by the Office of Naval Research under contract authority NR 201-124. However, the content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Department of the Navy or the government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. The United States Government has at least a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable license throughout the world for government purposes to publish, translate, reproduce, deliver, perform, and dispose of all or any of this work, and to authorize others so to do. Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences . All rights reserved. Additional copies of this report are available from: Naval Studies Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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ASPECTS OF WEATHER AND SPACE WEATHER IN THE EARTH'S UPPER ATMOSPHERE: THE ROLE OF INTERNAL ATMOSPHERIC WAVES NAVAL STUDIES BOARD David R. Heebner, Science Applications International Corporation (retired), Chair George M. Whitesides, Harvard University, Vice Chair Albert J. Baciocco, Jr., The Baciocco Group, Inc. Alan Berman, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University Norman E. Betaque, Logistics Management Institute Norval L. Broome, Mitre Corporation Gerald A. Cann, Raytheon Company Seymour J. Deitchman, Chevy Chase, Maryland, Special Advisor Anthony J. DeMaria, DeMaria ElectroOptics Systems, Inc. John F. Egan, Lockheed Martin Corporation Robert Hummel, Courant Institute of Mathematics, New York University David W. McCall, AT&T Bell Laboratories (retired) Robert J. Murray, Center for Naval Analyses Robert B. Oakley, National Defense University William J. Phillips, Northstar Associates, Inc. Mara G. Prentiss, Jefferson Laboratory, Harvard University Herbert Rabin, University of Maryland Julie JCH Ryan, Booz, Allen and Hamilton Harrison Shull, Naval Postgraduate School (retired) Keith A. Smith, Vienna, Virginia Robert C. Spindel, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington David L. Stanford, Science Applications International Corporation H. Gregory Tornatore, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University J. Pace VanDevender, Prosperity Institute Vincent Vitto, Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Bruce Wald, Center for Naval Analyses Navy Liaison Representatives Paul G. Blatch, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations Ronald N. Kostoff, Office of Naval Research Staff Ronald D. Taylor, Director Peter W. Rooney, Program Officer Susan G. Campbell, Administrative Assistant Mary G. Gordon, Information Officer Christopher A. Hanna, Project Assistant

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ASPECTS OF WEATHER AND SPACE WEATHER IN THE EARTH'S UPPER ATMOSPHERE: THE ROLE OF INTERNAL ATMOSPHERIC WAVES COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS Robert J. Hermann, United Technologies Corporation, Co-Chair W. Carl Lineberger, University of Colorado, Co-Chair Peter M. Banks, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan Lawrence D. Brown, University of Pennsylvania Ronald G. Douglas, Texas A&M University John E. Estes, University of California at Santa Barbara L. Louis Hegedus, Elf Atochem North America, Inc. John E. Hopcroft, Cornell University Rhonda J. Hughes, Bryn Mawr College Shirley A. Jackson, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Kenneth H. Keller, University of Minnesota Kenneth I. Kellermann, National Radio Astronomy Observatory Margaret G. Kivelson, University of California at Los Angeles Daniel Kleppner, Massachusetts Institute of Technology John Kreick, Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company Marsha I. Lester, University of Pennsylvania Thomas A. Prince, California Institute of Technology Nicholas P. Samios, Brookhaven National Laboratory L.E. Scriven, University of Minnesota Shmuel Winograd, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center Charles A. Zraket, Mitre Corporation (retired) Norman Metzger, Executive Director

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ASPECTS OF WEATHER AND SPACE WEATHER IN THE EARTH'S UPPER ATMOSPHERE: THE ROLE OF INTERNAL ATMOSPHERIC WAVES Preface The International Science Lecture Series is a special project of the National Research Council's (NRC) Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications. The series was established in 1990 at the request of the Office of Naval Research (ONR). The purpose of the series is to advance communication and cooperation within the international scientific community. A search committee established by the NRC selects prominent U.S. scientists to lecture in three areas of scientific inquiry: ocean and meteorological sciences, materials science, and information science. The countries in which the lectures are delivered are selected on the basis of consultations with the international scientific community, including the science attach é in U.S. embassies, senior representatives of ONR-Asia and ONR-Europe, and ONR representatives in Washington, D.C. Whenever appropriate, each lecture is followed by discussions with senior government, industrial, and academic representatives of the host country in order to identify opportunities for increased cooperation and collaboration. Aspects of Weather and Space Weather in the Earth's Upper Atmosphere: The Role of Internal Atmospheric Waves by Michael C. Kelley, professor of electrical engineering at Cornell University, is the sixth lecture in the series. The first lecture, The Heard Island Experiment, was presented by Walter H. Munk, Secretary of the Navy Research Chair at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego. The second lecture, Fountainhead for New Technologies and New Science, was presented by Rustum Roy, Evan Pugh Professor of Solid State Physics and professor of geochemistry at Pennsylvania State University. The third lecture, Computing, Communication, and the Information Age, was presented by John E. Hopcroft, Joseph C. Ford Professor of Computer Science at Cornell University. The fourth lecture, Traffic Management for High-Speed Networks, was presented by H.T. Kung, Gordon McKay Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at Harvard University. The fifth lecture, Implementation Challenges for High-Temperature Composites, was presented by Anthony G. Evans, Gordon McKay Professor of Materials Engineering at Harvard University. Professor Kelley's lecture tour consisted of a trip to Australia and India during February of 1997. Professor Kelley's lecture was first presented on February 10, 1997, to the High Frequency Radar Division of the Australian Defence Science and Technology Organization (DSTO) in Salisbury, South Australia. Prior to the lecture, Professor Kelley 's delegation met with scientists and engineers from DSTO and toured the facilities of the High Frequency Radar Division. The delegation also toured the facilities of Atmospheric Radar Systems Pty. Ltd., a science and technology consulting firm in Thebarton, South Australia, that designs and manufactures atmospheric radar systems. On the evening

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ASPECTS OF WEATHER AND SPACE WEATHER IN THE EARTH'S UPPER ATMOSPHERE: THE ROLE OF INTERNAL ATMOSPHERIC WAVES of February 10, Professor Kelley delivered his lecture to the quarterly meeting of the South Australian Branch of the Australian Institute of Physics at the University of Adelaide in Adelaide, South Australia. On February 11, he presented his lecture at the Physics Colloquium at the University of Adelaide, and later met with students and researchers to discuss their most recent research results. Professor Kelley's delegation then traveled to India and on February 13, 1997, met with the chairman of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Dr. K. Kasturirangan, at the ISRO headquarters in Bangalore, India, to discuss possible collaboration between ISRO scientists and U.S. researchers. Dr. S. Rangarajan, director of the ISRO Telemetry, Tracking, and Command Network (ISTRAC), hosted a tour of the satellite test and integration facility at the ISRO Satellite Center (ISAC). On February 15, 1997, Professor Kelley presented his lecture at the National MST Radar Facility in Gadanki, India. In addition to the scientists and staff of the MST Facility, the audience included a number of scientists from the Physics Research Laboratory in Ahmadabad who had traveled to Gadanki to attend Dr. Kelley's lecture. The director of the National MST Facility, Dr. P.B. Rao, led a tour of the facility, after which Professor Kelley met with scientists from the facility and from the Physics Research Laboratory to discuss recent developments in space weather research. The Naval Studies Board and the Office of Naval Research would like to thank their gracious hosts in Australia and India: Dr. Bruce Ward, research leader and senior scientist at the High Frequency Radar Division of the Australian Defence Science and Technology Organization; Dr. Ray Protheroe, professor of physics at the University of Adelaide and chair of the South Australian Branch of the Australian Institute of Physics; Dr. P.B. Rao, director of the Indian National MST Radar Facility; and Dr. D. Gupta, senior scientist at the Physics Research Laboratory in Ahmadabad, India.

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ASPECTS OF WEATHER AND SPACE WEATHER IN THE EARTH'S UPPER ATMOSPHERE: THE ROLE OF INTERNAL ATMOSPHERIC WAVES Contents     Introduction   1     Some Observations   2     Some Theory Dealing with Internal Waves   7     New Remote Sensing Schemes   15     A Wave-driven Refrigerator   19     Relationship of Internal Waves to Space Weather   22     References   30     Further Reading   31

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