social problems, and the changing expectations regarding an appropriate education for today's job market cause a diversity of claims by different stakeholders.
Universities are bombarded by fresh concerns about the balance between teaching, research, and service to the community. Research universities are being particularly criticized for an overemphasis on research, the questionable relevance of some research, and a lack of attention to teaching. The new language of customer orientation is used to state that the student is the customer (some of us still believe she is an investor), and that research and outreach must be focused on problems of immediate relevance. At the same time, there is a deep understanding within the leadership of our society that the benefits of our investments in research have been enormous and are the foundation of our economic strength. It is notable that, in spite of indicators that our political leadership values undergraduate education more highly than research, there continues to be a deep commitment to sustaining our university-based research enterprise. There seems to be a developing agreement among thoughtful observers that the established paradigm of teaching, research, and service, with its implication of separate and contradictory activities to be carefully balanced, is yielding to what seems to me a more descriptive paradigm of learning, transmitting, and applying knowledge. And this, I believe, is supportive of our research universities.
The fragmentation of stakeholders' interests in higher education is particularly deep between the public, elected officials, boards of trustees, and faculty of our institutions. Parents, and the public, are clamoring for access, affordability, and, increasingly, a vocational-oriented education that prepares the student for entry into the job market; the public feels squeezed financially, expects value for its investment, and demands relevance. Public officials' concerns center on effectiveness and efficiency; they share the public concern over relevance and job preparation but are conscious of the importance of investments in long-term research that addresses economic, medical, and technological needs. Internally, within the universities, faculties espouse the traditional core intellectual and academic values that on the surface seem to contradict those of the public and of their elected representatives.
This fragmentation of interests is underscored by the changing nature of the demand for university education. In orientation, values, and structure, higher education is still fundamentally based on concepts developed when participation in higher education was the privilege of a small minority of individuals in the 18- to 22-year age range. Today, participation in higher education has expanded enormously to include almost two-thirds of those in this traditional age range, plus a significant number of older, part-time students. In today's job market a college degree is becoming as necessary as a high school diploma used to be; the differences in compensation and in opportunity for advancement are striking. Furthermore, there is an increasing need for training and retraining of college-educated individuals. Thus, a focus on job-oriented education and on economic participation is driving an emphasis on relevance—indeed on what can be called vocationalism—and thus changing the demand structure for higher education. Let it be understood that this trend is occurring not only at the undergraduate level but also at the postbaccalaureate level, with profound effects on the support of, demand for, and appropriate preparation of participants in graduate programs.
There is no disagreement that resources in support of higher education are limited. Indeed, in some areas we have faced net decreases, in spite of increased demands. In the public sector, higher education and research are "discretionary" expenditures, corollaries to major