Changing the American doctoral and postdoctoral system in the mathematical sciences so that it responds better to the needs of the profession, students, and the society is a task that requires the cooperative efforts of faculty, departments, professional societies, and federal agencies. The departments at research universities have a special responsibility to raise the level and increase the knowledge of talented but underprepared entering American doctoral students. Federal agencies should continue their programs and also increase their awareness of the impact of their programs on the doctoral and postdoctoral system. Professional societies should be involved in monitoring change in the universities, the agencies, and the community. But action, if it starts at all, will start from the faculty. The faculty should be aware that creating and maintaining a successful doctoral/postdoctoral program will require additional effort and time. The long-term benefits to the department, the students, and the society are clearly worth the effort.