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Executive Summary The panel on Engineering Graduate Education and Research pre- pared this report as a part of the overall effort of the National Research Council's Committee on the Education and Utilization of the Engi- neer. Following is a summary of the major topics covered in this report. The challenges to engineering education, and especially to graduate education, are extraordinary. It is unlikely that any one university will be able to offer a menu of graduate education in every discipline and subdiscipline of engineering, largely because of the enormous expense of laboratory research facilities. Some large institutions will come close to the ideal of being able to offer graduate education in all areas of engineering, but most will have to be selective. The growth in graduate engineering education has been largely a phenomenon of the post-World War II era. A strong influence tower postbaccalaureate education was the realization that the solution of many postwar problems would depend on more science and mathemat- ics in engineering curricula and on larger numbers of engineers edu- cated at advanced-degree levels. Although it is difficult to predict the demand for engineers, numbers of future graduates, and thus the supply of engineers, can be predicted from current enrollments. On this basis, the nation can probably expect 3,800 to 4,000 engineering Ph.D.s per year by 1988, with approximately 40 percent of this total being foreign nationals on tem- porary visas. About one-third of the total is expected to enter academic employment. However, even though the total number of Ph.D.s is

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2 ENGINEERING GRADUATE EDUCATION AND RESEARCH increasing, the actual number available for academic employment each year is expected to average only about 100 more per year than was the case during the 1970s. This is perceived to be a serious situation, since the current shortage of engineering faculty developed during the 1970s. {In 1982 an estimated 1,400 engineering faculty positions nationwide were unfilled; in 1983 this number went up to 1,570.J Simultaneously, the student: faculty ratio for engineering-schools increased by 37 percent between 1976 and 1982. If enough faculty positions were allocated to maintain student:faculty ratios at the 1976 level, 6,700 neat faculty would be needed. To help alleviate these problems, the Panel on Engineering Graduate Education and Research recommends the following: Universities should seek to reduce current high workloads, improve salaries, and provide state-of-the-art facilities for instruction and research. The number of engineering doctoral fellowships should be increased so that a greater proportion of U.S. citizens from the top decile of B.S. degree programs will be encouraged to enter doctoral study; about 1,000 new "starts" should be available each year, with stipends at least equal to 50 percent of industrial starting salaries; industry and government should work together on this program, which is estimated to cost between $60 million and $70 million per year. A cor~comitant increase in research funding of $200 million per year for academic institutions is needed. Increased emphasis on engineering research within the National Science Foundation is strongly encouraged, although it is recognized that other agencies will also continue to be strong supporters of engi- neering research. The available base of facilities and equipment has fallen far below what is needed. The recommended increase in the number of Ph.D.s, plus overcoming the hill 6,700 "shortfall" in faculty, would require a one-time nationwide investment of $450 million to $1 billion for new facilities, depending upon their sophistication. The representation of women in engineering seems to be increasing at all academic levels. However, this is not the case for minority groups. The lack of minorities in graduate school is perceived to be principally a "pipeline" problem. Major efforts are needed with respect to minority groups at the junior high and high school levels, and upgraded retention programs are needed at the college level. Efforts must be made to eliminate discrimination, real or perceived.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3 The master's degree is becoming the preferred entry degree for profes- sional practice in some fields of engineering, but cannot yet be univer- sally regarded as the entry-level degree. While well-supervised master's degrees have great value for students, they should not be allowed to degenerate into routine exercises. Master's-leve) study has been shown to help forestall becoming technically outdated, and employers should provide opportunities for continuing education, both degree-oriented and non-degree-oriented. Courses offered on television provide advan- tages in this regard. Most engineering faculty should have the doctorate, particularly in research universities. However, schools that emphasize programs in engineering technology have riot demanded doctorates for their faculty, nor have schools that specialize in undergraduate programs. Even research universities effectively utilize a small percentage of nondoc- toral faculty by employing engineers in professional practice to enrich the applications aspect of their programs. Industry appears to be showing more interest in employing engineer- ing Ph.D.s, although it is not possible to make a definitive forecast of demand. In 1981 a survey of the National Research Council showed a zero unemployment rate for 1980 engineering Ph.D. graduates. Thus, the only clear indication of Ph.D. shortage is the one related to unfilled faculty positions. While it cannot be shown that there is a shortage of engineering Ph.D.s for industry, there does not appear to be a surplus either. Closer ties between industry and engineering education should be fostered, bearing in mind the differing purposes of these two groups. Industrially sponsored research in universities should be free of secrecy constraints and should be as general as possible so that students' learn- ing experiences can be transferred to a variety of future needs. Outside consulting by faculty members should be encouraged, provided it is of the type that supports and helps to improve the academic programs of the university. Faculty should scrupulously avoid conflicts of inter- est" a situation, for example, in which a faculty member is a principal investigator within a Diversity on a project funded by a company for which the faculty member is simultaneously an officer, director, or . ... slgnulc~nt owner.