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ENG~EERlNG EDUCATION AND PRACTICE IN THE UNITED STATES , ~ - ~ngneenng Graduate Education arid Research Pane! on Engineering Graduate Education and Research Subcommittee on Engineering Educational Systems Committee on the Education and Utilization of the Engineer Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1985

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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 ConstitutionAve.,NW Washington,DC20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sci- ences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the govem- ment, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respec- tively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. Support for this work has been provided by the National Science Foundation, the Department of the Air Force, the Department of the Army, the Department of Energy, the Department of the Navy, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Additionally, assistance has been provided through grants from the Eastman Kodak Company, Exxon Corporation, the General Electric Company, the IBM Corporation, the Lockheed Corporation, the Monsanto Company, and the Sloan Foundation. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 85-71643 ISBN 0-309-03549-X Printed in the United States of America

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Preface This pallet report was prepared as part of the overall study of engi- neer~g education and practice in the United States that was conducted under the guidance of the National Research Council Committee on the Education and Utilization of the Engineer. Many of the findings and recommendations of this report were included in the summary report of the committee, * but it was possible to address the various topics in more detail here. The basic objective of the Panel on Engineering Graduate Education and Research was to examine the state of engincer~g graduate study in the United States, to define what its future should be, and to discuss its relationship to research. The panel concluded that graduate study has become steadily more important to the engineering profession in recent years. However, no fundamental change in the structure of engi- neer~g graduate education appears to be needed at this time. The study focuses principally on increasing the supply of highly qualified doctoral recipients who are U.S. citizens, particularly with respect to academic employment. It also gives attention to the impor- t~nce of master's-level work and to the need for access to part-time programs for engineers who are employed full time. The report includes recommendations of ways to provide the financial resources * Engineenng Education and Practice in the United States: Foundations of Our Techno-Economic Future (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1985~. . . . 121

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iv PREFACE to support a greater number of doctoral students. Most of the support would have to come from government sources, but increased support from industry is encouraged. The study also makes certain recommen- dations that would help maximize the effectiveness of industry . . university cooperation. The panel believes that the information contained in this study will be of help to those interested in dealing with the nature and scope of engineering graduate study. We especially hope that our recommenda- tions will encourage the nation to take the necessary measures to sus- tain the present strength of our engineering educational establishment and to help it grow stronger in the future. Tohn D. Kemper Chairman

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Pane] on Engineering. Graduate Education and Research JOHN D. KEMPER, Chairman; Professor of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Davis NAMES F. MATHIS, Vice-President, Exxon Corporation IRENE C. PEDEN, Professor of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington at Seattle JOSEPH E. ROWE, Vice-Chairman and Chief Technical Officer, Gould, Inc. LELAND J. WALKER, Chairman, Northern Engineering and Testing

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Committee on the Education and Utilization of the Engineer JERRIERA. HADDAD, Chairman, [IBM, Ret. ~ GEORGE S. ANSELL, Dean of Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Plow President, Colorado School of Mmes) JORDAN J. BARUCH, President, Jordan J. Baruch Associates ERICH BLOCH, Vice-President, IBM Corporation Now Director, National Science FoundationJ DENNIS CHAMOT, Associate Director, Department for Professional Employees, AFL/CID EDMUND T. CRANCH, President, Worcester Polytechnic Institute DANIEL C. [)RUCKER, Dean of Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana {now Graduate Research Professor of Engineering Sciences, University of Florida at Gainesville) FRED W. CARRY, Vice-President, Corporate Engineering End Manufacturing, General Electric Company JOHN W. GEILS, Director of AAES/ASEE Faculty Shortage Project {AT&T, Ret. ~ AARON J. GELLMAN, President, Gellman Research Associates, Inc. HELEN GOULDNER, Dean, College of Arts and Science, Professor of Sociology, University of Delaware JOHN D. KEMPER, Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California at Davis EDWARD T. KIRKPATRICK, President, Wentworth Institute of Technology V1

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COMMITTEE MEMBERS . . V11 ERNEST S. KUH, Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California at Berkeley W. EDWARD LEAR, Executive Director, American Society for Engineering Education LAWRENCE M. MEAD, JR., Senior Management Consultant {Senior Vice-President, Ret. I, Grumman Aerospace Corporation M. EUGENE MERCHANT, Principal Scientist, Manufacturing Research, Cincinnati Milacron, Inc. {now Director, Advanced Manufacturing Research, Metcut Research Associates, Inc. ~ RICHARD T. REDPATH, Vice-President, Ralston Purina Company FRANCIS E. REESE, Senior Vice-President, Monsanto Now retired ROBERT M. SAUNDERS, Professor, School of Engineering, University of California at Irvine [Chai~uan, Board of Governors, AAES, 1983) CHARLES E. SCHAFFNER, Executive Vice-President, Syska Hennessy JUDITH A. SCHWAN, Assistant Director, Research Labs, Eastman Kodak Company HAROLD T. SHAPIRO, President, University of Michigan MORRIS A. STEINBERG, Vice-President, Science, Lockheed Corporation DONALD G. WEINERT, Executive Director, National Society of Professional Engineers SHEILA E. WIDNALL, Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Staff WILLIAM H. MICHAEL, OR., Executive Director VERNON H. MILES, Staff Officer AMY lANIK, Administrative Assistant COURTLAND S. LEWIS, Consultant Government Liaison LEWIS G. MAYFIELD, Head, Office of Interdisciplinary Research, National Science Foundation

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Contents Executive Summary I. The ChaDenge 2. The Background ............................ Technological Developments During World War II, 8 Grinter Report, 1952-1955, 11 PSAC Report, 1962, 12 Goals Study, 1963-1968, 12 Retrenchment, 1969-1971, 15 3. Supply and Demand ....... Supply of Ph.D.s, 18 . . Quality of Entering Graduate Students, 23 Ph.D.s in academic EmploymeIlt, 26 Ph.D.s in Industry, 37 Increasing the Supply of Ph.D.s, 46 Educational Technology and Productivity, 51 Findings and Recommendations, 55 4. Women and Minorities in Engineering Women in Academic Careers, 62 Finding and Recommendation, 71 1X .8 .17 .58

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The Master's Degree Findings and Recommendations, 82 6. The Doctor's Degree ............ Findings and Recommendations, 92 7. Nontraditional Graduate Programs The Doctor of Engineering, 94 The Engineer Degree, 96 Finding and Recommendation, 97 S. The Eng~neenng Faculty .. . The Need for the Doctor's Degree, 99 Adjunct aIld Part-Time Faculty, 100 Faculty Development and Self-Renewal, 101 Findings and Recommendations, 103 9. University-Industry Interactions ............ The Appropriate Nature of Industrially Sponsored Research, 106 Patents, 108 Consulting, 110 Faculty Conflicts of Interest, 1 16 Findings and Recommendations, 116 Notes CONTENTS .72 .83 .93 98 .104 ~s