About the Authors

BENJAMIN K. CHU, M.D., M.P.H., F.A.C.P., is vice president for clinical affairs and associate dean at New York University Medical Center (NYUMC). He joined NYUMC in 1994 to help coordinate its efforts to adapt to rapid changes in the health care environment. Before coming to NYUMC, he served as senior vice president for medical and professional affairs at the New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation, and as acting commissioner of health for the City of New York. He has been active in the health reform debates on the national and local levels. He is currently a member of the New York State Council on Graduate Medical Education, serving as chair of its consortium subcommittee. He was a member of the Health Professions Review Group of the White House Task Force on Health Care Reform and was legislative assistant for health for Senator Bill Bradley (D-NJ) during his year as a Robert Wood Johnson Health Policy Fellow in 1990. Dr. Chu is a general internist by training. As a member of the Department of Medicine at the State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn, he worked extensively on ambulatory care initiatives as the chief of ambulatory care and as acting director of adult emergency services. Dr. Chu received an M.P.H. from Columbia University in 1989 and



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About the Authors BENJAMIN K. CHU, M.D., M.P.H., F.A.C.P., is vice president for clinical affairs and associate dean at New York University Medical Center (NYUMC). He joined NYUMC in 1994 to help coordinate its efforts to adapt to rapid changes in the health care environment. Before coming to NYUMC, he served as senior vice president for medical and professional affairs at the New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation, and as acting commissioner of health for the City of New York. He has been active in the health reform debates on the national and local levels. He is currently a member of the New York State Council on Graduate Medical Education, serving as chair of its consortium subcommittee. He was a member of the Health Professions Review Group of the White House Task Force on Health Care Reform and was legislative assistant for health for Senator Bill Bradley (D-NJ) during his year as a Robert Wood Johnson Health Policy Fellow in 1990. Dr. Chu is a general internist by training. As a member of the Department of Medicine at the State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn, he worked extensively on ambulatory care initiatives as the chief of ambulatory care and as acting director of adult emergency services. Dr. Chu received an M.P.H. from Columbia University in 1989 and

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an M.D. from New York University School of Medicine in 1978. He received his B.A. in 1970 from Yale University. OLIVER FEIN, M.D., is associate dean for network affairs at Cornell University Medical College as well as an associate professor of clinical medicine and public health. As a Robert Wood Johnson Health Policy Fellow, Dr. Fein served as a legislative assistant in the office of then-Senate Majority Leader George J. Mitchell in 1994. He received a B.A. from Swarthmore College and an M.D. from Case Western Reserve University. His residency training in internal medicine was completed at Lincoln Hospital in the Bronx, an Albert Einstein College of Medicine affiliate. Subsequently, he joined the faculty at Albert Einstein College and was appointed director of Emergency Medicine at Lincoln Hospital. In 1977, he joined the Division of General Medicine at Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons as director of general medicine outpatient services at Presbyterian Hospital. At Columbia Presbyterian, Dr. Fein developed the internal medicine residency ambulatory education program and initiated a faculty group practice designed to provide 24-hour-per-day/7-day-per-week physician access, continuity, and coordination of care for community patients. He also participated in building a network of four satellite community health centers in northern Manhattan. As director of Columbia University's Health of the Public Program, Dr. Fein introduced community medicine and the population perspective to dental, medical, and nursing school curricula. His research interests in health policy include urban health care delivery systems, ambulatory case mix measurement, the relationship of academic health centers to community populations and the association of social class and health status. Before his fellowship in Washington, D.C., Dr. Fein was acting director of the Division of General Internal Medicine at the Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center and associate clinical professor of medicine and public health at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. SUSAN BARTLETT FOOTE, J.D., is president of Public Policy Partners, LLC, dba Durenberger/Foote. Previously, she was a pro-

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fessor of business and public policy in the Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley. She came to Washington, D.C. as a Robert Wood Johnson Health Policy Fellow in 1990, and later served as the senior health advisor to Senator David Durenberger until his retirement at the end of 1994. After leaving Capitol Hill, she became a partner in the Minneapolis-based law firm of Dorsey and Whitney and a senior vice president at APCO Associates, Inc. Ms. Foote is a widely known and respected expert on health policy. She is the author of Managing the Medical Arms Race and numerous other articles on medical technology policy, federal-state relations, and health reform. She is the Washington coordinator of the Coalition for Fairness in Medicare, which is seeking to reform the geographic inequities in Medicare HMO payments; she is also an officer of the Medical Technology Leadership Forum, a group of leaders in medical innovation who are seeking to educate themselves and the public on policy issues relevant to medical technology. Ms. Foote serves on the board of Lutheran Health Systems; on the Dean's Advisory Committee of the School of Public Health, University of California; and on the Public Health Trust Advisory Board. She attended Smith College and holds B.A. and M.A. degrees in history from Case Western Reserve University, and a J.D. from the University of California School of Law. ROBERT G. FRANK, Ph.D., is professor and dean of the College of Health Professions at the University of Florida and vice president of the Rehabilitation and Behavioral Health Networks for the Shands HealthCare System. From 1991 to 1995, Dr. Frank worked on federal and state health policy. As a Robert Wood Johnson Health Policy Fellow, he worked for Senator Jeff Bingaman (D-NM). After completing the RWJ Health Policy Fellowship, Dr. Frank returned to the University of Missouri, where, as assistant to the dean for health policy, he continued to work on federal and state health policy. He also continued to work with Senator Bingaman and managed Missouri's state health reform effort, the ShowMe Health Reform Initiative. Dr. Frank has a doctorate in clinical psychology from the University of New Mexico. He is past president of the Division of Rehabilitation Psychology of the American Psychologi-

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cal Association and a Fellow in the Division of Rehabilitation Psychology and Health Psychology. COLEEN KIVLAHAN, M.D., M.S.P.H., is associate chief of staff for the University Hospitals and Clinics and assistant to the dean for health policy at the University of Missouri. She is the first director of the Office of Clinical Outcomes and Medical Management. Prior to assuming this post in January 1997, she was director of the Missouri Department of Health, where she was the first woman to serve as a permanent director. After receiving her undergraduate degree from St. Louis University and her medical degree from the Medical College of Ohio at Toledo, she completed her internship and residency at the University of Missouri Medical Center. Dr. Kivlahan then became medical director at the Columbia/Boone County Health Department, where she delivered public health, primary care, and preventive services. During this period, she worked for a brief time in Washington, D.C., as medical director of the Health Resources and Services Administration, where she focused mainly on maternal and child health issues. Recognizing the need for services for the uninsured and underinsured, in 1992 she persuaded Columbia's three local hospitals and the local United Way to help set up the Boone County Family Health Center. Since the clinic's opening, Dr. Kivlahan has worked in a joint practice with other family physicians and a nurse practitioner providing primary and preventive care to low-income families. MARION EIN LEWIN, M.A., is a senior staff officer and director of the Office of Health Policy Programs and Fellowships at the Institute of Medicine. In this position, she heads the program office for the Pew Health Policy Program, directs The Robert Wood Johnson Health Policy Fellowships Program, the IOM/American Association of Nurses Nurse-Scholar Program, and the Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Lecture Series. Ms. Lewin has been study director for several major IOM reports, including Balancing the Scales of Opportunity: Ensuring Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Health Professions (1994) and Improving the Medicare Market: Adding Choice and Protections (1996). She currently heads an important

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new IOM study on ''The Future of the Medical Safety Net in a New Health Care Environment." Prior to her present position, Ms. Lewin was director of the Center for Health Policy Research at the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, where she conducted research and policy studies related to the financing and delivery of health care including indigent care, Medicare and Medicaid, and private-sector health cost management efforts. Previous to this assignment she was deputy director of the National Health Policy Forum and worked as a congressional health legislative staffer. Ms. Lewin has written extensively on a wide range of health care topics, and she authors a quarterly "Washington Outlook" section for the Journal of Medical Practice Management. Ms. Lewin also is a contributing editor to the Journal of the American Medical Association's Policy Watch and a senior consultant to Grantmakers in Health. In 1996, she headed a major project for the Association for Health Services Research—the development and publication of a Baxter Health Policy Review volume called Strategic Choices for a Changing Health Care System. Ms. Lewin is on the Citizens Board of Providence Hospital in Washington, D.C., and chairs its Planning Committee. She received her undergraduate and graduate education at Columbia University. P. PEARL O'ROURKE, M.D., is associate professor of anesthesia (pediatrics) at the University of Washington in Seattle and director of the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) at the Children's Hospital and Medical Center, also in Seattle. She completed her undergraduate studies at Yale University and her medical education at Dartmouth Medical School and the University of Minnesota. Dr. O'Rourke did her internship, residency, and chief residency in pediatrics at the Massachusetts General Hospital. After a short time in primary care practice, she entered a pediatric critical care fellowship at Children's Hospital, Boston. Upon completion of the fellowship, she worked as an associate director of the Multidisciplinary Intensive Care Unit at Children's Hospital. In 1988, Dr. O'Rourke moved to Seattle, where she became director of the PICU. During her career in pediatric critical care, Dr. O'Rourke has been closely involved in the development of the extracorporeal membrane oxy-

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genation (ECMO) program. She was a founding member of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization, the purpose of which is to promote responsible proliferation of ECMO technology by supporting education, research, and standards. Dr. O'Rourke has also been active in the education and training of medical students, residents, and critical care fellows. In addition, she has been involved with issues in international health, having spent time in China and Indonesia. In 1996, she completed a Robert Wood Johnson Health Policy Fellowship. Dr. O'Rourke has recently accepted a position in the Office of Policy at the National Institutes of Health. DAVID P. STEVENS, M.D., is chief academic affiliations officer for the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), Washington, D.C. The Office of Academic Affiliations oversees formal partnerships with 105 VA-affiliated medical schools, as well as over 4,000 other universities and colleges throughout the nation. Over 34,000 medical residents, 22,000 medical students, and 45,000 associated health trainees receive a portion of their education in the VA health system every year. During the 1995—1996 academic year, he was a Robert Wood Johnson Health Policy Fellow. In this capacity he served as health policy advisor to Senator Nancy Landon Kassebaum (R-KS), who was then chair of the Senate Labor and Human Resources Committee. Prior to moving to Washington, Dr. Stevens was vice dean and Scott R. Inkley Professor of General Internal Medicine at Case Western Reserve School of Medicine. In addition to his role as vice dean, he was architect of The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation-funded Generalist Physician Initiative in collaboration with the Henry Ford Health System. A graduate of Western Reserve School of Medicine, his postgraduate studies included training at the National Institutes of Health and the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research in Melbourne, Australia. WENDY B. YOUNG, R.N., Ph.D., is associate professor at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) College of Nursing and faculty scholar in the UIC Great Cities Institute. As a 1995-1996 Robert Wood Johnson Health Policy Fellow, she worked on health legislation in the office of Senate Minority Leader Tom Daschle.

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Since returning to UIC, she has worked on a number of projects to improve faculty and students' understanding and participation in the public policy process. Prior to her congressional fellowship, Dr. Young implemented a number of community-directed programs to demonstrate how to help local communities direct the services they recognize as essential for improving public health. One example of this is the Midwest Community Council Nursing Center, a partnership started between UIC and The Midwest Community Council, Chicago's oldest block club organization. At the center, UIC advanced practice nurse faculty provide primary care health services and health education programs. Dr. Young has studied a variety of health and health profession policy issues over the past two decades, including comparison studies of state level policy processes related to educational requirements to enter nursing practice, the nature of regulating advanced practice nurses' diagnosis and prescriptive privileges, and the patterns of nurse supply and utilization over the past decade.