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Index

A

Accountability, model, 412, 420-427

Africa, 388, 392(n.6), 394, 468

Age factors

health status, 251, 324, 326

labor market, 188, 189, 233, 234, 252

pensions, 289, 307, 308-309

research priorities, 484

retirement age, 371-372, 373, 375, 376, 378, 379-383

wage income, 364, 365

see also Children;

Elderly persons

Agricultural sector

China, 141, 440

Poland versus Russia, 86

Russia, 86, 126, 242, 461, 482

Soviet Union, 204

subsistence, 304-305

Transylvania, 103-116

Albania, 376, 395, 462

Arbitration, Russia, 167

Argentina, 266, 267, 392(n.6)

Asia, 290

Central, health care reform, 322, 324, 326, 327-348

East Asia, 392(n.5), 393, 465

see also specific countries

Azerbaijan, 456, 457

B

Baltic countries, see specific countries

Bankruptcy, 93

Czech Republic, 249

Russia, 147, 171, 460-461

Banks and banking, 126

central banks, 3, 460-461, 463

Russia, 144, 147, 149-151, 170, 464

see also Credit;

Savings

Barter trade, 45, 126, 156

Russia, 85

Belarus, 455, 456, 457, 463, 464

Big-bang policies, see Shock policies

Black market, see Underground economies

Bolivia, 266, 389-390, 391, 392(n.6), 393

Brazil, 391

Brezhnev, Leonid, 120

Bribery, 26, 31

price controls and, 208-209, 210

Russia, 128, 464

Soviet Union, 27, 137-138

Budgets, see National budgets

Bulgaria, 252, 456, 457, 458, 463

inflation, 455

pensions, 372, 376

Bureaucracy, 135, 140, 218, 434, 439

accountability, model, 412, 420-427



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Transforming Post-Communist Political Economies Index A Accountability, model, 412, 420-427 Africa, 388, 392(n.6), 394, 468 Age factors health status, 251, 324, 326 labor market, 188, 189, 233, 234, 252 pensions, 289, 307, 308-309 research priorities, 484 retirement age, 371-372, 373, 375, 376, 378, 379-383 wage income, 364, 365 see also Children; Elderly persons Agricultural sector China, 141, 440 Poland versus Russia, 86 Russia, 86, 126, 242, 461, 482 Soviet Union, 204 subsistence, 304-305 Transylvania, 103-116 Albania, 376, 395, 462 Arbitration, Russia, 167 Argentina, 266, 267, 392(n.6) Asia, 290 Central, health care reform, 322, 324, 326, 327-348 East Asia, 392(n.5), 393, 465 see also specific countries Azerbaijan, 456, 457 B Baltic countries, see specific countries Bankruptcy, 93 Czech Republic, 249 Russia, 147, 171, 460-461 Banks and banking, 126 central banks, 3, 460-461, 463 Russia, 144, 147, 149-151, 170, 464 see also Credit; Savings Barter trade, 45, 126, 156 Russia, 85 Belarus, 455, 456, 457, 463, 464 Big-bang policies, see Shock policies Black market, see Underground economies Bolivia, 266, 389-390, 391, 392(n.6), 393 Brazil, 391 Brezhnev, Leonid, 120 Bribery, 26, 31 price controls and, 208-209, 210 Russia, 128, 464 Soviet Union, 27, 137-138 Budgets, see National budgets Bulgaria, 252, 456, 457, 458, 463 inflation, 455 pensions, 372, 376 Bureaucracy, 135, 140, 218, 434, 439 accountability, model, 412, 420-427

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Transforming Post-Communist Political Economies corruption to circumvent, 26, 137-138, 142-143 evaluation criteria, 421, 422-423 health care services, 338 privatization, impacts on, 46-47, 217-218 research priorities, 482-483 rule of law, 420-421 Russia, 91, 135, 136, 140, 153, 218, 219, 229, 236 social welfare, 278, 282, 285, 338, 390 Soviet Union, 135-136, 139, 142-143, 217-218 C Capital markets, see Investment Central Asia health care reform, 322, 324, 326, 327-348 immigration, Russia, 324-325 see also specific countries Central banks, 3, 460-461, 463 Central Europe, 3, 21, 467 income differentiation, 458, 467 pensions, 370 poverty, 351-366 price controls, 205, 462 privatization, 217-219, 220, 467 rent seeking, 462 social policy, 266, 305, 307, 309, 310, 465 unemployment, 458 see also specific countries Central planning, general, 135, 432 China, 437 Czech Republic, 86-87 formal versus informal institutions, 22, 161, 165 health care services, 327-330, 334 Hungary, 86-87, 436, 437 industrial sector, 86-87, 225, 437 labor market and, 223-226 models, 433-436 pensions, 371-375, 377 Poland, 86-87 Russia, 82, 86, 226, 228 social policy, 254, 272-273, 285 Soviet Union, 120, 121, 134, 136, 137, 138-139, 142, 161-165, 225, 226, 228, 436-437 variation across regimes, 436-437 see also Decentralization Charity, 279, 280, 286 Children health care, 323, 346 poverty, 374, 394 research priorities, 484 social policy, 249, 250, 252, 254, 307-309, 311-312, 361, 365 Chile, 260, 263, 386, 389-393, 397, 427 China agricultural sector, 141, 440 incentives, 438, 440, 443-444, 448 industrial sector, 437-438 investment, 437, 443-444, 446-447 local factors, 16-17, 208, 437-438, 440-442, 445-446 managers and management, 443, 444-445 market reforms without democratic reforms, 436-448 price controls, 208 privatization, 446-447, 448 property rights and civil rights, 141 regional factors, 437-438, 440-442 small businesses, 437, 440-442 Colombia, 392(n.6) Comecon, 86-87, 249 Commonwealth of Independent States, see specific countries Constitutional law property rights, 39, 40, 44 Soviet Union, 142 Construction sector Russia, 152, 482 Soviet Union, 161-162, 163 Consumer goods, 87, 267, 303, 364 Russia, 226, 229-239 Contracts, 9, 142, 419, 433 bureaucracy, evaluation, 422 employment, 225, 229 enforcement credibility, 45-46, 50, 89, 91, 152, 156, 167, 173 health care, 344 group cohesion, impact on costs, 40-41 labor, 225, 229 private enforcement, 43-44, 153 Russia, 89, 91, 147, 148, 152, 153, 166-167, 170, 173, 229 social, 254, 259, 307, 308 Soviet Union, 135, 138 see also Transaction costs Corruption, 7, 267, 463, 464, 478 bureaucracy, corruption to circumvent, 26, 137-138, 142-143

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Transforming Post-Communist Political Economies individual versus organizational, 125(n. 16) pretransition economies, 31 research priorities, 480-481, 487 Russia, 91, 123, 207, 462, 482 social welfare systems, 253 Soviet Union, 27, 137-138, 142 see also Bribery; Rent seeking Cost-benefit analysis health care, 346 property rights and, 141 Russia, 83, 91, 122 social safety nets, 389 Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, see Comecon Courts, 156, 418, 420(n.8), 486 Russia, 142, 143 Credit, 218, 219 Hungary, 217 Russia, 147, 150, 153, 203, 204, 460-461 safety net programs, 390 Ukraine, 181 see also Interest rates Criminal law, 25, 119 Russia, 123, 125 Soviet Union, 25, 42, 162, 205 Crime Russia, 124, 127, 482 sentences and penalties, 25, 27, 28, 31, 119, 123, 125, 142, 162, 205 violent, 119, 124, 127, 267 see also Bribery; Corruption; Organized crime; Underground economies Croatia inflation, 455 pensions, 377-378 Cultural values, see Sociocultural values Currency and currency exchange, 256, 261, 386, 387, 454 Bulgaria, 463-464 household income estimates, 250-251 inflation and, 30, 121, 226, 455-456 NIS, common currency, 226 pretransition economies, 31, 136 quasi-currencies, 8, 9, 121 research priorities, 481 Russia, 84, 85, 121, 147-148, 226, 460 internal versus external ruble, 29 Soviet Union, 136 Ukraine, 181 voucher trading, 148, 300, 461 Czechoslovakia, 355, 358, 395, 396, 455 Czech Republic, 17, 205, 216, 456, 457 bankruptcy, 249 pensions, 373, 376, 377, 378 social welfare policy, 255, 352-366 (passim), 396 D Debt, see Bankruptcy; Public debt Decentralization, general bureaucracy, evaluation, 422-423 China, 437-444 Hungary, 436, 437, 439 Russia, 158 social services, 254, 255, 259, 285, 287, 311 Soviet Union, 136-137, 437 see also Liberalization of markets; Local factors; Regional factors Decollectivization, see Land reform Defense sector, Russia, 136, 157, 166-167, 174 Demographic factors, 14, 273, 276 Central Asia/Russia, 323-326 disadvantaged persons, 278, 280, 286, 483 epidemiological factors, 323, 326-327, 328, 372 health care, 323-326 social policy, 300 see also Age factors; Immigration and emigration; Poverty; Women Denationalization, see Privatization Deregulation, see Government regulation/deregulation; Liberalization of markets Disability pensions, 372, 373, 380 E East Asia, 392(n.5), 393, 465 Eastern Europe, 3, 17, 21, 133, 135, 467 elections. 264-265, 266 inflation, 251 labor market, 177, 179, 180 labor unions, 262 pensions, 370, 376, 394 price controls, 205 privatization, 217-219, 220 property rights, 109 rent seeking, 462

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Transforming Post-Communist Political Economies social policy, 252, 262, 264, 267, 291, 305, 307, 309, 310 unemployment, 252 see also specific countries Education and training, 3, 253, 254, 257-258, 259-260, 269, 291, 310-313 employment and, 252, 364 ethical considerations, 280, 285-286 health care personnel, 328, 347 pension credits, 380 research priorities, 484 safety nets versus, 387, 388, 391, 392, 393 skilled workers, 141, 224, 238, 262, 311, 312, 361, 483 women, 322 Efficiency incentives, 9, 47, 283-284 health care, 337, 341, 347-348 Russia, 89, 126 social welfare policy, 283-285 Elderly persons, 249, 254, 266, 361, 365 see also Pensions Elections, 209, 419-420, 424-426, 464, 485 Eastern Europe, 264-265, 266 social policy and, 287-288, 395(n.8), 396 Emigration, see Immigration and emigration Employment issues, 7, 177 central planning, 223-226 contracts, 225, 229 deindustralization, 394 Eastern Europe, 177, 179, 180 employee ownership, 143-144, 149 full/overemployment, 87, 89, 97-98, 145, 146, 225, 226, 228, 229, 231, 273 labor costs, 228 privatization and, 177, 235 property rights, 103, 106-107, 141 regression analysis of labor market, 184, 187-189, 187-189, 193-197 research priorities, 483-485, 487 retirement age, 371-372, 373, 375, 376, 378, 379-383 Russia, 224-242 age factors, 233, 234 globalized markets, 224, 225, 242 indices of conditions, 233 managerial hegemony, 96-97, 231 overemployment, 87, 89, 97-98, 145, 146 privatization, employee ownership, 143-144, 149 productive versus unproductive sectors, 91 sectoral composition of workforce, 235, 236 supply/demand, 224, 225, 228, 233, 237 unemployment, incl. benefits/services, 229, 232, 233-237, 242 women, 233, 234 skilled workers, 141, 224, 238, 262, 311, 312, 361, 483 social services, 223-242, 253, 259-260, 380, 390 Ukraine, 179, 180, 181, 184-201 under/unemployment, 248, 251, 252, 261, 273, 301, 304, 361, 457-459 globalization of markets and, 300 pensions and, 373 Russia, 229, 232, 233-237, 242 safety nets, 389, 390, 394, 396 survival strategies of, 178, 179-180, 182-184, 185-198, 304-305, 441-442 training to address, 311 unemployment insurance, 229, 380, 388, 390 women, 363 women, 311, 363 Russia, 233, 234 Ukraine, 179, 186-187, 189, 196, 199 England, 45-46, 406 Entrepreneurship, 6, 14-15, 134, 156-157, 457 Chinese officials, 444 innovation, 225, 377 Russia, 89, 240 Soviet Union, 120-121, 156, 160-166, 205 Transylvanian property rights, 108-109 uncertainty, 160, 419 see also Managers and management; Underground economies Environmental protection, 346 Russia, 90-91 Epidemiological factors, 323, 326-327, 328, 372 Estonia, 376-377, 395, 455, 456, 462, 465, 468 Ethnicity and ethnic groups, 2, 7, 9, 458, 474, 477 research priorities, 481, 484, 485, 486 social policy, 264, 268, 306, 484 transaction costs and cohesion, 41-42 European Bank for Reconstruction and Development , 456, 457

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Transforming Post-Communist Political Economies Exchange rates, see Currency and currency exchange Exports and imports, see International trade F Financial institutions and services, 3, 135, 147-151, 261 see also Banks and banking; Credit; Insurance Food products and production, 249, 329, 364 Russia, 91, 207, 230, 329 Soviet Union, 204 see also Nutrition policies Foreign exchange, see Currency and currency exchange France, 406 G Georgia, 376, 458, 463, 465, 468 Globalized markets, 103, 153, 481 prices, 300, 302, 303-304 Russia in, 224, 225, 242 social policy and, 300, 302 Gorbachev, Mikhail, 120-121, 122, 136 Gosplan, 225 Government officials China, 444-447 price controls and rent seeking, 208 research priorities, 485 Russia, local, 123, 125 Soviet Union, wages, 27 Transylvania, decollectivization, 105 see also Corruption Government regulation/deregulation, general corruption and increased regulation, 138 model, 411-412, 416-420, 456, 458 onerous regulation and noncompliance, 26 pensions, 375 Russia, 125 see also Bureaucracy; Liberalization of markets; Prices and price controls Government role, 407-490 accountability, 412, 420-427 agency versus participant management, 41-42 agents interaction with, 412, 416-420 economic policy, 62-63, 68, 403-410, 411-428, 432-448, 453-468 principal/agent models, 415-428 see also Bureaucracy; Central planning Grey markets, see Underground economies Gross Domestic Product cash transfers as share of, 249 globalization and, 300 inflation and, 455 input markets and, 90 manufacturing labor force, 225 output and, 458 private sector share, 457 social welfare funding and, 249, 300, 304, 311, 330-332, 372-373, 395, 465 state revenues as percentage, 465 trends, 304 Bulgaria, 463-464 Central Europe, 351, 352, 359 Commonwealth of Independent States, 133 Russia, 80, 90-91, 460, 461 Ukraine, 181 Gross National Product Poland, 217, 251, 255 social spending and, 251, 255 H Health care professionals, 253, 260, 327-328, 333, 335, 343-345, 347, 348 Health care services, 226, 253, 254, 256, 258, 259, 263, 285-286, 291, 322-348 Central Asia, 322, 324, 326, 327-348 central planning, 327-330, 334 children, 323, 346 contracts, 344 demographic factors, 323-326 efficiency incentives, 337, 341, 347-348 epidemiological factors, 323, 326-327, 328, 372 Kazakhstan, 333, 335, 339, 340, 343, 344, 346 Kyrgyz Republic, 333, 335, 339, 340, 342, 343, 344, 346 local markets, 337, 340, 344, 346 OECD countries, 334, 336, 343 pharmaceuticals, 329, 337, 339, 345, 347, 348 poverty, 329, 333 privatization, 332-334, 339-340, 341, 346 regional factors, 337, 340, 344, 346

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Transforming Post-Communist Political Economies research priorities, 484 safety nets versus, 387, 388, 391, 392 Tajikistan, 330, 334, 335, 340 Uzbekistan, 330, 332, 334, 335, 339 see also Hospitals and hospitalization Health insurance, 280, 282, 285, 337, 338-341, 343, 345 Historical comparisons, 496-487 England, contract credibility, 45-46 epidemiological factors, 326 government role, models, 403-410 Russia, 36-38, 39-42, 47, 406 Sicilian land reform, 42-44 tax policies, 405-406 Historical factors general importance of, 48 path dependence, 16-17, 21, 48, 75, 157, 173, 404, 408, 477 Russia, 84, 119-122, 135-136, 219 social welfare insecurity, 314 see also Soviet Union Hospitals and hospitalization, 253, 263, 327, 329, 334, 335, 336, 337, 344, 345, 346 Household income, 250-251, 273, 361-363 pensions, 372, 374 see also Poverty Household surveys, 7, 250, 332-333, 351-366, 483-484, 487 Housing, 186, 329, 354, 363, 364, 482 pensioners, 374 property rights, 137, 138, 483 rent control, 67, 123, 205, 249 Hungary, 205, 217, 456, 463 central planning, 86-87, 436, 437 decentralization, 436, 437, 439 pensions, 372, 377-378, 395 social welfare, 249, 250, 255, 256, 261, 291, 292, 315, 352-366 (passim), 465, 468 I Ideology, see Politics and political parties Immigration and emigration Central Asia/Russia, 324-325 individuals' rights, 408 property rights, 112-113 Imports and exports, see International trade Incentives, general, 13, 22, 23-24, 48, 68, 139 bureaucracy, 421 China, 438, 440, 443-444, 448 economists' research preferences, 50(n.25), 54 health care reform, 337 investment, 3, 417 labor market, 225 pensions, 370, 382 principal/agent relations, 415 profit, 438 property rights and, 47, 141, 476 regulations, 417 research priorities, 479, 483 Russia, 82, 89, 95, 126, 140, 146, 153, 169, 211, 220 social policy change, 249, 261, 283-285, 334 Soviet Union, 27, 33, 136, 137, 138, 142 telecommunications industry, 46(n. 16) see also Efficiency incentives Income, see Household income; Personal income; Poverty; Redistributive systems; Wages and salaries India, 464 Individualism, 68, 113, 114 leadership, 266 pensions, 371 social welfare policy, 278, 281, 282, 284, 294(n.11), 299, 300, 306 -310, 314-315, 371, 485 Industrial sector central planning and, 86-87, 225, 437 labor market, 225 China, 437-438 deindustralization, 394 Romania, 87 Russia, 242 Soviet Union, 138-139 Inflation, 251, 261, 455-456, 463-464, 466-467 barter and, 45 currency exchange and, 30, 121, 226, 455-456 GDP and, 455 output declines, 454-455 pensions, 361, 373, 374 poverty and, 387, 395 privatization and, 32 public debt and, 30, 455

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Transforming Post-Communist Political Economies Russia, 84-85, 89, 92, 95, 455 labor/social policy and, 226-227, 231 social policy, general, 249, 251 Ukraine, 181, 455 Information scarcity, 62, 66-69, 404, 414, 427-428 mass media, 427, 485 Russia, 89, 136, 145 Soviet Union, 136 Innovation, 14, 225, 377 Input markets, general, 218, 219 health care services, 334 Hungary, 217 Russia, 87-91, 93, 97, 99, 145, 203, 204, 334 Transylvanian land reforms, 107 see also Employment issues; Investment Insolvency, see Bankruptcy Institutions and institutional approach, 7-9, 133, 139-140, 475-479 bureaucracy, evaluation, 422 defined, 5-6, 156, 476 economic policy, 61-75 incentive structures and, 13, 14 informal versus formal, 5, 21, 22, 24, 29, 156, 159, 160, 161, 165 , 476, 478, 479, 485 path dependence, 16-17, 21, 48, 75, 157, 173, 404, 408, 477 poverty and, 386-387 radical reform and noncompliance, 25 research, historical preferences, 50-53, 62, 67-68 priorities, 479-490 Russia, 81-86, 93-95, 98, 157 social welfare policy, 288-289, 389, 390, 392-394 underground activity and change, 22, 23-26 see also specific institutions Insurance, 147, 282 see also Health insurance; Pensions; Social welfare policy Intellectual property, 14, 166, 305 Interest rates, 45, 256, 386, 390 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, see World Bank International Monetary Fund, 264(n. 12), 466, 467 International trade, 3, 466, 467 Comecon, 86-87 price controls, 210, 460, 462, 466-467 globalization and, 300, 302, 303-304 Russia, 90-91, 145, 152, 168, 210, 230, 460, 462 globalized markets, 224, 225, 242 Ukraine, 181 see also Globalized markets Investment, 7, 38, 126, 148, 157, 166, 435 China, 437, 443-444, 446-447 coercive power versus capital concentration, 405 Commonwealth of Independent States, 135 credibility and, 38, 46 Eastern Europe, 135 enterprise learning, 160 Hungary, 217 incentives, 3, 417 property rights and, 38, 148 research priorities, 482 Russia, 88-89, 124, 135, 146, 147-151, 153, 157, 167-168, 171-172 social spending and, 255, 290-293 Soviet Union, 163-164 post-dissolution, 133-154 Ukraine, 198 venture capital, 159 see also Pensions Italy, 42-44, 75 K Kazakhstan, 465, 467, 468, 482 health reform, 333, 335, 339, 340, 343, 344, 346 Khrushchev, Nikita, 136, 437 Know how, see Intellectual property Kuchma, Leonid, 181 Kyrgyz Republic, 465, 468 health reform, 333, 335, 339, 340, 342, 343, 344, 346 L Labor issues, see Employment issues Labor unions, 268 Eastern Europe, 262 Latin America, social services, 260, 262 research priorities, 481-482 Russia, 232

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Transforming Post-Communist Political Economies Land reform industrial privatization versus, 109 political factors, 103, 107, 113 research priorities, 481 Romania, 105 Russia, 1800s, 36, 126, 482 Sicily, 1800s, 42-44 Transylvania, 103-116 Latin America, 464, 465, 468 grupos economicos, 159 pensions, 371, 376, 382 social sector reforms, 261-262, 266-267, 302 labor unions, 260, 262 safety nets, 387-394, 396-397 see also specific countries Latvia, 261, 462, 468 pensions, 371, 373, 378-383 social safety nets, 395 Liberalization of markets communist institutions dismantled, 5-6 economic policy, 3, 9, 22, 62-63, 68, 157, 403-428, 432-448, 453-468, 474 indices of, 456 Russia, 81, 84, 85, 121, 122-123, 143, 145-146, 157 perestroika,83 social policy, general, 248, 250, 262-263 stabilization and, 456 Ukraine, 456-457 underground economies, 29, 121 Yugoslavia, 264(n. 12) see also Globalized markets; Prices and price controls; Privatization Lithuania, 376-377, 463, 468 Living standard, see Standard of living Loans, see Credit; Interest rates Local factors, 48, 103, 135 China, 16-17, 208, 437-438, 440-442, 445-446 cooperatives, 75 health care, 337, 340, 344, 346 poverty, 305-306 production/transaction costs, 41-42 research issues, 53, 484, 496 Russia, 140, 144, 170-171 banking, 150 health care, 337, 340 officials, 123, 125 price controls, 123, 136, 206-216, 220, 230 social welfare policy, 256, 259, 305-306, 337, 390, 484 M Mafia economies of scale, 30 Sicilian land reform, 43-44 Russia, 124, 206, 213, 216 Managers and management, 7, 178 China, 443, 444-445 employee interaction with, 96-97, 178-179, 182-185, 199, 231 health care services, 329, 346 managerial learning, 156, 166-173 network versus hierarchical, 159-172 Poland, 146 political power, 466-467 price controls, rent seeking, 208 research priorities, 481-482, 487 Russia corporate governance, 89, 96-97, 138-139 employee ownership, 143-144, 149, 461 enterprise learning, 156, 166-174 managerial hegemony, 96-97, 231 privatization, 144, 145, 146, 149, 151, 219, 462 salaries, 238 Soviet Union, 136, 138-139, 161-166 Transylvanian land reform, 105 Ukraine, 182, 199 see also Bureaucracy; Production infrastructure/organization Mao Zedong, 437, 443 Mass media, 427, 485 Medical services, see Health care services Military, see Defense sector, Russia Models and modeling, 9, 453-468 central planning, 433-436 communist state, 433-436 economic policy, 62-63, 68, 403-428, 432-448, 453-468 incomplete/competing, 74-75 information scarcity, 66-67 labor market adjustment, 177-184 political factors, 65 polities, 17 price controls, 210-211

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Transforming Post-Communist Political Economies principal/agent relations, 415-428 private versus public policy, 67, 70 social service reform, 257-258, 265, 277 welfare state, 71-72 Western, applicability, 4, 168 Moldova, 465, 468 Monetary policy, 3, 7, 135, 263, 414, 439, 466, 478 inflation and, 30 Russia, 85, 92-93, 460 Ukraine, 181 see also Currency and currency exchange; Prices and price controls Monopolies, 46, 126, 412 N National budgets health care services, 327, 329, 330-334, 336, 337, 340-342 inflation and, 455 pension financing, 380 price liberalization and, 30 research priorities, 486 Russia, 95, 227, 327, 329, 330-334, 341-342 defense, 136 public debt, 147, 227, 460 social welfare services, 259, 293-294 state ownership and, 39, 435-436 see also Public debt; Taxation Natural resources, Russian exports, 90-91 see also Environmental protection New Independent States, 3, 21, 467 bribery, 31 common currency, 226 incentive systems, 27 income differentiation, 458 inflation, 455 pensions, 370-383 (passim), 394 privatization, 217-218 rent seeking, 462 social sector reforms, 264, 465 state revenues, 465 unemployment, 458 see also specific countries Nomenklatura,28, 139, 461, 467, 478, 482 Nongovernmental organizations, social welfare, 301, 306, 424, 484 Nutrition policies, 386, 389 O OECD countries education, 311 health care, 334, 336, 343 pensions, 308, 372 social welfare, vulnerable populations, 352-366 (passim), 395-396, 397 Opportunity costs, 50, 53, 89 Optimization models, 178-179, 182-183, 419-420 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development pensions, 371 poverty, definition, 353-354 see also OECD countries Organized crime, 126, 267 economies of scale, 30 property rights enforced by, 26, 30 research priorities, 481 Russia, 91, 119, 124, 152, 206, 213, 216, 239, 461 see also Mafia P Path dependence, 16-17, 21, 48, 75, 157, 173, 404, 408, 477 Pensions, 3, 179, 189, 253, 254, 255, 256, 258, 261, 280, 285, 292 , 307-309, 361, 370-383, 395, 465 age factors, 289, 307, 308-309; see also retirement age infra Baltics, 376 Bulgaria, 372, 376 Central Europe, 370 central planning, 371-375, 377 cost factors, general, 370, 372-378, 380-381, 382 Croatia, 377-378 disability, 372, 373, 380 East Asia, 392(n.5), 393 Eastern Europe, 370, 376, 394 Estonia, 376-377, 395 housing, 374 Hungary, 372, 377-378, 395 incentives, 370, 382 inflation and, 361, 373, 374 Latin America, 371, 376, 382 Latvia, 371, 373, 378-383

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Transforming Post-Communist Political Economies Lithuania. 376-377 national budgets and, 380 GDP and funding, 372-373. 395 public debt, 372-374, 378, 395(n.9) taxation, 370, 372, 373, 374-376, 381 NIS, 370-383 (passim), 394 OECD countries, 308, 372 policy, 371 Poland, 372, 373, 376, 378, 395 political factors, 370, 371, 375, 394 poverty and, 374, 375 prices and, 308, 373, 379, 381 privatization, 282-283, 308, 371, 375, 376, 378 retirement age, 371-372, 373, 375, 376, 378, 379-383 Slovenia/Slovakia, 372, 376 social values, general. 371, 373, 374-375 taxation, funding, 370, 372, 373, 374-376, 381 wages related to, 308, 370, 371, 372, 378, 379, 381 women. 308, 310, 371, 378, 379, 380, 381-382 World Bank, 375-376 Perestroika, 83, 232 Personal income differentiation, 458, 467 health care access, 323 regional factors, 363, 422-423 Russia, 239-240 Ukraine, under/unemployment, survival strategies, 178, 179-180, 182 -184 , 185-198 unemployment benefits, 229, 232, 233-237 see also Pensions; Poverty; Wages and salaries Peru, 386, 392(n.6), 393 Pharmaceuticals, 329, 337, 339, 345, 347, 348 Planned economies, see Central planning Poland, 198, 216, 217, 405-406, 454, 458, 462, 467 agricultural sector, 86 central planning, 86-87 GNP trends, 217, 251, 255 managerial approaches, 146 pensions, 372, 373, 376, 378, 395 political capitalism, 137, 219 poverty, 251-252 price controls, 205 production infrastructure/organization, 146, 198 small and medium-sized enterprises, 146, 217, 236 social welfare, 249, 250, 255, 261, 352-366 (passim), 395, 468 Politics and political parties, 9, 65, 74, 408, 411, 413, 433-434, 436, 454, 466-468 bureaucrats' interaction with, model, 412, 420-425 citizens' interaction with, model, 412, 424-427 economic agents' interaction with, model, 411-412, 416-420 media control, 427, 485 modeling, 65 pensions, 370, 371, 375, 394 Poland, 137, 219 poverty, 248, 260, 267-269 rent seeking, 47, 462-463 research priorities, 485-486 rule of law versus, 142-143, 268 Russia, 80, 89, 91, 92-93, 96, 122, 126, 147, 219, 230, 268, 462-463 social welfare policy, 248, 249, 256-270, 278, 287-288, 289, 295, 301, 302, 370, 371, 375, 388-389, 390, 392-396 Soviet Union, 142, 143 transaction costs, 47 Transylvania, decollectivization, 103, 107, 113 see also Elections Pollution, see Environmental protection Poverty, 250-252, 273, 274-275, 301, 303-304, 386-387 causes of, 386-387 Central Europe, 351-366 children, 374, 394 defined, 353-354, 385 health care services, 329, 333 incentives/information, 69 inflation and, 387, 395 Latin America, 267 local factors, 305-306 pensions, 374, 375 Poland, 251-252 political implications, 248, 260, 267-269 research priorities, 483-484 Russia, 80, 229, 230, 234, 294(n. 11)

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Transforming Post-Communist Political Economies safety nets, 97-98, 126, 227, 329 underground economies, 304-305 see also Safety nets Prices and price controls, 3, 65, 249, 256, 386, 414, 435, 439, 456 , 459, 466, 474, 478 bribery, 208-209, 210 Central Europe, 205, 462 China, 208 Eastern Europe, 205 education, 312 globalization, 300, 302, 303-304 housing, rent control, 67, 123, 205, 249 international trade, 210, 460, 462, 466-467 pensions related to, 308, 373, 379, 381 pharmaceuticals, 347 property rights and, 38, 203, 205-216 public debt, 30 rent seeking, arbitrage, 208, 209-210, 460, 462, 466-467 Russia, 84-85, 89, 122-123, 125, 136, 145, 148, 151, 203-216, 220, 229-230, 232, 237, 238, 460, 462, 464 Soviet Union, 27, 29, 121, 136, 226 state intervention model, general, 418 tax versus, 134 Ukraine, 181 underground economies and, 29 see also Inflation Privatization, 22, 31, 83, 102, 134, 249, 413, 432, 454, 457, 458, 460, 463, 464, 466 banking, 144, 149-151 bureaucracy, impacts on, 46-47, 217-218 Central Europe, 217-219, 220, 467 China, 446-447, 448 Eastern Europe, 217-219, 220 EBRD indices, 457 education, 312 employee ownership, 143-144, 149 employment and, 177, 235 health care, 332-334, 339-340, 341, 346 historical comparisons, 38, 47 incomplete, 33, 103-116, 173 inflation and, 32 New Independent States, 217-218 nomenklatura,28, 139, 461, 467, 478, 482 pensions, 282-283, 308, 371, 375, 376, 378 property rights and, 38, 216-220 rent seeking, 8, 460, 462 research priorities, 480-482 rule of law and, 31-32 Russia, 36-38, 82, 83, 128, 133, 143-154, 158, 216-220, 235, 410, 457, 462, 482 banks, 144, 149-151 bureaucracy, impacts, 46-47, 96, 135, 136, 140 employee ownership, 143-144, 149 management and managers, 144, 145, 146, 149, 151, 219,462 nineteenth century, 36-38 rule evasion and, 126-128 small businesses, 143, 144, 151-152, 216 social security, 229, 396-397 wages and salaries, 229, 239 Transylvania, 103-116 social security/services, 254, 257, 269, 282-283, 286, 288, 304, 386, 393, 396-397, 484-485 Soviet Union, 29, 120-121, 133, 137, 204-205 see also Land reform; Small and medium-sized enterprises; Underground economies Production costs, 23, 139-140 group cohesion, 41 labor, 228 Production infrastructure/organization, 7 Eastern Europe, 135 health care services, 329 Poland, 146, 198 regional factors, 86-87 research priorities, 481-482, 487 Russia, 87-89, 138-139, 144-146, 166-168 defense industry restructuring, 166-167 financial institutions, 147-149 foreign infrastructure imported, 153 Soviet Union, 27, 135, 137 see also Managers and management Property rights, 6, 7, 14, 21-23, 35-57, 102, 139, 140, 409, 433, 476, 478 China, civil rights and, 141 collectivization, 103, 106-107 constitutional law, 39, 40, 44 cultural factors, 103, 107 defined, 29-30, 35(n. 1), 39, 103-105, 107, 112-116, 137 Eastern Europe, 109 employees' skills as, 141 entrepreneurship and, 108-109

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Transforming Post-Communist Political Economies housing, 137, 138, 483 immigration and emigration, 112-113 incentives, 47, 141, 476 investment and, 38, 148 New Independent States, 31 organized crime, enforcement of, 26, 30 price controls and, 38, 203, 205-216 privatization and, 38, 216-220 public good versus, 111-113 religious influences, 40-42 rent seeking and ill-defined, 29-30, 39, 137 research priorities, 480-481, 485, 487 rule of law and, 22, 31-32, 108, 140 Russia, 39-42, 88-89, 95, 147, 203-220, 482 Soviet Union, 27, 137, 204 state intervention model, general, 418 transaction costs, 38-42, 44 Transylvania, entrepreneurship, 108-109 uncertainty, 29-30, 102-116, 138, 141 see also Intellectual property; Land reform; Privatization; Real estate; State ownership Public debt, 466 Bulgaria, 463 decentralization and, 441 hidden, 455 individual lending, 45 inflation and, 30, 455 pensions, 372-374, 378, 395(n.9) poverty, safety nets, 386 price controls and, 30 Russia, 147, 227, 460 Public enterprises, see Privatization; Public services; State ownership Public good, 111-113, 412, 485 Public sector, see Defense sector, Russia; Government role; Social welfare policy Public services, 135 media, 427, 485 tax base, 134 see also Social welfare policy R Racketeering, see Organized crime Rationing, 136, 141, 206 Real estate, 464 Russia, 123, 461 see also Housing; Land reform Redistributive systems, general, 16, 23, 413, 439, 477 China, decentralized, 436-444 model of communist state, 433-435 pretransition systems, 30-31 research priorities, 479 Russia, 85, 89-92 structural policy, 66, 68 see also Rent seeking; Social welfare policy Regional factors, 43, 48, 75, 486 China, 437-438, 440-442 health care, 337, 340, 344, 346 income, 363, 422-423 production concentrations, 86-87 Russia, 140, 144, 150, 170, 337, 340, 464 social policy, 259, 268, 337, 340 Soviet Union, 164 Regression analysis, labor market, 184, 187-189, 193-197 Regulation, see Government regulation/deregulation; Liberalization of markets Religious factors, 7, 39-43, 267, 268, 279, 467 Rent seeking, 8, 9, 22, 414, 434, 467, 477 defined, 460-461 Eastern Europe, 462 inflation and, 387 neoliberal interpretation, 413, 459-463 political control and, 47, 462-463 price controls and, 208, 209-210, 460, 462, 466-467 privatization and, 8, 460, 462 property rights, ill-defined, 29-30, 39, 137 research priorities, 481 stabilization policies, 462-463 Russia, 81, 89, 91, 92-93, 95-97, 98, 170-172, 206-207, 208, 460-463 social safety nets, 390 Soviet Union, 27, 29, 33, 137 Research issues age factors, 484 bureaucracy, 482-483 children, 484 corruption, 480-481, 487 currency, 481 economists' research preferences, 35-36, 48-55, 61-62 employment, 483-485, 487 ethnic factors, 481, 484, 485, 486 funding, 489

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Transforming Post-Communist Political Economies health care, 484 incentives, 50(n.25), 54, 479, 483 information scarcity, 66-67 institutional approach, 50-53, 62, 67-68, 479-490 investment, 482 labor unions, 481-482 local factors, 53, 484, 496 longitudinal panel studies, 479 managerial role, 481-482, 487 national budgets, 486 quantitative versus qualitative approach, 64-68, 70-71 path dependence, 75 political factors, 485-486 polity models, 17 poverty, 483-484 priorities, 479-486 privatization, 480-482 property rights, 35-36, 50, 52-53, 480-481, 485, 487 production infrastructure/organization, 481-482, 487 program proposed, 486-490 rent seeking, 481 women, 484, 485 Restructuring of industry, see Production infrastructure/organization Right to work, 87, 89, 97-98, 145, 146, 225, 226, 228, 229, 231, 273 Risk taking, 141, 377, 482 Romania, 87, 105, 457, 477 see also Transylvania Rule of law, 14, 26, 28, 118-119, 463 bureaucrats, 420-421 gradations of, 153 New Independent States, 31 political sanctions versus, 142-143, 268 privatization, 31-32 property rights, 22, 31-32, 108, 140 reform constituency, 31-32 Russia, 95, 98, 119-128, 152-153 Soviet Union, 28, 119-122, 135, 142 Rural areas, 251, 266, 351, 363, 437, 440, 441-442, 444 see also Agricultural sector Russia, 17, 456, 458 agricultural sector, 86, 126, 242, 461, 482 arbitration, 167 bankruptcy, 147, 171, 460-461 banking, 144, 147, 149-151, 170, 464 barter, 85 bribery, 128, 464 bureaucracy, 91, 135, 136, 140, 153, 218, 219, 229, 236 central planning, 82, 86, 226, 228 construction sector, 152, 482 consumer goods, 226, 229-239 contracts, 89, 91, 147, 148, 152, 153, 166- 167, 170, 173, 229 corruption, 91, 123, 207, 462, 482 courts, 142, 143 credit, 147, 150, 153, 203, 204, 460-461 criminal law, 123, 125 crime, 124, 127, 482; see Organized crime infra currency and exchange, 29, 84, 85, 121, 147-148, 226, 460 defense sector, 136, 157, 166-167, 174 employee ownership, 143-144, 149, 461 employment and labor market, 224-242; see Wages and salaries infra age factors, 233, 234 globalized markets, 224, 225, 242 indices, 233 labor unions, 232 managerial hegemony, 96-97, 231 overemployment, 87, 89, 97-98, 145, 146 privatization, employee ownership, 143-144, 149 productive versus unproductive sectors, 91 sectoral composition of workforce, 235, 236 supply/demand, 224, 225, 228, 233, 237 unemployment, incl. benefits/services, 229, 232, 233-237, 242 women, 233, 234 entrepreneurship, 89, 240 environmental protection, 90-91 financial institutions, 147-151; see also banking and credit supra food products, 91, 207, 230, 329 GDP trends, 80, 90-91, 460, 461 globalized markets, 224, 225, 242 health care reform, 322, 324, 327-348 historical influences, 84, 119-122, 135-136, 219; see also Soviet Union immigration, Central Asia, 324-325 incentives, 82, 89, 95, 126, 140, 146, 153, 169, 211, 220

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Transforming Post-Communist Political Economies inflation, 84-85, 89, 92, 95, 455 labor/social policy and, 226-227, 231 information scarcity, 89, 136, 145 input markets, 87-91, 93, 97, 99, 145, 203, 204, 334 institutional approach, 81-86, 93-95, 98, 157 international trade, 90-91, 145, 152, 168, 210, 230, 460, 462 investment, 88-89, 124, 135, 146, 147-151, 153, 157, 167-168. 171-172 labor market/social policy, 224-242 liberalization of markets, 80-99, 121, 122-123, 143, 145-146, 156, 157, 166-173, 409 perestroika,83 local factors, 140, 144, 170-171 banking, 150 health care, 337, 340 officials, 123, 125 price controls, 123, 136, 206-216, 220, 230 managers and management, corporate governance, 89, 96-97, 138-139 enterprise learning, 156, 166-174 managerial hegemony, 96-97, 231 privatization, 144, 145, 146, 149, 151, 219, 462 salaries, 238 monetary policy, 85, 92-93, 460; see also currency and exchange supra national budget, 95, 136, 147, 227, 327, 329, 330-334, 341-342, 460 organized crime, 91, 119, 124, 152, 206, 213, 216, 239, 461 path dependence, 75 personal income, 239-240 political factors, 80, 89, 91, 92-93, 96, 122, 126, 147, 219, 230, 268, 462-463 poverty, 80, 229, 230, 234, 294(n. 11) safety nets, 97-98, 126, 227, 329 price controls. 84-85, 89, 122-123, 125, 136, 145, 148, 151, 203-216, 220, 229-230, 232, 237, 238, 460, 462, 464 privatization, 36-38, 82, 83, 128, 133, 143-154, 158, 216-220, 235 , 410, 457, 462, 482 banks, 144, 149-151 bureaucracy, impacts, 46-47, 96, 135, 136, 140 employee ownership, 143-144, 149 management and managers, 144, 145, 146, 149, 151, 219, 462 rule evasion and, 126-128 small businesses, 143, 144, 151-152, 216 social security, 229, 396-397 wages and salaries, 229, 239 production infrastructure/organization, 87-89, 138-139, 144-146, 166-168 defense industry restructuring, 166-167 financial institutions, 147-149 foreign infrastructure imported, 153 property rights, 39-42, 88-89, 95, 147, 203-220, 482 quasi-currencies, 8 real estate, 123, 461 redistributive systems, general, 85, 89-92 regional factors, 140, 144, 150, 170, 337, 340, 464 rent seeking, 81, 89, 91, 92-93, 95-97, 98, 170-172, 206-207, 208, 460-463 rule evasion, 119-128 rule of law, 95, 98, 119-128, 152-153 small and medium-size enterprises, 482 labor force, 228, 235-236 privatization, 143, 144, 151-152, 216 social welfare policy, 224, 226-232, 250 price controls and, 229-230 safety nets, 97-98, 126, 227, 329, 395(n.7) taxes and, 227 stabilization policies, 84, 95, 462-463 labor market, 226 standard of living, 230, 239-240, 323, 324 taxation, 465, 482 accounting systems, 168 arrears, 464, 465 labor market, 227-228 organized crime, private, 216 payroll taxes, 227-228, 229, 337-338, 342 price controls and, 208, 216 small businesses, 228 underground economies, 236 tax evasion, 119, 123-124, 125, 127, 227, 239, 240 uncertainty, 123-125, 127, 326 underground economies, 119-121, 123, 124, 230, 234, 236, 237, 239-240 unemployment benefits, 229, 232, 233-237

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Transforming Post-Communist Political Economies wages and salaries, 225, 226(n.3), 237, 242 arrears owed, as policy, 239, 464 entrepreneurial income, 240 health care providers, 343-345 managerial power, 96-97 payroll taxes, 227-228, 229, 337-338, 342 privatization, 229, 239 sectoral differences, 237-238 structure of, incl. minimum, 232, 237-239 S Safety nets, 97-98, 126, 135, 227, 253, 261, 285-297, 304-305, 329 , 371, 385-397, 484 Africa, 388, 392(n.6), 394 Bolivia, 389-390, 391, 392(n.6), 393 cost-benefit analysis, 389 education/health care versus, 387, 388, 391, 392, 393 Latin America, 387-394, 396-397 Latvia, 395 political factors, 388-389, 390, 392-396 rent seeking, 390 Russia, 97-98, 126, 227, 329, 395(n.7) unemployed, 389, 390, 394, 396 unemployment insurance, 229, 380, 388, 390 Salaries, see Wages and salaries Savings, 32, 147, 226(n.3), 227, 465 social welfare policy and, 255, 279, 285, 289, 308, 371, 375, 376, 378, 379 see also Pensions Second economies, see Underground economies Senegal, 390 Service sector Russia, 152, 236 see also Financial institutions and services; Social welfare policy Shock policies, 66, 157, 160, 207, 216, 233, 248-249 Slovak Republic, 205, 216, 255 pensions, 372 Slovenia, 255 inflation, 455 pensions, 372, 376 Small and medium-sized enterprises China, 437, 440-442 Poland, 146, 217, 236 Russia, 482 labor force, 228, 235-236 privatization, 143, 144, 151-152, 216 social welfare policy and, 253, 268 Soviet Union, 205 Smith, Adam, 35-37 Social welfare policy, 7, 65(n.3), 71-72, 134, 223-224, 247-319, 409, 465 benefit defined, 227(n.5) Bolivia, 266 bureaucracy, 278, 282, 285, 338, 390 Central Europe, 266, 305, 307, 309, 310, 465 poverty, 351-366 central planning, 254, 272-273, 285 charity, 279, 280, 286 children, 249, 250, 252, 254, 307-309, 311-312, 361, 365 Chile, 260, 263, 386, 389-393, 397 corruption, 253 Czechoslovakia, 355, 358, 395, 396 Czech Republic, 255, 352-366 (passim), 396 decentralization, 254, 255, 259, 285, 287, 311 East Asia, 392 (n.5), 393 Eastern Europe, 252, 262, 264, 267, 291, 305, 307, 309, 310 education, 280, 285-286 elections, 287-288, 395(n.8), 396 employment, 223-242, 253, 259-260 entitlement ethos, 258-259, 269, 272, 273, 279, 289, 307, 327, 341 , 370, 377, 463, 465, 468, 485 ethical considerations, 277-281, 287 ethnic groups, 264, 268, 306, 484 fraud, 305 full employment as, 225, 226, 228 GDP and funding, 249, 300, 304, 311, 330-332, 372-373, 395, 465 globalized markets, 300, 302 GNP and funding, 251, 255 Hungary, 249, 250, 255, 256, 261, 291, 292, 315, 352-366 (passim), 465, 468 incentives, 249, 261, 283-285, 334 individualism, 278, 281, 282, 284, 294(n.11), 299, 300, 306-310, 314-315, 371, 485 inflation, general, 249, 251 institutional approach, 288-289, 389, 390, 392-394

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Transforming Post-Communist Political Economies investment and spending, 255, 290-293 Latin America, 260-262, 266-267, 302, 387-394, 396-397 liberalization of markets and, 248, 250, 262-263 local factors, 256, 259, 305-306, 337, 390, 484 national budgets, 259, 293-294 nutrition policies, 386, 389 OECD countries, vulnerable populations, 352-366 (passim), 395-396, 397 Poland, 249 political factors, 248, 249, 256-270, 278, 287-288, 289, 295, 301, 302, 370, 371, 375, 394, 395 privatization, 254, 257, 269, 282-283, 286, 288, 304, 386, 393, 396-397, 484-485 regional factors, 259, 268, 337, 340 religious influences, 267, 268, 279 research priorities, 483-485, 487 Russia, 97-98, 126, 224, 226-232, 250, 329, 395(n.7) savings and, 255, 279, 285, 289, 308, 371, 375, 376, 378, 379 small businesses, 253, 268 stabilization policy and, 248, 250, 262-263 taxation to fund, 227-228, 252, 253, 279, 285, 286-287, 293-294, 304, 307, 315, 463 uncertainty, 279, 283, 313-318, 374 unemployment insurance, 229, 380, 390 wages and salaries, 259-260, 311, 327, 343-345 Sociocultural values, general, 2, 5, 16-17, 69, 85, 305, 314, 477, 486 contract theory, 254, 259, 307, 308 path dependence, 16-17, 21, 48, 75, 157, 173, 404, 408, 477 pensions, 371, 373, 374-375 property defined, 103, 107, 112-115 see also Ethnicity and ethnic groups; Historical factors; Individualism; Religious factors Soviet Union, 133 bribery, 27, 137-138 bureaucracy, 135-136, 139, 142-143, 217-218 central planning, 120, 121, 134, 136, 137, 138-139, 142, 161-165, 225, 226, 228, 436-437 construction sector, 161-162, 163 contracts, 135, 138 corruption, 27, 137-138, 142 criminal penalties, 27, 28, 31, 142, 162, 205 decentralization, 136-137, 437 entrepreneurship, 120-121, 156, 160-166, 205 food products, 204 incentives, 27, 33, 136, 137, 138, 142 industrial sector, 138-139 investment, 163-164 managers and management, 136, 138-139, 161-166 officials' wages, 27 political factors, 142, 143 post-dissolution, 133-154, 180, 252, 262, 264, 267 prices and price controls, 27, 29, 121, 136, 226 privatization, 29, 120-121, 133, 137, 204-205 property rights, 27, 137, 204 regional factors, 164 rent seeking, 27, 29, 33, 137 rule of law, 28, 119-122, 135, 142 small businesses, 205 wages, 27, 120, 225 see also New Independent States; specific countries Stabilization policies, general, 3, 13-14, 22, 454, 458, 464, 474 inflation, 456 liberalization and, 456 pensions and, 370 rent seeking, 462-463 research priorities, 481 Russia, 84, 95, 462-463 labor market, 226 social policy and, 248, 250, 262-263 Ukraine, 182 Yugoslavia, 264(n. 12) see also Shock policies Stalin era, 142, 291 Standard of living, 186-187, 265, 273, 307, 457-458 Central Asia, 323 input/credit market access, 204 pensions, 374 Poland, 137, 219 research priorities, 483-484

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Transforming Post-Communist Political Economies Russia, 230, 239-240, 323, 324 underground economies, 120 see also Personal income; Poverty State ownership China, decentralized, 440-444 employment and, 177 gradualism, 249 health care services, 327 national budgets and, 435-436 performance and reform, study, 47, 53 polity destabilization due to, 39 Russia, 216 socialist firm, institutional features, 137-138, 140 social welfare systems, 282-283 Ukraine, 181 see also Privatization Supply/demand factors communist state, model, 434 Russia, labor force, 224, 225, 228, 233, 237 T Tajikistan, 456, 457, 463, 468 health reform, 330, 334, 335, 340 inflation, 455 Taxation, 33, 134, 143, 434-435, 465 arrears, 464, 465 decentralization, 423, 443, 447 historical models, 405-406 organized crime, private, 33, 44, 216 payroll taxes, 227-228, 229, 337-338, 342, 344, 370, 372, 373, 374-376, 405 pensions, funding, 370, 372, 373, 374-376, 381 price controls versus, 134 research priorities, 485, 486 Russia, 465, 482 accounting systems, 168 labor market, 227-228 organized crime, private, 216 payroll taxes, 227-228, 229, 337-338, 342 price controls and, 208, 216 small businesses, 228 underground economies, 236 state intervention model, general, 418 social welfare funding, 227-228, 252, 253, 279, 285, 286-287, 293-294, 304, 307, 315, 463 Soviet Union, 205 Tax evasion, 7, 9, 30, 119, 123-124, 125, 127, 227, 239, 240, 405 Telecommunications, 46(n. 16), 148 Trade, see Barter trade; International trade; Liberalization of markets; Underground economies Trade unions, see Labor unions Transaction costs, 9, 14, 21-22, 23, 33, 44-45, 48, 61, 69, 74, 139-140, 412, 478 economists' research preferences, 50 entrepreneurship, 160 ethnic group cohesion and, 41-42 learning and, 173 political control, 47 price systems, 204 principal/agency model, 427-428 property rights, 38-42, 44 regulations, 26 Russia, 204 social engineering, 61 Transylvania, 103-116 Turkmenistan, 456, 457, 463, 464 health care reform, 332, 335, 339, 340 inflation, 455 U Ukraine, 464, 482 credit, 181 inflation, 181, 455 investment, 198 labor market, 179, 180, 181, 184-201 liberalization, 456-457 managers and management, 182, 199 Uncertainty (decision-making), 33, 139, 326 competitors, about, 219 contracts, 44-47 entrepreneurship, 160, 419 health costs, 251 New Independent States, 31 noncompliance and, 26 pensions, 370 policy lags, 67 property rights, 29-30, 102-116, 138, 141 public debt financing and, 30 Russia, 123-125, 127, 326 social welfare policy, 279, 283, 313-318, 374 structural policy, 66 see also Information scarcity; Risk taking

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Transforming Post-Communist Political Economies Underground economies, 22, 23-26, 250, 478 Central/Eastern Europe, 29 globalized markets and, 300 health care, 253, 333 liberalization of markets and, 29, 121 New Independent States, 29 poverty, 304-305 price controls and, 29 research priorities, 481 Russia, 119-121, 123, 124, 230, 234, 236, 237, 239-240 social welfare policy and, 253, 304-305 Soviet Union, 27-28, 120, 134 Unions, see Labor unions United States, 15 Uzbekistan health care reform, 330, 332, 334, 335, 339 liberalization, 457 V Venezuela, 391 Venture capital, 159 Voucher trading, 148, 300, 461 W Wages and salaries, 178, 183, 193 age factors, 364, 365 estimation of, 251(n.5) globalization of markets, 303 health professionals, 343-345 payroll taxes, 227-228, 229, 337-338, 342, 344, 370, 372, 373, 374-376, 405 pensions related to, 308, 370, 371, 372, 378, 379, 381 Russia, 225, 226(n.3), 237, 242 arrears owed, as policy, 239, 464 entrepreneurial income, 240 health care providers, 343-345 managerial power, 96-97 payroll taxes, 227-228, 229, 337-338, 342 privatization, 229, 239 sectoral differences, 237-238 structure of, incl. minimum, 232, 237-239 social services, 259-260, 311, 327, 343-345 Soviet Union, 27, 120, 225 structure of, incl. minimum, 232, 237-239, 304, 389 women, 363 Welfare, see Social welfare policy Women, 40, 351, 361 education, 322 epidemiology, 325-327, 346 labor market, 363 child care, 311 Russia, 233, 234 Ukraine, 179, 186-187, 189, 196, 199 wages, 363 pensions, 308, 310, 371, 378, 379, 380, 381-382 research priorities, 484, 485 World Bank, 15, 149, 258, 466 liberalization indices, 456 pensions, 375-376 Y Yugoslavia, 264(n.12) Z Zambia, 392(n.6), 393