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corruption to circumvent, 26, 137-138, 142-143

evaluation criteria, 421, 422-423

health care services, 338

privatization, impacts on, 46-47, 217-218

research priorities, 482-483

rule of law, 420-421

Russia, 91, 135, 136, 140, 153, 218, 219, 229, 236

social welfare, 278, 282, 285, 338, 390

Soviet Union, 135-136, 139, 142-143, 217-218

C

Capital markets, see Investment

Central Asia

health care reform, 322, 324, 326, 327-348

immigration, Russia, 324-325

see also specific countries

Central banks, 3, 460-461, 463

Central Europe, 3, 21, 467

income differentiation, 458, 467

pensions, 370

poverty, 351-366

price controls, 205, 462

privatization, 217-219, 220, 467

rent seeking, 462

social policy, 266, 305, 307, 309, 310, 465

unemployment, 458

see also specific countries

Central planning, general, 135, 432

China, 437

Czech Republic, 86-87

formal versus informal institutions, 22, 161, 165

health care services, 327-330, 334

Hungary, 86-87, 436, 437

industrial sector, 86-87, 225, 437

labor market and, 223-226

models, 433-436

pensions, 371-375, 377

Poland, 86-87

Russia, 82, 86, 226, 228

social policy, 254, 272-273, 285

Soviet Union, 120, 121, 134, 136, 137, 138-139, 142, 161-165, 225, 226, 228, 436-437

variation across regimes, 436-437

see also Decentralization

Charity, 279, 280, 286

Children

health care, 323, 346

poverty, 374, 394

research priorities, 484

social policy, 249, 250, 252, 254, 307-309, 311-312, 361, 365

Chile, 260, 263, 386, 389-393, 397, 427

China

agricultural sector, 141, 440

incentives, 438, 440, 443-444, 448

industrial sector, 437-438

investment, 437, 443-444, 446-447

local factors, 16-17, 208, 437-438, 440-442, 445-446

managers and management, 443, 444-445

market reforms without democratic reforms, 436-448

price controls, 208

privatization, 446-447, 448

property rights and civil rights, 141

regional factors, 437-438, 440-442

small businesses, 437, 440-442

Colombia, 392(n.6)

Comecon, 86-87, 249

Commonwealth of Independent States, see specific countries

Constitutional law

property rights, 39, 40, 44

Soviet Union, 142

Construction sector

Russia, 152, 482

Soviet Union, 161-162, 163

Consumer goods, 87, 267, 303, 364

Russia, 226, 229-239

Contracts, 9, 142, 419, 433

bureaucracy, evaluation, 422

employment, 225, 229

enforcement credibility, 45-46, 50, 89, 91, 152, 156, 167, 173

health care, 344

group cohesion, impact on costs, 40-41

labor, 225, 229

private enforcement, 43-44, 153

Russia, 89, 91, 147, 148, 152, 153, 166-167, 170, 173, 229

social, 254, 259, 307, 308

Soviet Union, 135, 138

see also Transaction costs

Corruption, 7, 267, 463, 464, 478

bureaucracy, corruption to circumvent, 26, 137-138, 142-143



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