risk and the higher as significant risk. The actions associated with them are the same. In emergencies, ICRP (1991b) recommends that every effort be made to keep doses below 1,000 mSv (100 rem) to prevent serious deterministic health effects (e.g., acute radiation sickness). The exposure levels in 1D and 1E are in keeping with that guidance.

Recordkeeping Requirements

The ACE Directive (§1-3.f.(3)) requires preparation and maintenance of individual medical records. Again, implementation is in question. Current Army doctrine for maintaining records during combat operations (HQDA, 1994) specifies that only the unit's radiation exposure status is transferred with the individual soldier. On the other hand, the Department of Defense requires that during peacetime individual doses be maintained (DoDI, 1996).

The ACE Directive (§1-3.f.(3)) requires commanders to ensure that the dose a soldier receives is accurately recorded upon each radiological exposure and that the total dose is annotated in his or her individual medical record in accordance with national regulations. Also, the theater commander (§1-3.f.(4)) is charged with ensuring "that the appropriate medical and NBC Cells [consisting of specialists in nuclear, biological, and chemical matters] are tasked to receive, monitor and maintain all radiological data in accordance with national regulations [emphasis added]." For U.S. soldiers, it is not clear whether that means in accordance with Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidelines or Army regulations. The committee assumes that this refers to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. If that is the case, then internal doses must be documented along with external doses.

The ACE Directive does not specify exactly what dose-related data must be collected (e.g., internal dose, external dose, effective dose, environmental data, etc.). Ultimately, it may be necessary to link this information from its repository to an individual for purposes of compensation determinations or epidemiologic study.

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