achieving valid situation awareness, the larger the potential competitive advantage they can enjoy.

On a shorter time scale, from the bottom-up point of view, effective utilization of weapons requires detailed and timely—fractions of seconds to minutes—information about both the targets and the weapons themselves. Targets must be recognized as such, their positions localized instantaneously, their motion measured to high precision, their most vulnerable aim points identified, and so on. Similarly detailed continuous information about the weapons is needed to aim or guide them to a successful interception of target—e.g., weapon position, inertial parameters (such as orientation, velocity, and acceleration), and environmental parameters (wind and tidal currents). On a much longer time scale, outside actual combat situations, information is needed in several forms to provide for such necessities as equipment maintenance and support and overall logistics. For example; it is necessary to know what has failed or is about to fail, or what the weather will be tomorrow.


To acquire desired information, measurements of all kinds of physical parameters must be made. The devices that permit these measurements are known broadly as sensors. The term "sensors" encompasses an enormous range of technologies and devices. Some can be as simple and old fashioned as the direct measurement of a local temperature by means of a thermocouple, and others can be as modern as the detection of a biological agent by a miniaturized mass spectrometer, or as complex as a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) all-weather imaging system. In all cases, whatever the sensor, an interaction between the sensor and its local physical environment results in the generation of some kind of signal, generally a form of electrical response of the sensor's physics, chemistry, and biology to the physics, chemistry, and biology of the outside world. The interpretation of these sensor signals through signal processing, data fusion, and the like leads ultimately to the extraction of the desired information.

Sensor Categorization

Operational Modes

Sensors, whatever information they are attempting to collect, can be broadly classified into two categories of operation, passive and active, which are defined as follows:

  • Passive sensors simply measure and report on, via their response signals, whatever they detect in their local environment. In a sense they just listen. A thermometer and video camera are good examples of passive sensors. Even

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