• including beach characteristics, that can lead to accurate forecasting of littoral conditions.
  • To enable naval personnel to use such databases, graphical interface technologies need to be developed, including on-board, multidimensional, multisensorial virtual-reality systems capable of representing real-time and evolving underwater physical environments near shore.

With respect to shipboard waste and pollution management, and management of noise pollution, the panel presents the following recommendations:

  • To mitigate risks to the environment and to shipboard personnel, greater emphasis in reducing and handling a variety of waste streams associated with naval operations is a pressing need. Where possible, successful land-based applications of waste minimization and treatment technologies should be adapted for shipboard operations.
  • Emphasis should be on curbing waste at its source and treating waste as a renewable resource or useful energy source.
  • Increased R&D on subsurface noise propagation and its effects on marine populations must be conducted. There are few data currently available on an issue that is likely to pose serious impediments to a host of naval operations.

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