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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 3 Information in Warfare 1 Impact of Information Technology on Future Naval Forces and Missions INTRODUCTION Information and information technologies will so profoundly influence future naval forces and missions that the pursuit of information superiority will become a paramount goal in force planning, acquisition, training and education, and operations. Commercial interests have been the primary cause for the dramatic improvement in and rapid growth of the capabilities of information systems, and this trend is expected to continue. The Department of the Navy can leverage these technologies to attain military superiority through information superiority by applying them not only to battle management but also to preparation, planning, and logistics. In this chapter, the Panel on Information in Warfare discusses information requirements and how current and future technologies can support these requirements. Subsequent chapters focus on the information infrastructure, information content, sensors, and information warfare, and on an action plan for attaining and maintaining information superiority . NAVAL FORCES COMMAND AND CONTROL The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) define command and control (C2) as the "exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned forces in the accomplishment of his mission." C2 functions are performed through an arrangement of personnel, equipment, facilities, and procedures that are employed by a commander in planning, directing, coordinating,
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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 3 Information in Warfare and controlling these forces. This arrangement is often referred to as a command, control, and communications (C3) system as it embodies functional capabilities that provide tactical pictures of the battle space and communications connectivity. At the center of this system is a complete, accurate, and timely information set on which the commander and his staff base their decisions. It is easy to see that such functions extend to virtually all echelons of command, from the National Command Authority (NCA) and commander-in-chief (theater and functional) levels down to the individual fighting unit. The availability of timely, accurate, and complete information on all aspects of the projected battle space is a key element in the success of the commander's mission. Information, then, can be considered to be a critical driver of warfare and will significantly influence how warfare will be conducted. Information warfare (IW) has recently become an important element of Department of Defense (DOD) and Navy Department planning and is generally defined as those actions taken to protect one's own information systems and to attack one's adversary information systems. Thus, the concepts of C3 and IW are complementary but separate and distinct. C3 develops and uses tactical information to execute missions; IW protects friendly information while offering tactical advantage by attacking and/or exploiting the enemy's information systems. FUTURE NAVAL OPERATIONS AND INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General John M. Shalikashvili, USA, in his Joint Vision 2010 of future warfighting,1 emphasizes four key operational concepts that embody improved intelligence and command and control: (1) dominant maneuver, (2) precision engagement, (3) full-dimensional protection, and (4) focused logistics. Dominant maneuver embodies the multidimensional application of information, engagement, and mobility capabilities to position and employ widely dispersed joint air, land, and sea forces to control the battle space and attack critical enemy locations in a sustained and synchronized manner. Precision engagement enables naval forces to locate and identify the target quickly and accurately, employ sufficiently lethal weapons to nullify the target, determine the impact of that action through battle damage assessment (BDA), and reengage the target as necessary. Full-dimensional protection requires control of the battle space by providing multilayered defenses against all types of enemy threat capabilities. 1 Shalikashvili, John, GEN, USA. 1996. Joint Vision 2010, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Washington, D.C.
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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 3 Information in Warfare Focused logistics involves the capability to provide rapid material response, to track and redirect assets even while they are en route, and to deliver tailored logistics directly at the tactical level of operations. Naval forces can be expected to employ these concepts in the conduct of naval missions throughout the late 1990s and well into the 2035 time frame in operations ranging from the "violent peace" environment with operations other than war (OOTW) to major regional conflict (MRC) and full-scale war. Many of these missions will focus on the primary task—to deter conflict—and will involve both strategic and tactical forces operating as a deterrent to aggression by hostile forces, to provide a forward presence and project military power on a global basis. In addition to the role of naval forces as a component of the strategic nuclear deterrent, it is expected that the main emphasis will continue to be on littoral warfare environments, where the full range of tactical operations will be conducted, including: Precision strike, Antisubmarine warfare, Mine countermeasures, Air defense, Amphibious assault, and Theater ballistic missile defense. As indicated above, the success of these missions will couple tightly to the commander's capability to develop and maintain timely, accurate, and complete information on all aspects of the projected battle space (i.e., situation awareness) and to protect it from enemy intrusion and disruption. The principal components of the commanders' information requirements bracketing the area of responsibility (AOR) will include (1) the multidimensional (land, sea, air, space) order of battle with disposition and location of own, enemy, and friendly forces located in a common geographical coordinate system; (2) intelligence summaries that provide information on enemy intentions and capabilities; (3) data on environmental conditions (oceanographic, bathymetric, terrain, atmospheric, and exoatmospheric); (4) accurate worldwide mapping, charting, and geodesy; (5) readiness of forces; (6) rules of engagement (ROEs); (7) logistical support (spares and consumables); and (8) administrative needs. THE ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Information technology will be central to future naval operations and will provide a number of tactical advantages to naval forces, including: A higher tempo of operations, Improved precision and rates of fire,
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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 3 Information in Warfare Increased effectiveness and maneuver of dispersed units, Improved situational awareness, Improved battle assessment and alternative courses of action, and Increased dispersion and mobility of forces. The advantages accrue from development and application of several key technology areas associated with the collection, processing, display, interpretation, and distribution of significant information. These areas include: Automated decision support systems, Advanced and interactive displays, Object-oriented and advanced software engineering, Distributed control and information systems, Knowledge-based systems, Interactive data collection and management systems, Advanced database systems, including geographic information system (GIS) modeling observations, Precision navigation, Human-computer interaction, Modeling and simulation (especially involving the C2 process as it interacts with various support systems), Active and passive multispectral high-resolution sensors, Information processing (especially as it applies to large-scale unstructured data sets), Multimedia information systems, Wireless digital communications, Advanced communication concepts (waveforms, coding, data compression) and radio-frequency systems, Wide-band networks, and Network interoperability. These technologies will enhance future naval information capabilities. All naval platforms within a battle group or amphibious-ready group, along with attached and supporting sensors and information transfer systems, will be enhanced in capability as a result of advances in these technologies. For example, the submarine will continue to leverage its advantages of stealth and endurance while expanding its role in battle group operations. The addition of high-data-rate communications through emerging advances in submarine antenna technology is a particularly promising approach that would allow the submarine to share data with the battle group and effectively employ its complement of smart weapons.
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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 3 Information in Warfare Computers Continuing exponential reductions in the size and power consumption of computers will increase their role in naval systems. Computers will be used to process raw sensor data into information, transform and transmit that information where it is needed, support combat simulations and rehearsals, store and recall data on operational objective areas, launch information warfare attacks, and assess battle damage, among many other potential, and yet-to-be imagined applications. Memory and storage devices will improve at a pace matching the growing need for increased computational speed and throughput. The growth of object-oriented databases and management systems will support timely access to distributed synchronized systems, with interoperable data models. Human-computer interfaces will change dramatically from today's tactile devices (keyboard, mouse, track ball, and so on) and will enable broader access by human users through speech recognition and speech generation technologies. Interactive displays will respond to hand gestures and eye movements. Operators will view information in three-dimensional high-fidelity space. Intelligent interfaces will provide assistance in analyzing threats and providing alternative courses of action in response. Displays will use standard symbols or icons that have standard interpretations by joint forces. Computer-enabled capabilities such as modeling and simulation will provide mission rehearsal and course-of-action planning. Realistic simulations using synthetic forces will enable the development of countertactics and superior weaponry. Using hybrid environments for training joint and combined forces will help in the fielding of superior forces while controlling training and manpower costs. Sensors Sensing systems grant an advantage over an adversary by providing an up-to-date picture of the battle space. The future use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), reconnaissance satellites, and remote air-dropped battlefield sensors will provide an all-weather, multisensor view of the battle space. Images with a resolution of 1 meter or better, accessible at a moment's notice, will be available for worldwide distribution. Remote sensors will pick up heat, sound, and motion in the area of operations. These will be immediately and stealthily forwarded for analysis and targeting. Updates of this battlefield picture could come in near-real time to support immediate retargeting and battle damage assessments (BDAs). Information Networks Information distribution and control systems in the 2035 time frame will provide a completely transparent and seamless medium for transfer of information to users. Improved connectivity and capacity will facilitate transfer of video,
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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 3 Information in Warfare voice, and data to the mobile or disadvantaged user. The military will use channels embedded in the global information infrastructure built to support commercial and personal uses. Fiber-optic cable-based backbone networks will provide long-haul virtual circuit or datagram services to local networks at permanent camps, bases, stations, and piers. These same networks will also serve satellite ground stations or other remote injection sites. Commercial systems with military special-purpose adjuncts will provide long-haul trunking connection to mobile platforms in all ocean areas around the globe. Surface action groups, amphibious ready groups, and carrier battle groups will coordinate operations by communicating over radio networks using high-frequency (HF), ultrahigh-frequency (UHF) line-of-sight (LOS) packet switched technologies based on asynchronous transfer mode or its derivatives. These backbones along with satellite links will be interconnected with platform-based local area networks (LANs) that support all applications in use on the platform (see Figure 1.1). Sensor systems will also transport raw and processed sensor data over these communications channels. Links to shore-based networks will be available through RF LOS, geosynchronous satellite, or surrogate satellite links. Personal communications system (PCS) links will be available through terrestrial base stations or low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite systems. Figure 1.2 illustrates the composite commercial and Figure 1.1 Networked systems on every platform.
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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 3 Information in Warfare Figure 1.2 Ubiquitous wide-band communications. unique military network architecture and its global extent. The panel envisions that in 2035, problems associated with the availability of connectivity, capacity, and coverage will be largely solved; however, the potential vulnerability of these systems will require special attention. Commercial network infrastructure will provide interconnectivity to the naval forces, and access will be obtained through lease or outsource arrangements. It is expected that future tactical communications for each platform will have a scaled version of a family of intelligent programmable digital radios. The radios will utilize multiband, multifrequency antennas, coupled to signal conditioning electronics and converters and selectable software to realize a choice of waveform, link protocols, modulation type, and codes. The computing engine will host the software as necessary to perform missions. The associated processor of these radios will also be used for other applications, such as operator training, link testing, and network management and control. These technologies will help provide a force that has battle-space dominance. Weapons will be delivered precisely from platforms at sea to targets hundreds of miles away with precision and lethality in support of mission objectives. Unmanned sensor systems will be launched and recovered from naval platforms at sea to provide near-real-time multispectral surveillance products fused into a common operational picture. This picture will be used by commanders throughout the joint task force to monitor the tactical situation, redirect forces and sensor systems, and provide battle damage and kill assessments.
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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 3 Information in Warfare Yet such networks and hardware/software capabilities will also expose naval forces to information warfare threats such as denial of confidentiality, data integrity, and service. Techniques must be structured to obviate these threats without a concomitant reduction in quality of service. The networks themselves will need to be engineered to achieve the requisite throughputs and latency requirements needed by the user. New information systems will be in place to provide worldwide knowledge of weather, as well as a global surveillance and reconnaissance capability. These capabilities will be supported by the ability to correlate data rapidly and automatically from the various sources. The combination of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and a common geo-referencing system will create a synergy among sensor and attack systems. A common data or information model will have been adopted to enable the interoperability of the data that are gathered by the various sensors. There will be a coherent, consistent set of data within the system to provide separate nonredundant tracks on targets of interest. The resolution of multiple tracks on the same object into a single track will be enabled by a world grid referencing system and the ability to provide highly accurate positioning data via the GPS or its derivatives. Through multisensor fusion of tracks and a common information model, databases of tracks will be synchronized and a common operational picture will be available to naval forces worldwide. This capability will be enabled by a communications network that allows access to the data from geographically separate locations on demand. The key to this capability is a common information model, which requires that data be ordered, organized, and parameterized in a structured way to allow consistency and coherence in distributed databases regardless of data sources. With communications and information handling capabilities in place at distributed geographical locations, it becomes possible for naval force commanders to remotely exercise command and control of their forces. In fact, a better picture of the operation may be available from a remote location because of the robustness achieved through redundant channels or fused complementary data that may not be easily accessed at forward locations if battle damage occurs. Thus the future will provide more flexibility to senior naval force commanders with large support staffs in locating the command support function. This development has broad implications regarding the design and size of platforms to support embarked crew and flag officer staff. Such a concept of operations will be a natural consequence of a robust naval information infrastructure. The bottom line for the panel's vision of naval communications in 2035 is that any naval activity will be connected to any other naval activity with robust information exchange capability to satisfy all operational needs. This highly networked information capability will be enabled by fiber and satellite communications supplied mostly by the commercial sector, and military-developed wireless tactical networks for platforms operating globally in a wide range of operational postures.
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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 3 Information in Warfare OPERATIONAL CAPABILITIES ENABLED BY INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY In summary, the emergence of a global information infrastructure providing mobile wireless and fixed services with broadband multimedia connectivity will result in full information utility with unrestricted access and continuous worldwide availability to all friendly forces. The technologies incorporated in this infrastructure will provide naval force capabilities to accomplish the following: Globally manage resources, rehearse missions, provide a common operational picture (i.e. status and disposition of forces, friendly, enemy, and neutrals); Distribute near-real-time tactical and strategic intelligence and sensor information down to the individual unit level; Provide access to intelligence and to environmental and demographic data for mission planning; Provide robust communications connectivity for force coordination, force correlation, and mission synchronization; and Provide ready availability of mission planning and simulation tools to geographically distributed forces. These capabilities may result in flattened, more effective and more flexible command organizations, better coordination, and improved reaction time. Simply put, information technologies will allow naval forces to fight smarter and dominate the battle space more rapidly than ever before. ORGANIZATION OF THIS REPORT In Chapter 2 the panel discusses the evolving global information infrastructure and how the Navy should use it. The panel recommends adopting many commercial components, services, and practices, minimizing Department of Defense (DOD)-unique equipment and standards. With a few exceptions, the panel urges adapting naval use of the infrastructure to what will be commercially available. Because of the special interest of the forward-deployed Navy in satellite communications, the panel also presents, in Appendix B, a history of satellite communications and projects its future. In Chapter 3 the panel discusses the information content supported by the infrastructure. The panel considers sources, applications, and processing of information content, giving special attention to automatic target recognition (ATR), both by projecting ATR technologies and capabilities and by recognizing the need for the development of a fundamental theory of recognition. The panel also discusses technology for information understanding that transforms data into knowledge, and identifies both likely applications and needs for technology investment by the commercial and military sectors.
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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 3 Information in Warfare Sensor systems are the primary sources of information that is subsequently distributed and understood. Chapter 4 discusses future trends in and technologies for advanced radar and electro-optical sensors. No scientific breakthroughs are needed for improved radar performance, and many improvements will derive from the availability of improved computing elements. A robust commercial airborne and space-based electro-optic sensing capability, described in some detail in Appendix C, is emerging. With future naval operations becoming critically dependent on information, assurance of the availability, integrity, and confidentiality of that information is vital. In Chapter 5, both the technical and organizational issues involved in achieving assurance and in making information warfare operational are discussed. In Chapter 6, the panel presents its strategy for the Department of the Navy to attain and maintain information superiority over the coming decades, and concludes with 10 specific recommendations.
Representative terms from entire chapter: