Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035

Becoming a 21st-Century Force

Volume 3 Information in Warfare

Panel on Information in Warfare

Committee on Technology for Future Naval Forces

Naval Studies Board

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1997



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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 3 Information in Warfare Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035 Becoming a 21st-Century Force Volume 3 Information in Warfare Panel on Information in Warfare Committee on Technology for Future Naval Forces Naval Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 3 Information in Warfare NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This work was performed under Department of the Navy Contract N00014-96-D-0169/0001 issued by the Office of Naval Research under contract authority NR 201-124. However, the content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Department of the Navy or the government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. The United States Government has at least a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable license throughout the world for government purposes to publish, translate, reproduce, deliver, perform, and dispose of all or any of this work, and to authorize others so to do. Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Copies available from: Naval Studies Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 3 Information in Warfare PANEL ON INFORMATION IN WARFARE VINCENT VITTO, Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chair PHILIP S. ANSELMO, Northrop Grumman Corporation, Vice Chair NORVAL L. BROOME, Mitre Corporation J. ROBERT COLLINS, E Systems BURTON I. EDELSON, George Washington University JOHN F. EGAN, Lockheed Martin Corporation ROBERT HUMMEL, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University GERALD McNIFF, Northrop Grumman Corporation ROBERT NESBIT, Mitre Corporation STANLEY R. ROBINSON, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan JULIE JCH RYAN, Booz, Allen and Hamilton H. GREGORY TORNATORE, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University BRUCE WALD, Center for Naval Analyses MARY LETICIA VAJTA-WILLIAMS, Space Imaging, Inc. Navy Liaison Representatives LCDR HARRY COKER, USN, Department of Defense Space Architect CAPT MATTHEW ROGERS, USN, Department of Defense Space Architect LtCol FRANK WALIZER, USMC, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N853H CAPT MICHAEL WINSLOW, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N6C Consultants LEE M. HUNT SIDNEY G. REED, JR. JAMES G. WILSON Staff RONALD D. TAYLOR, Director, Naval Studies Board PETER W. ROONEY, Program Officer SUSAN G. CAMPBELL, Administrative Assistant MARY G. GORDON, Information Officer CHRISTOPHER A. HANNA, Project Assistant

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 3 Information in Warfare COMMITTEE ON TECHNOLOGY FOR FUTURE NAVAL FORCES DAVID R. HEEBNER, Science Applications International Corporation (retired), Study Director ALBERT J. BACIOCCO, JR., The Baciocco Group, Inc. ALAN BERMAN, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University NORMAN E. BETAQUE, Logistics Management Institute GERALD A. CANN, Raytheon Company GEORGE F. CARRIER, Harvard University SEYMOUR J. DEITCHMAN, Institute for Defense Analyses (retired) ALEXANDER FLAX, Potomac, Maryland WILLIAM J. MORAN, Redwood City, California ROBERT J. MURRAY, Center for Naval Analyses ROBERT B. OAKLEY, National Defense University JOSEPH B. REAGAN, Saratoga, California VINCENT VITTO, Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Navy Liaison Representatives RADM JOHN W. CRAINE, JR., USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N81 (as of July 4, 1996) VADM THOMAS B. FARGO, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N81 (through July 3, 1996) RADM RICHARD A. RIDDELL, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N91 CDR DOUGLASS BIESEL, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N812C1 PAUL G. BLATCH, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N911E Marine Corps Liaison Representative LtGen PAUL K. VAN RIPER, USMC, Marine Corps Combat Development Command Consultants LEE M. HUNT SIDNEY G. REED, JR. JAMES G. WILSON Staff RONALD D. TAYLOR, Director, Naval Studies Board PETER W. ROONEY, Program Officer SUSAN G. CAMPBELL, Administrative Assistant MARY G. GORDON, Information Officer CHRISTOPHER A. HANNA, Project Assistant

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 3 Information in Warfare NAVAL STUDIES BOARD DAVID R. HEEBNER, Science Applications International Corporation (retired), Chair GEORGE M. WHITESIDES, Harvard University, Vice Chair ALBERT J. BACIOCCO, JR., The Baciocco Group, Inc. ALAN BERMAN, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University NORMAN E. BETAQUE, Logistics Management Institute NORVAL L. BROOME, Mitre Corporation GERALD A. CANN, Raytheon Company SEYMOUR J. DEITCHMAN, Institute for Defense Analyses (retired), Special Advisor ANTHONY J. DeMARIA, DeMaria Electro-Optics Systems, Inc. JOHN F. EGAN, Lockheed Martin Corporation ROBERT HUMMEL, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University DAVID W. McCALL, Far Hills, New Jersey ROBERT J. MURRAY, Center for Naval Analyses ROBERT B. OAKLEY, National Defense University WILLIAM J. PHILLIPS, Northstar Associates, Inc. MARA G. PRENTISS, Jefferson Laboratory, Harvard University HERBERT RABIN, University of Maryland JULIE JCH RYAN, Booz, Allen and Hamilton HARRISON SHULL, Monterey, California KEITH A. SMITH, Vienna, Virginia ROBERT C. SPINDEL, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington DAVID L. STANFORD, Science Applications International Corporation H. GREGORY TORNATORE, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University J. PACE VanDEVENDER, Prosperity Institute VINCENT VITTO, Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology BRUCE WALD, Arlington Education Consultants Navy Liaison Representatives RADM JOHN W. CRAINE, JR., USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N81 (as of July 4, 1996) VADM THOMAS B. FARGO, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N81 (through July 3, 1996) RADM RICHARD A. RIDDELL, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N91 RONALD N. KOSTOFF, Office of Naval Research

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 3 Information in Warfare Marine Corps Liaison Representative LtGen PAUL K. VAN RIPER, USMC, Marine Corps Combat Development Command RONALD D. TAYLOR, Director PETER W. ROONEY, Program Officer SUSAN G. CAMPBELL, Administrative Assistant MARY G. GORDON, Information Officer CHRISTOPHER A. HANNA, Project Assistant

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 3 Information in Warfare COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS ROBERT J. HERMANN, United Technologies Corporation, Co-Chair W. CARL LINEBERGER, University of Colorado, Co-Chair PETER M. BANKS, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan LAWRENCE D. BROWN, University of Pennsylvania RONALD G. DOUGLAS, Texas A&M University JOHN E. ESTES, University of California at Santa Barbara L. LOUIS HEGEDUS, Elf Atochem North America, Inc. JOHN E. HOPCROFT, Cornell University RHONDA J. HUGHES, Bryn Mawr College SHIRLEY A. JACKSON, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission KENNETH H. KELLER, University of Minnesota KENNETH I. KELLERMANN, National Radio Astronomy Observatory MARGARET G. KIVELSON, University of California at Los Angeles DANIEL KLEPPNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN KREICK, Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company MARSHA I. LESTER, University of Pennsylvania THOMAS A. PRINCE, California Institute of Technology NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS, Brookhaven National Laboratory L.E. SCRIVEN, University of Minnesota SHMUEL WINOGRAD, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center CHARLES A. ZRAKET, Mitre Corporation (retired) NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 3 Information in Warfare This page in the original is blank.

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 3 Information in Warfare Preface This report is part of the nine-volume series entitled Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force. The series is the product of an 18-month study requested by the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO). To carry out this study, eight technical panels were organized under the Committee on Technology for Future Naval Forces to examine all of the specific technical areas called out in the terms of reference. On November 28, 1995, the Chief of Naval Operations requested that the National Research Council initiate (through its Naval Studies Board) a thorough examination of the impact of advancing technology on the form and capability of the naval forces to the year 2035. The terms of reference of the study specifically asked for an identification of "present and emerging technologies that relate to the full breadth of Navy and Marine Corps mission capabilities," with specific attention to "(1) information warfare, electronic warfare, and the use of surveillance assets; (2) mine warfare and submarine warfare; (3) Navy and Marine Corps weaponry in the context of effectiveness on target; [and] (4) issues in caring for and maximizing effectiveness of Navy and Marine Corps human resources." Ten specific technical areas were identified to which attention should be broadly directed. The CNO's letter of request with the full terms of reference is given in Appendix A of this report. The Panel on Information in Warfare was constituted to address the information aspects of the terms of reference. As part of its effort, particular attention was to be directed to item 2: "Information warfare, electronic warfare and the exploitation of surveillance assets, both through military and commercial developments, should receive special attention in the review. The efforts should

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 3 Information in Warfare concentrate on information warfare, especially defensive measures that affordably provide the best capability." However, it must be acknowledged that information touches broadly on many aspects of Navy and Marine Corps capabilities beyond just the issues mentioned above. The panel accepted as its charge a study of the broader implications of information in warfare. Panel membership included expertise in command, control, communications, computing, intelligence (C4I), electronic warfare, information warfare, telecommunications, naval communications, systems engineering, surveillance systems, targeting systems, image processing, signal processing, data automation, computer security, computer engineering, satellite communications, space technologies, radar, electronic countermeasures, modeling and simulation, computer science, and imaging sensors. To carry out its task, the panel met eight times for a total of 15 days to receive briefings from Service and industry representatives, visit facilities, deliberate, and draft its report. In addition, the panel participated in the three plenary meetings for the overall study. The first, in March 1996, was addressed by the Chief of Naval Operations and many high-level officials of the Navy Department, the other Services, the Defense Department, and industry. This served as an organization meeting and conveyed a common, starting information base to the entire study membership. At the second plenary session, in October 1996, all the members of the study had their first opportunity to review each other's work, to see how the results of all the panels' work were coming together into an integrated message, and to feed the results back into their own efforts. The third plenary session, in March 1997, served as a coordination and writing session in which all of the panels' reports and the overview report were completed for final review. The panel chair and vice chair also participated in bimonthly meetings of the Committee on Technology for Future Naval Forces. These meetings served to inform the panel chairs and study leadership of progress in the individual panels' efforts, and to resolve issues that cut across the responsibilities of more than one panel. The meetings also helped to ensure that common attention was paid to the relationships of the diverse panel outputs to each other and the significance of those outputs for the naval forces. A total of some 40 days was encompassed in meetings by the panel and its chair. The panel's report emphasizes the significance of and critical dependence on information technologies and systems for future naval forces and points toward a direction for achieving information superiority in the future.

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 3 Information in Warfare Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON FUTURE NAVAL FORCES AND MISSIONS   7     Introduction   7     Naval Forces Command and Control   7     Future Naval Operations and Information Requirements   8     The Role of Information Technology   9     Operational Capabilities Enabled by Information Technology   15     Organization of This Report   15 2   THE INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE   17     Introduction   17     Warfighting Requirements   17     Fulfilling Requirements   19     Implementation   23 3   INFORMATION CONTENT   31     Introduction   31     Information Sources   32     Applications   33     Processing of Information   35     Automatic Target Recognition   36

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 3 Information in Warfare     Information Understanding   45     Advances Needed to Support Information Understanding   48     Summary   49 4   ADVANCED SENSORS   50     Introduction   50     Radar Technology Issues for Future Naval Warfare   51     Advanced Electro-Optical Sensing Technologies   61     Conclusions   74 5   INFORMATION WARFARE   76     Introduction   76     Information Warfare in a Global Information Environment   77     Technology Thrust Areas   79     Getting There   89     Summary   93 6   STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING INFORMATION SUPERIORITY   94     Conclusions   94     Recommendations   95     APPENDIXES         A Terms of Reference   101     B The Navy and Satellite Communications   106     C Commercial Space-based Sensors   119     D Acronyms and Abbreviations   128