Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035

Becoming a 21st-Century Force

VOLUME 7 Undersea Warfare

Panel on Undersea Warfare

Committee on Technology for Future Naval Forces

Naval Studies Board

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1997



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000–2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 7 Undersea Warfare Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035 Becoming a 21st-Century Force VOLUME 7 Undersea Warfare Panel on Undersea Warfare Committee on Technology for Future Naval Forces Naval Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997

OCR for page R1
Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000–2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 7 Undersea Warfare NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This work was performed under Department of the Navy Contract N00014-96-D-0169/0001 issued by the Office of Naval Research under contract authority NR 201-124. However, the content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Department of the Navy or the government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. The United States Government has at least a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable license throughout the world for government purposes to publish, translate, reproduce, deliver, perform, and dispose of all or any of this work, and to authorize others so to do. Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Copies available from: Naval Studies Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

OCR for page R1
Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000–2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 7 Undersea Warfare PANEL ON UNDERSEA WARFARE ALBERT J. BACIOCCO, JR., The Baciocco Group, Inc., Chair RICHARD F. PITTENGER, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Vice Chair JOHN W. ASHER III, Global Associates, Ltd. ARTHUR B. BAGGEROER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology DAVID B. BURKE, JR., Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. NICHOLAS P. CHOTIROS, Applied Research Laboratory, University of Texas at Austin MYRON P. GRAY, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University THOMAS C. HALSEY, Exxon Research and Engineering Company RICHARD F. HOGLUND, King George, Virginia ERNEST L. HOLMBOE, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University WILLIAM J. HURLEY, Institute for Defense Analyses WESLEY E. JORDAN, Bolt, Beranek and Newman Co. CECIL J. KEMPF, Coronado, California EDWARD G. LISZKA, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University R. KENNETH LOBB, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University DANIEL M. NOSENCHUCK, Princeton University THOMAS D. RYAN, Nuclear Energy Institute KEITH A. SMITH, Vienna, Virginia ROBERT C. SPINDEL, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington DAVID L. STANFORD, Science Applications International Corporation Invited Participants IRA DYER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology WILLIAM A. KUPERMAN, Scripps Institution of Oceanography Navy Liaison Representatives CDR THOMAS COSGROVE, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N858D CAPT JOHN McGILLVRAY, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N863J CDR DENNIS MURPHY, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N87C1 LCDR PETE McSHEA, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N88W3 ALLISON STILLER, Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Navy, RDA

OCR for page R1
Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000–2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 7 Undersea Warfare Consultants LEE M. HUNT SIDNEY G. REED, JR. JAMES G. WILSON Staff RONALD D. TAYLOR, Director, Naval Studies Board PETER W. ROONEY, Program Officer SUSAN G. CAMPBELL, Administrative Assistant MARY G. GORDON, Information Officer CHRISTOPHER A. HANNA, Project Assistant

OCR for page R1
Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000–2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 7 Undersea Warfare COMMITTEE ON TECHNOLOGY FOR FUTURE NAVAL FORCES DAVID R. HEEBNER, Science Applications International Corporation (retired), Study Director ALBERT J. BACIOCCO, JR., The Baciocco Group, Inc. ALAN BERMAN, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University NORMAN E. BETAQUE, Logistics Management Institute GERALD A. CANN, Raytheon Company GEORGE F. CARRIER, Harvard University SEYMOUR J. DEITCHMAN, Institute for Defense Analyses (retired) ALEXANDER FLAX, Potomac, Maryland WILLIAM J. MORAN, Redwood City, California ROBERT J. MURRAY, Center for Naval Analyses ROBERT B. OAKLEY, National Defense University JOSEPH B. REAGAN, Saratoga, California VINCENT VITTO, Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Navy Liaison Representatives RADM JOHN W. CRAINE, JR., USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N81 (as of July 4, 1996) VADM THOMAS B. FARGO, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N81 (through July 3, 1996) RADM RICHARD A. RIDDELL, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N91 CDR DOUGLASS BIESEL, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N812C1 PAUL G. BLATCH, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N91 1E Marine Corps Liaison Representative LtGen PAUL K. VAN RIPER, USMC, Marine Corps Combat Development Command Consultants LEE M. HUNT SIDNEY G. REED, JR. JAMES G. WILSON Staff RONALD D. TAYLOR, Director, Naval Studies Board PETER W. ROONEY, Program Officer SUSAN G. CAMPBELL, Administrative Assistant MARY G. GORDON, Information Officer CHRISTOPHER A. HANNA, Project Assistant

OCR for page R1
Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000–2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 7 Undersea Warfare NAVAL STUDIES BOARD DAVID R. HEEBNER, Science Applications International Corporation (retired), Chair GEORGE M. WHITESIDES, Harvard University, Vice Chair ALBERT J. BACIOCCO, JR., The Baciocco Group, Inc. ALAN BERMAN, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University NORMAN E. BETAQUE, Logistics Management Institute NORVAL L. BROOME, Mitre Corporation GERALD A. CANN, Raytheon Company SEYMOUR J. DEITCHMAN, Institute for Defense Analyses (retired), Special Advisor ANTHONY J. DeMARIA, DeMaria Electro-Optics Systems, Inc. JOHN F. EGAN, Lockheed Martin Corporation ROBERT HUMMEL, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University DAVID W. McCALL, Far Hills, New Jersey ROBERT J. MURRAY, Center for Naval Analyses ROBERT B. OAKLEY, National Defense University WILLIAM J. PHILLIPS, Northstar Associates, Inc. MARA G. PRENTISS, Jefferson Laboratory, Harvard University HERBERT RABIN, University of Maryland JULIE JCH RYAN, Booz, Allen and Hamilton HARRISON SHULL, Monterey, California KEITH A. SMITH, Vienna, Virginia ROBERT C. SPINDEL, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington DAVID L. STANFORD, Science Applications International Corporation H. GREGORY TORNATORE, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University J. PACE VanDEVENDER, Prosperity Institute VINCENT VITTO, Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology BRUCE WALD, Arlington Education Consultants Navy Liaison Representatives RADM JOHN W. CRAINE, JR., USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N81 (as of July 4, 1996) VADM THOMAS B. FARGO, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N81 (through July 3, 1996) RADM RICHARD A. RIDDELL, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N91 RONALD N. KOSTOFF, Office of Naval Research

OCR for page R1
Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000–2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 7 Undersea Warfare Marine Corps Liaison Representative LtGen PAUL K. VAN RIPER, USMC, Marine Corps Combat Development Command RONALD D. TAYLOR, Director PETER W. ROONEY, Program Officer SUSAN G. CAMPBELL, Administrative Assistant MARY G. GORDON, Information Officer CHRISTOPHER A. HANNA, Project Assistant

OCR for page R1
Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000–2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 7 Undersea Warfare COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS ROBERT J. HERMANN, United Technologies Corporation, Co-Chair W. CARL LINEBERGER, University of Colorado, Co-Chair PETER M. BANKS, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan LAWRENCE D. BROWN, University of Pennsylvania RONALD G. DOUGLAS, Texas A&M University JOHN E. ESTES, University of California at Santa Barbara L. LOUIS HEGEDUS, Elf Atochem North America, Inc. JOHN E. HOPCROFT, Cornell University RHONDA J. HUGHES, Bryn Mawr College SHIRLEY A. JACKSON, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission KENNETH H. KELLER, University of Minnesota KENNETH I. KELLERMANN, National Radio Astronomy Observatory MARGARET G. KIVELSON, University of California at Los Angeles DANIEL KLEPPNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN KREICK, Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company MARSHA I. LESTER, University of Pennsylvania THOMAS A. PRINCE, California Institute of Technology NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS, Brookhaven National Laboratory L.E. SCRIVEN, University of Minnesota SHMUEL WINOGRAD, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center CHARLES A. ZRAKET, Mitre Corporation (retired) NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director

OCR for page R1
Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000–2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 7 Undersea Warfare Preface This report is part of the nine-volume series entitled Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force. The series is the product of an 18-month study requested by the chief of Naval Operations (CNO). To carry out this study, eight technical panels were organized under the Committee on Technology for Future Naval Forces to examine all of the specific technical areas called out in the terms of reference. On November 28, 1995, the Chief of Naval Operations requested that the National Research Council initiate (through its Naval Studies Board) a thorough examination of the impact of advancing technology on the form and capability of the naval forces to the year 2035. The terms of reference of the study specifically asked for an indentification of "present and emerging technologies that relate to the full breadth of Navy and Marine Corps mission capabilities," with specific attention to "(1) information warfare, electronic warfare, and the use of surveillance asstes; (2) mine warfare and submarine warfare; (3) Navy and Marine Corps weaponry in the context of effectiveness on target; [and] (4) issues in caring for and maximizing effectiveness of Navy and Marine Corps human resources." Ten specific technical areas were identified to which attention should be broadly directed. (The CNO's letter of request with the full terms of reference is given in Appendix A of this report.) The Panel on Undersea Warfare was constituted to address technology issues related to undersea warfare. During the course of its study, the panel paid particular attention to item 3 of the terms of reference: Mine warfare and submarine warfare are two serious threats to future naval missions that can be anticipated with confidence and should be treated accordingly in the review. This should include both new considerations, such as

OCR for page R1
Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000–2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 7 Undersea Warfare increased emphasis on shallow water operations, and current and future problems resident in projected worldwide undersea capability. Panel membership included expertise in naval undersea warfare systems design, acquisition, and operations. The panel was augmented with the nation's top ocean acousticians as well as representatives from the nonmilitary private sector. To carry out its task, the panel met 11 times to receive briefings from service and industry representatives. Briefings and discussions were held with all cognizant systems command program executive officers as well as responsible officials from the offices of the Chief of Naval Operations and the Secretary of the Navy. The panel received several briefings on oceanographic and undersea warfare-related science and technology from the Office of Naval Research and the office of the Oceanographer of the Navy. The panel made field trips to visit fleet commands and laboratories, notably Norfolk, where it was briefed at the flag or unit commander level by U.S. Atlantic Command, Commander Surface Forces Atlantic, Commander Submarine Forces Atlantic, Commander Second Fleet, Commander Strike Force U.S. Atlantic Fleet, Naval Doctrine Command, and the Surface Warfare Development Group. Some of the panel members visited Panama City, Florida, and Ingleside, Texas, to be briefed on mine warfare by laboratory and Commander Mine Warfare personnel. Members of the panel also visited West Coast and Hawaii fleet commands, filing reports upon their return. The panel visited Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Pennsylvania State University, and talks were held with Admiral James Hogg, USN (Ret.) about ongoing work in the Strategic Studies Group at the Naval War College. The chair and vice chair received briefings on relevant special access programs. Because the panel's goal was to produce an unclassified report, not all of the technology issues relevant to antisubmarine warfare and mine warfare are discussed at the same level of detail. The panel made a special effort to understand the current and projected threat to U.S. national interests in the realm of undersea warfare. A subset of the panel received extensive briefings from the Central Intelligence Agency, the Defense Intelligence Agency, and the Office of Naval Intelligence.

OCR for page R1
Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000–2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 7 Undersea Warfare Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY     1   ANTISUBMARINE WARFARE   7     ASW: A Crucial Underpinning for Future Navy Missions   7     The Growing Worldwide Submarine Threat   8     Open Ocean to the Littorals-A Wide Range of Environments   10     Recent Trends-Reduced Investment in ASW Capability   11     Ocean Acoustics: What Are the Limits?   12     Development Imperatives   13     Sensors for Mobile Platforms   18     Sensors for Fixed Systems   21     Science and Technology Issues   23     Significant Gains Possible in Passive Acoustics   30     Significant Potential for Active Acoustics   31     Nonacoustic ASW: A Needed Complement to Acoustics   34     Unmanned Underwater Vehicle Networks: A Role to Play   36     Undersea Weapons-A Future Perspective   36     Expanding Need for Comprehensive ASW Concept of Operations   39     Research Opportunities   40     Recommendations   41 2   MINE WARFARE   43     Mine Countermeasures: A Vital Capability for Future Naval Missions   46     A Vision of Future MCM Forces   46

OCR for page R1
Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000–2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 7 Undersea Warfare     Emerging Enabling Technologies   52     Toward a Balanced MCM Force: The Near Term   53     The Far Term: Technology and Concepts   67     Offensive Mining   73     Cross-Cutting Technologies   77     Recommendations   81     APPENDIXES         A Terms of Reference   85     B The Submarine Capability of Other Nations   90     C Mine Warfare and Mine Countermeasures-Current Status   93     D Compliance with Laws and Policy Protecting Marine Mammals and Endangered Marine Species   98     E Mechanical Methods   103     F An Explanation of the Efficacy of Simultaneous Detonation for Explosive Channel Excavation   106     G Acronyms and Abbreviations   108