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OCR for page 90
Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000–2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 7 Undersea Warfare B The Submarine Capability of Other Nations Box B. 1 lists the current submarine capabilities of nations worldwide. In the future, submarines can potentially be a serious threat to U.S. power projection forces (see Box B.2). The United States may face a spectrum of force levels and capabilities of submarines. Examples include the following: Russia. Many, including very capable nuclear-powered submarines operating worldwide, potentially challenging the United States in every corner of the globe. China. Many, some of which could be advanced-technology submarines operating up to 2,500 km from the Chinese coast, capable of challenging the United States in the western Pacific (China has committed to three new submarine development programs: SS, SSN, and SSBN). Iran. A few medium-technology submarines operating in the Persian Gulf, Strait of Hormuz, and the Arabian Sea, challenging the right of passage of ships. Korea. Many medium- and low-technology submarines operating essentially as a distributed, smart minefield preventing operation of U.S. naval forces in waters contiguous to both North and South Korea.
OCR for page 91
Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000–2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 7 Undersea Warfare BOX B.1 Current Operational Submarines (Estimates as of January 1997) Russia 120 (77 nuclear, 43 diesel) China 70 (6 nuclear, 64 diesel) North Korea 40 Germany 17 France 17 (11 nuclear, 6 diesel) India 18 Turkey 16 Japan 16 United Kingdom 14 (all nuclear) Norway 12 Sweden 9 Italy 9 Greece 8 Peru 8 Spain 8 Pakistan 6 South Korea 8 Denmark 5 Brazil 5 Yugoslavia 3 Netherlands 4 Egypt 4 Argentina 4 Chile 4 Taiwan 4 Australia 3 Canada 3 Israel 3 Poland 3 Portugal 3 South Africa 3 Bulgaria 2 Albania 2 Columbia 2 Ecuador 2 Indonesia 2 Iran 3 Venezuela 2 Algeria 2 Romania 1 Singapore 1 NOTE: All submarines are diesel unless specified
OCR for page 92
Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000–2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force, Volume 7 Undersea Warfare BOX B.2 Submarines on Order or Under Construction, January 1997 Australia 1 COLLINS Class SS in trials, 4 more U/C or on order Brazil 1 Type 209 SS fitting out, 1 U/C; 1 enlarged Type 209 on order China 1 or more SONG U/C; 1 Type 094 SSBN possibly U/C France 1 LE TRIOMPHANT SSBN U/C; 1 AGOSTA-90B SS U/C for Pakistan Germany 4 Type 212 SS on order; 1 Type 800 SS on trials and 2 U/C for Israel India 2 Type 209/1500 SS projected, if funding provided Italy 2 Type 212 SS authorized (to deliver 2003, 2005) Japan 1 HARUSHIO SS fitting out, 1 OYASHIO SS fitting out, 3 more authorized or U/C Korea, North Estimated up to 6 SANGO SSC U/C or fitting out Korea, South 1 Type 209/1200 SS fitting out, 2 U/C Pakistan 2 AGOSTA-90B on order (1 to have hull built in France for fitting out in Pakistan) Russia 1 BOREY SSBN U/C, 1 OSCAR-II SSGN U/C, 1 SEVERODVINSK SSN U/C; 4 AKULA-II SSN U/C, 2 PROJECT 636 KILO SS U/C for China, 1 PROJECT 677 AMUR SS on order (private, for lease to Russian Navy) Sweden 2 GOTLAND SS fitting out Turkey 2 Type 209/1400 U/C United Kingdom 1 VANGUARD SSBN U/C United States 1 OHIO SSBN fitting out, 1 SEAWOLF SSN in trials, 2 SEAWOLF SSN U/C, 4 NSSN SSN authorized
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