Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035

Becoming a 21st-Century Force

VOLUME 8 Logistics

Panel on Logistics

Committee on Technology for Future Naval Forces

Naval Studies Board

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1997



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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035 Becoming a 21st-Century Force VOLUME 8 Logistics Panel on Logistics Committee on Technology for Future Naval Forces Naval Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This work was performed under Department of the Navy Contract N00014-96-D-0169/0001 issued by the Office of Naval Research under contract authority NR 201-124. However, the content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Department of the Navy or the government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. The United States Government has at least a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable license throughout the world for government purposes to publish, translate, reproduce, deliver, perform, and dispose of all or any of this work, and to authorize others so to do. Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Copies available from: Naval Studies Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force PANEL ON LOGISTICS NORMAN E. BETAQUE, Logistics Management Institute, Chair PHILIP D. SHUTLER, Annandale, Virginia, Vice Chair ANDREW A. GIORDANO, The Giordano Group, Ltd. PAUL A. LAUTERMILCH, Clarkesville, Virginia MICHAEL P. KALLERES, Global Associates, Ltd. DAVID B. KASSING, RAND Corporation IRWIN MENDELSON, Singer Island, Florida DANIEL SAVITSKY, Davidson Laboratory, Stevens Institute of Technology W. HUGH WOODIN, University of California at Berkeley Navy Liaison Representatives CDR THOMAS COSGROVE, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N-858D CDR ERIC FERRARO, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N62M NICHOLAS M. LINKOWITZ, Marine Corps Combat Development Command LCDR PETER MORGAN, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N422F LCDR PAT THURMAN, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N432II Consultants LEE M. HUNT SIDNEY G. REED, JR. JAMES G. WILSON Staff RONALD D. TAYLOR, Director, Naval Studies Board PETER W. ROONEY, Program Officer SUSAN G. CAMPBELL, Administrative Assistant MARY G. GORDON, Information Officer CHRISTOPHER A. HANNA, Project Assistant

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force COMMITTEE ON TECHNOLOGY FOR FUTURE NAVAL FORCES DAVID R. HEEBNER, Science Applications International Corporation (retired), Study Director ALBERT J. BACIOCCO, JR., The Baciocco Group, Inc. ALAN BERMAN, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University NORMAN E. BETAQUE, Logistics Management Institute GERALD A. CANN, Raytheon Company GEORGE F. CARRIER, Harvard University SEYMOUR J. DEITCHMAN, Institute for Defense Analyses (retired) ALEXANDER FLAX, Potomac, Maryland WILLIAM J. MORAN, Redwood City, California ROBERT J. MURRAY, Center for Naval Analyses ROBERT B. OAKLEY, National Defense University JOSEPH B. REAGAN, Saratoga, California VINCENT VITTO, Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Navy Liaison Representatives RADM JOHN W. CRAINE, JR., USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N81 (as of July 4, 1996) VADM THOMAS B. FARGO, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N81 (through July 3, 1996) RADM RICHARD A. RIDDELL, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N91 CDR DOUGLASS BIESEL, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N812C1 PAUL G. BLATCH, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N911T1 Marine Corps Liaison Representative LtGen PAUL K. VAN RIPER, USMC, Marine Corps Combat Development Command Consultants LEE M. HUNT SIDNEY G. REED, JR. JAMES G. WILSON Staff RONALD D. TAYLOR, Director, Naval Studies Board PETER W. ROONEY, Program Officer SUSAN G. CAMPBELL, Administrative Assistant MARY G. GORDON, Information Officer CHRISTOPHER A. HANNA, Project Assistant

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force NAVAL STUDIES BOARD DAVID R. HEEBNER, Science Applications International Corporation (retired), Chair GEORGE M. WHITESIDES, Harvard University, Vice Chair ALBERT J. BACIOCCO, JR., The Baciocco Group, Inc. ALAN BERMAN, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University NORMAN E. BETAQUE, Logistics Management Institute NORVAL L. BROOME, Mitre Corporation GERALD A. CANN, Raytheon Company SEYMOUR J. DEITCHMAN, Institute for Defense Analyses (retired), Special Advisor ANTHONY J. DeMARIA, DeMaria ElectroOptics Systems, Inc. JOHN F. EGAN, Lockheed Martin Corporation ROBERT HUMMEL, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University DAVID W. McCALL, Far Hills, New Jersey ROBERT J. MURRAY, Center for Naval Analyses ROBERT B. OAKLEY, National Defense University WILLIAM J. PHILLIPS, Northstar Associates, Inc. MARA G. PRENTISS, Jefferson Laboratory, Harvard University HERBERT RABIN, University of Maryland JULIE JCH RYAN, Booz, Allen and Hamilton HARRISON SHULL, Monterey, California KEITH A. SMITH, Vienna, Virginia ROBERT C. SPINDEL, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington DAVID L. STANFORD, Science Applications International Corporation H. GREGORY TORNATORE, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University J. PACE VanDEVENDER, Prosperity Institute VINCENT VITTO, Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology BRUCE WALD, Arlington Education Consultants Navy Liaison Representatives RADM JOHN W. CRAINE, JR., USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N81 (as of July 4, 1996) VADM THOMAS B. FARGO, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N81 (through July 3, 1996) RADM RICHARD A. RIDDELL, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N91 RONALD N. KOSTOFF, Office of Naval Research

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force Marine Corps Liaison Representative LtGen PAUL K. VAN RIPER, USMC, Marine Corps Combat Development Command RONALD D. TAYLOR, Director PETER W. ROONEY, Program Officer SUSAN G. CAMPBELL, Administrative Assistant MARY G. GORDON, Information Officer CHRISTOPHER A. HANNA, Project Assistant

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS ROBERT J. HERMANN, United Technologies Corporation, Co-Chair W. CARL LINEBERGER, University of Colorado, Co-Chair PETER M. BANKS, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan LAWRENCE D. BROWN, University of Pennsylvania RONALD G. DOUGLAS, Texas A&M University JOHN E. ESTES, University of California at Santa Barbara L. LOUIS HEGEDUS, Elf Atochem North America, Inc. JOHN E. HOPCROFT, Cornell University RHONDA J. HUGHES, Bryn Mawr College SHIRLEY A. JACKSON, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission KENNETH H. KELLER, University of Minnesota KENNETH I. KELLERMANN, National Radio Astronomy Observatory MARGARET G. KIVELSON, University of California at Los Angeles DANIEL KLEPPNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN KREICK, Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company MARSHA I. LESTER, University of Pennsylvania THOMAS A. PRINCE, California Institute of Technology NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS, Brookhaven National Laboratory L.E. SCRIVEN, University of Minnesota SHMUEL WINOGRAD, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center CHARLES A. ZRAKET, Mitre Corporation (retired) NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force Preface This report is part of the nine-volume series entitled Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps: Becoming a 21st-Century Force. The series is the product of an 18-month study requested by the Chief of Naval Operations. To carry out this study, eight technical panels were organized under the Committee on Technology for Future Naval Forces to examine all of the specific technical areas called out in the terms of reference. On November 28, 1995, the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) requested that the National Research Council initiate (through its Naval Studies Board) a thorough examination of the impact of advancing technology on the form and capability of the naval forces to the year 2035. The terms of reference of the study specifically asked for an identification of “present and emerging technologies that relate to the full breadth of Navy and Marine Corps mission capabilities . . . .” The CNO’s letter of request with the full terms of reference is given in Appendix A of this report. Logistics was not called out explicitly in the CNO’s letter of request. However, the events of the Gulf War demonstrated, and the Navy and Marine Corps leadership recognized at the commencement of the study, that logistics will play an increasingly important role in future naval operations. Its importance was also recognized in a previous Naval Studies Board report, The Navy and Marine Corps in Regional Conflict in the 21st Century (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1996). Accordingly, the Panel on Logistics was constituted to address the application of technology to logistical support of maritime and littoral operations.

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force The panel membership included expertise not only in standard logistic analysis, but also in military operations analysis, engineering and systems design, naval architecture and ship design, modeling and simulation, naval operations, information systems, industrial management, communications and electronics, command and control, and naval aviation. To carry out its task, the panel met eight times to receive briefings from Service and industry representatives, visit facilities, deliberate, and draft its report. The many contributors to these discussions are acknowledged in Appendix B. In addition, the panel participated in the three plenary meetings for the overall study. The first, in March 1996, was addressed by the Chief of Naval Operations and many high-level officials of the Navy Department, the other Services, the Defense Department, and industry. This served as an organization meeting and conveyed a common, starting information base to the entire study membership. At the second plenary session, in October 1996, all the members of the study had their first opportunity to review each other’s work, to see how the results of the work of all the eight panels were coming together into an integrated message, and to feed the results back into their own efforts. The third plenary session, in March 1997, served as a coordination and writing session in which all of the panels’ reports and the overview report were completed for final review. The chair and vice chair of the Panel on Logistics also participated in bimonthly meetings of the Committee on Technology for Future Naval Forces. These meetings served to inform the panel chairs and study leadership of progress in the various panels’ efforts and to resolve issues that cut across the responsibilities of more than one panel. The meetings also helped to ensure that common attention was paid to the relationships of the diverse panel outputs to each other and the significance of those outputs for the naval forces. This report by the Panel on Logistics emphasizes the significance of and critical dependence on logistics for future naval forces and points toward a direction for applying technology to help achieve efficient and effective support of naval operations in the future. The panel concentrated on logistical support of forward-deployed naval forces, both those at sea and those ashore, and on maintaining weapon system readiness.

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1  1   INTRODUCTION   8  2   MANAGING AND MOVING MATERIEL   11      Supporting Naval Forces at Sea,   13      Supporting Operational Maneuver From the Sea,   17      Conducting Logistics Over the Shore,   25  3   SUPPORTING WEAPON SYSTEM READINESS   27      Acquisition Process,   28      Configuration Management,   30      Computer-based Maintenance Training,   30      Troubleshooting and Repair,   31      Equipment Performance Monitoring,   32      Parts Supply,   33      Creating an Integrated Weapon Systems Readiness Process,   34  4   CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   37      Conclusions,   37      Recommendations,   38     APPENDIXES       A Terms of Reference   43     B Study Contributors   48     C Acronyms and Abbreviations   51

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force