or to the battle group either by carrier on-board delivery (COD) aircraft or by helicopter.
In Figure 2.1, the dashed arrows between the amphibious ships and the land objective represent an amphibious assault by a Marine Corps air-ground task force. The traditional mode of amphibious operations has been to disembark the assault echelon close to shore (within 3 or 4 miles), establish a beachhead, secure the area to a distance of about 30 miles to protect it from enemy direct and indirect fire, build up a logistic support base, and then push out to other objectives. The Marine Corps concept for future amphibious operations, Operational Maneuver From the Sea, seeks to obviate the initial buildup of a beach support area by launching the assault from well over the horizon (25 miles or more), seizing initial objectives well inland (perhaps 50 to 100 miles), and providing from ships at sea much of the combat support and combat service support traditionally provided from the beach support area—command and control, fire support, aviation, and logistics. Providing logistic support from a sea base may be the most challenging of these tasks.
In the lower half of Figure 2.1, the two arrows represent strategic sealift ships and maritime prepositioning ships transporting equipment to a port while strategic airlift delivers personnel and light equipment to a close-by airport. Ever