• Applications-oriented professionals (modelers, analysts . . .) working in particular application domains such as acquisition, training, or operations, who can effectively pull together M&S assets as needed for their problems. In some cases, they will build or substantially alter models themselves; in other cases they will use preexisting models. They may or may not (and usually will not) consider themselves M&S specialists, often preferring to be identified as analysts, but, at least in the future, will have considerable M&S expertise.

  • Program managers in domains that require overseeing applications-oriented M&S development or model-supported analysis.

  • Hardware-centered professionals trained in the technologies of computers, networks, and related communications.

  • Software-centered professionals trained in developing the software that utilizes the hardware to support the applications. Here we have in mind professional-quality software, not the computer programs typically generated by analysts or subject-focused modelers. Such software is intended for broad use, not just that within the originating group.

  • M&S facilitation specialists trained to draw on technology and databases for both development and application of M&S in relatively complex contexts such as distributed interactive simulation, or developments exploiting model and tool repositories. These specialists would also be experts in assisting the collaboration with other professionals using groupware technologies of all types.

  • M&S scientists, responsible for researching the architecture of both local and distributed M&S infrastructures, continually assessing their capabilities relative to future needs. These might be concerned about n-th generation “high-level architectures,” complex computer-security issues, and tool development.

The focus in this appendix is on the applications-oriented professionals and program managers, not because they are more important than the others, but because it is here that the Department of the Navy probably wants to focus its special M&S-related education that is keyed to young officers. In contrast, the Navy Department will probably go to civilian employees or contractors for specialized skills in hardware, software, and so on. There will probably be an adequate supply of people with such skills, people who will have attended colleges and universities throughout the nation.

A Perspective to Guide “Requirements”

Modeling and simulation (M&S) is one tool for use in making effective military decisions. A helpful planning or decision-assisting model is one that captures the essential elements of a situation or problem domain and that can be manipulated to provide synthetic experience efficiently. That experience is then

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