systems such as TACWAR and JICM, and JWARS and JSIMS when they become available. He must be able to adapt these to particular situations and questions, being critical concerning results obtained. This step also includes basic parameter specification.

Model-output Analysis: Analytical Advice to Decision Makers

Model-output analysis is an extension of the above that includes the planning of model runs so as to economically obtain the necessary overall picture of response possibilities. Some of the above should be analyst-induced or instigated, while some can be in dialogue style with decision makers.

In summary, the professional user of M&S is desirably, but not currently realistically, responsible for a broad spectrum of knowledge and skills. This requires intensive, specific, and well-designed educational input with deliberate breadth and focus on the true usefulness of various viewpoints and technical tools. The field is bound to grow, and competition for appropriate military analysts so trained will grow also, but the opportunities should attract high-quality students and prospective practitioners.

VENUES FOR EDUCATION

Most of our discussion here relates primarily to postgraduate education in universities (e.g., in master's or Ph.D. programs), but an increasingly important part of educational strategy for organizations such as the Department of the Navy is the part that makes available specialized courses on an as-needed basis—e.g., before an officer takes on an assignment overseeing M&S development, exercise design, or weapon system analysis. Many possibilities exist here, ranging from short courses to self-learning packages. They are not complete substitutes for traditional degree studies, but they can be powerful supplements and, in some cases, partial substitutes. Continuing education is becoming a business-as-usual aspect of life for many knowledge workers, whether in or out of uniform.



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