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APPENDIX B Trends in Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Granted William K. LeBold and Patrick T. Sheridan This report presents data on U.S. engineering enrollments and degrees from 1945 to 1983, including comparative data on all fields of U. S. four-year institutions. The primary purpose of this presentation is to provide a perspective for examining manpower trends in engineering enrollments and degrees and their impact on the U. S. engineering infra- structure. During the past two decades, the largest single input into the U.S. engineering work force has been the engineering graduates of U. S. col- leges and universities, and there is every indication that this will con- tinue to be the case in the foreseeable future. This does not mean, of course, that other sources {such as immigration, on-the-jol: upgrading promotions, and military discharges and transfers from science, tech- nology, and other areas are not also important inputs to the U.S. engi- neering infrastructure. In this discussion, however, we will limit our attention to trends in U.S. engineering enrollments and in degrees awarded. More specifically, our objectives will be as follows: to provide information on the trends in first-year U. S. engineering enrollments and in degrees awarded since World War II~1947-1983~; to compare trends in engineering enrollments and degrees awarded with total enrollments and degrees; William K. Lebold is director of Educational Research and Information Systems at Purdue University; Patrick J. Sheridan is executive director of the Engineering Man _ . . power Commission. 80

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APPENDIX B 81 to examine the growth in the number and proportion of women, underrepresented minorities, and foreign nationals in first-year enroll- ments and in degrees awarded in engineering during the past decade 1973-1983~; to provide information on recent trends in engineering technology and industrial technology first-year enrollments and in degrees awarded; and to relate the trends in first-year enrollments and degrees awarded to various historical factors that may be related to those trends. Engineering and Total U.S. Enrollments and Degrees Awarded Figure B-1 and Table B-1 up. 88-89) provide data on the trends in first-year engineering enrollments and degrees granted from 1945 to 1984. Figure B-2 and Table B-2 {pp. 90-92~ include data on first-year enrollments in all higher-educational institutions {Table B-2 only and in four-year institutions and degrees granted in U.S. colleges and uni- versities. To provide some insight into the relative growth rates of the various data sets, we have also indexed all enrollment and degree data using 1973 as the base {i.e., 1973 = 100 for all of the data reported. We chose 1973 because it is the earliest year for which relatively complete data are available. In general, the data in Figure B- 1 and Table B- 1 indicate that first-year enrollment and bachelor's degree data in engineering have somewhat more erratic patterns of increases and decreases that tend to reflect economic and social changes, whereas the total U.S. data given in Figure B-2 and Table B-2 reflect a more stable and steady growth pat- tern. Both the engineering and total master's degree and doctoral degree data reflect the steady growth in graduate education that has character- ized higher education during much of the past three decades. The first- year and B.S. engineering data reflect much larger fluctuations and rates of change than the M.S. or Ph.D. degree data or the total U.S. first- year enrollment and degree data. However, if these rates of change are examined using semilog scales as in Figures B-3, B-4, and B-5 Alp. 93- 94), all rates of change are less dramatic and suggest more stable long- range trends. First-year engineering enrollments have been relatively steady with some decline in the late 1960s and early 1970s; they have risen since 1973. Bachelor's degrees in engineering were relatively sta- ble in the 1950s, 1960s, and early 1970s, but they have increased slightly in the late 1970s. The master's and doctoral degrees awarded in engineering and in all fields reflect similar but significant rates of growth in the 1950s and 1960s, but they have remained relatively sta- ble since 1970 except for a drop in doctorates from 1972 to 1979.

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82 APPENDIX B Recent Trends by Sex and Ethnicity One of the major changes that has taken place in the past decade in engineering enrollments and degrees awarded concerns the demo- graphic composition of the engineering student populations. These changes have been documented in Table B-3 ~pp.95-98) and Figures B-6 through B-9 Pp. 99-1OOJ. As may be noted in Table B-3, the most dramatic changes have occurred among women, with an almost 8-fold increase in first-year enrollments between 1973 and 1984, more than a 17-fold increase in the number of B.S. degrees, over a 9-fold increase in master's degrees, and more than a 3-fold increase in doctoral degrees awarded to women. The increases in underrepresented minorities {blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians have been at slightly higher rates than the total, but these increases still represent relatively small numbers and proportions compared to the Asian-Pacific and foreign- national growth patterns. When considered collectively, the number of women, underrepresented minorities, Asian-Pacific, and foreign- national students accounts for almost one-half of the growth in first- year engineering enrollments and in bachelor's degrees awarded {U.S. majority white males account for the rest of the growth. At the mas- ter's degree level, women, Asian-Pacific, and foreign-national growth patterns have almost balanced the decline in the number of U.S. major- ity white male master's degree recipients. At the doctoral level, the growth in the number of degrees awarded to foreign nationals has par- tially compensated for the significant decline in U.S. majority white males who have been awarded the engineering doctorate in the United States in recent years. Figures B-6 through B-9 provide a graphical insight into the relative growth of first-year engineering enrollments and the awarding of bach- elor's, master's, and doctoral degrees, respectively, for women, under- represented minorities, foreign nationals, and total engineering populations. The index is based on 1973 data {i.e., 1973 = 100~. Figure B-6 indicates that the number of women and foreign nationals among first-year engineering students increased substantially between 1973 and 1984, much more than the underrepresented minorities and total groups, even though the latter more than doubled between 1973 and 1984. Figure B-7 documents the dramatic growth between 1973 and 1984 in the percentage of women awarded bachelor's degrees, as well as the significant increases in the awarding of bachelor's degrees to mem- bers of other groups. Figure B-8 maps the growth in the number of master's degrees awarded for the various groups, and Figure B-9 shows

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APPENDIX B 83 the increasing proportion of foreign nationals awarded engineering doc- torates during the past decade. (See Table B-3 for the actual numbers of enrollments and degrees awarded. J Engineering Technology and Industrial Technology Trends In recent years, engineering technology and, to a lesser degree, indus- trial technology have taken on increasing importance as an integral or supplementary part of the overall engineering infrastructure. This is especially true with regard to Bachelor of Engineering Technology pro- grams that have been developed and supported by the engineering pro- fession and accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology [ABETJ, formerly the Engineers' Council for Professional Development {ECPDJ. Table B-4 {pp.101-106J providesfirst-yearasso- ciate and bachelor's degree program enrollment data for women and ethnic minorities for both engineering technology and industrial tech- nology programs that have at least one ABET- or ECPD-accredited program for 1972 to 1984. The table also provides comparative data for women and ethnic minorities on associate degree and Bachelor of Engi- neering Technology awards in engineering technology between 1973 and 1984; Table B-4 provides the same information for industrial tech- nology programs between 1973 and 1982. These degree trends show relatively similar and significant growth patterns in the numbers of Bachelor of Engineering Technology and Bachelor of Industrial Tech- nology awards. The number of associate degrees awarded, however, remained relatively stable over the period. It should be noted that the engineering technology and industrial technology data are probably underestimates because the data are limited to institutions with at least one ABET-accredited program, and the collection of industrial technology data was discontinued by EMC in 1982. Factors Influencing Engineering Enrollment Trends A review of the events that took place between 1945 and 1984 pro- vides some insight into the peaks and valleys in engineering enroll- ments and degrees {Figure B-10, p. 107~. Immediately following World War II t1945), there was an unprecedented increase in U.S. college enrollments; U.S. colleges and universities readily accepted the chal- lenge of providing opportunities for returning veterans who wished to study under the GI Bill. Engineering colleges faced especially difficult challenges and demands, because many GIs who had trained as

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84 APPENDIX B mechanics, electronic technicians, and construction specialists were interested in an applied technical education; yet there were only a few more than 100 U.S. engineering schools. Freshman engineering enrollments soared from under 45,000 in 1945 to over 90,000 in 1946. And because many returning veterans already had some engineering education and training prior to or during World War II, the number of engineering freshmen and B.S. degrees awarded soared well beyond the pre-World War II levels. Indeed, increasing concerns about a surplus of engineers resulted in a very rapid decline in freshman enrollments as the number of high school freshmen and the number of veterans declined between 1946 and 1950; these declines were further fueled by predictions by the U. S. Department of Labor of a surplus of engineers; engineering graduates, including veterans, experi- enced increasing difficulty in finding jobs around 1950. As a result, freshman enrollments declined to a post-World War II low of less than 35,000 students, although the number of B.S. degrees awarded that year reached an unprecedented high of over 50,000, many times higher than the pre-World War II levels. In spite of the dire predictions of a surplus of engineers, the 1950s were boom times for engineers, not only in the military and related defense industries but also in civilian-related research and develop- ment. First-year engineering enrollments significantly increased, mainly because of draft deferments for engineering students during the Korean War in the early 1950s and the large numbers of returning Korean War veterans who then used the GI Bill to further their educa- tion in the mid-1950s. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, engineering enrollments declined as U. S. engineering institutions became more selective in their choice of students. This was especially true at the land grant schools and agricultural and mechanical {A&M) colleges, which at the same time expanded their nonengineering programs. Meanwhile, U.S. colleges were preparing for the rapid increases in enrollment that were expected when the post-World War II baby boom generation came of college age. Many states and local communities created community colleges; in addition, two-year branches of four-year institutions were expanded as medium-sized communities and U.S. cities created a variety of com- muter colleges and regional campuses. Increased enrollments as a result of the baby boom and the effects of the Russian launching of Sputnik 1957 brought a number of changes to institutions of higher learning. Many four-year colleges and univer- sities, especially state-supported institutions, not only became more selective in choosing students, but graduate enrollments and research

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APPENDIX B 85 missions provided an impetus for change in many schools. During the 1960s, increased demands for higher education and graduate study resulted in the conversion of many four-year A&M and state colleges into comprehensive universities. In 1953, American Society of Engi- neering Education {ASEEJ Evaluation of Engineering Education Study was begun. Chaired by Dean L. E. Grinter and extending from 1953 to 1955 its participants included many of the leading deans of schools of engineering. The study originally recommended a dual undergraduate program: {1J a professional scientific program and {2J a professional general program. The latter was rejected, and most engineering institu- tions opted for the more prestigious engineering-science-based curric- ulum. As a result of this demand for higher-quality engineering education and increased diversity in higher education, undergraduate engineering enrollments in the 1 960s did not increase as rapidly as total U. S. enroll- ments. In fact, the number of B.S. degrees in engineering leveled off while the total number of bachelor's degrees continued to rise. Engi- neering graduate enrollments continued to increase as graduate pro- grams in all fields, especially engineering doctoral programs, were given increased importance and impetus. Moreover, the demand for more education and more practical technical programs was being met by the expansion of certificates and two-year associate degree pro- grams, and the two-year engineering technician programs offered in community colleges, regional campuses, proprietary schools, and non- profit technical institutes. As noted earlier, these technical educational programs, coupled with the development of specialized technical train- ing programs in the military and on-the-job programs in industry and business, created a reservoir or pool of engineering-related talent, which is frequently tapped during periods of high engineering demand and related shortages of degreed engineers. This pool is further aug- mented by the significant number of engineering college students who leave college with one to four years of engineering education but no degree and who frequently assume engineering-related positions. The pool also includes B.S. graduates in physical science and mathematics and foreign nationals Who enter the pool directly as engineering profes- sionals or acquire student visas, and frequently remain in the United States in engineering positions J. The Vietnam War, the space program, the growth of the computer industry, and increased expenditures for research and development cre- ated additional demands for engineers in the mid- and late 1960s; as a result, freshman enrollments and bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degree awards increased to some degree. Graduate engineering educa

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86 APPENDIX B tion was given a further stimulus as a result of the ASEE-sponsored Goals of Engineering Education project, which recommended the mas- ter's degree as the first professional degree for research, development, and design. However, the end of the Vietnam War and its related student unrest, the decline in the space program, the increased national priorities given to human services and social programs, and the reported oversupply of engineers resulted in another sharp decline in freshman engineering enrollments, which reached new lows in 1971 and 1972. Many engi- neering colleges responded by launching new recruitment and high school relations programs. Affirmative action and equal educational and employment opportu- nity programs, coupled with the women's movement and the civil rights movement, resulted in a new, accelerating interest in engineer- ing in the mid-1970s and early 1980s. These nontraditional engineering students included women, black Americans, Hispanic Americans, and American Indians; these groups augmented the Asian-Pacific minority students who were always somewhat overrepresented in engineering and science. In addition, increasing numbers of undergraduate foreign students, especially from the developing Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, and graduate students from throughout the world were enrolling in U. S . engineering colleges in unprecedented numbers. Many entered directly, but others entered from community colleges, technical institutes, and other four-year colleges. As a result of the increased interest in engineering during the mid- and late 1970s and the early 1980s, an unprecedented growth in under- graduate engineering college enrollments has occurred. About one-half of the growth has come from nontraditional students: women, under- represented minorities Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, and for- eign nationals, but the other half has come from more traditional sources of white males and Asian-Pacific minorities. All of these groups have grown in size because of the relatively high demand for engineers and the national priorities given to engineering-related problems: energy, the environment, communications, computers, information sciences, and, more recently, national defense. Responses to these demands for engineering talent have raised the quantity and quality of both graduate and undergraduate students at most U.S. engineering schools. However, the unprecedented recent growth in undergraduate enroll- ments and B.S. engineering degrees awarded and the large number of foreign nationals in engineering, combined with U.S. and world eco- nomic problems, have created new imbalances. It now appears that there is a possible oversupply of bachelor's degree engineers in some

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APPENDIX B 87 areas {civil and chemical engineering and a possible shortage in other areas {aerospace, electrical, and industrial engineering). Future Directions The new challenges of the mid- and late 1980s that will have a signifi- cant impact on engineering enrollments include: t1) the decline in college-age youth, which has already resulted in the closing of many elementary and secondary schools; {2) the declining demand for engi- neering graduates in some areas and the influence of this decline on the new nontraditional students; {3) the increasing restrictions on foreign student visas; and {4~ the impact of higher admissions standards in undergraduate and graduate engineering programs. Taken together, these factors may constrain the supply of new engineering graduates at a time when the increasing importance of technology in domestic and international arenas, coupled with the retirement of large numbers of engineers who were educated after World War II, will exert upward pressures on demand. Two-year and four-year engineering technology programs and indus- trial technology programs constitute alternative sources of engineer- ing-related manpower, which may be available not only in community colleges, technical institutes, and four-year nonprofit institutes but also among proprietary institutions as well. There is also reason to believe that current national concerns about quality education, espe- cially in mathematics, science, and computer technology, combined with the concern of most states and many communities about "high technology," may create a new demand for and interest in engineering and engineering-related education.

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88 APPENDIX B 1 20000 1 1975 1980 1985 \ ~1 00000 / CD Lo aoooo t En 60000 _ 0~,0000 _ Cot m Z20000 FIRST-YEAR ENROLLMENT ~ / / / ~BACHELOR DEGREES / / i / U I' 1945 1950 1955 7 . . . , . . . , . , 1 . . . . 1 , . 1 . . . . 1 1 1 1 1 1960 1965 1970 YEAR FIGURE B-1 Trends in engineering first-year enrollments and bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees awarded in U.S. colleges and universities from 1945 to 1984. SOURCES: See Table B- 1.

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APPENDIX B TABLE B-1 Trends in First-Year Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Awarded, 1945-1984 89 First-Year Bachelor's Enrollment Degrees Master's Doctoral Degrees Degrees Year Number % /19733 Number % / 1973; Number % / 19733 Number % / 1973;' 1945 42,000 81 4,000 9500 382 3 1946 93,000 179 7,000 161,000 6133 5 1947 64,000 123 19,000 443,100 18252 10 1948 53,000 102 31,000 714,300 25360 14 1949 41,863 81 45,200 1044,798 28417 16 1950 34,299 66 52,732 1214,794 28494 19 1951 39,571 76 41,893 965,031 29586 23 1952 51,631 99 30,286 704,014 23586 23 1953 60,478 116 24,164 563,635 21592 23 1954 65,505 126 22,236 514,078 24590 23 1955 72,825 140 22,589 524,379 26599 23 1956 77,738 150 26,306 614,589 27610 24 1957 78,757 152 31,211 725,093 30596 23 1958 70,029 135 35,332 815,669 33647 25 1959 67,704 130 38,134 886,615 39714 28 1960 67,556 130 37,808 876,989 41786 30 1961 67,575 130 35,860 837,977 47943 36 1962 64,707 125 34,735 808,748 511,207 47 1963 65,740 127 33,458 779,460 551,378 53 1964 73,682 142 35,226 8110,827 631,693 65 1965 79,872 154 36,691 8412,246 712,124 82 1966 73,814 142 35,815 8213,677 802,303 89 1967 77,551 149 36,186 8313,887 812,614 101 1968 77,484 149 38,002 8815,152 882,933 113 1969 74,113 143 39,972 9214,980 873,387 131 1970 71,661 138 42,966 9915,548 913,620 140 1971 58,566 113 43,167 9916,383 963,640 141 1972 52,100 100 44,190 10217,356 1013,774 146 1973 51,925 100 43,429 10017,152 1002,587 100 1974 63,444 122 41,407 9515,885 933,362 130 1975 75,343 145 38,210 8815,773 923,138 121 1976 82,250 158 37,970 8716,506 962,977 115 1977 88,780 171 40,095 9216,551 962,814 109 1978 95,805 185 46,091 10616,182 942,573 99 1979 103,724 200 52,598 121 16,036 93 2,185 84 1980 110,149 212 58,117 134 17,220 100 2,753 106 1981 115,280 222 62,935 145 17,914 104 2,841 110 1982 115,300 222 66,990 154 18,543 108 2,887 112 1983 109,638 211 72,471 167 19,673 115 3,023 84 1984 105,099 202 76,931 177 20,992 122 3,234 125 'All enrollment and degree data are indexed to 1973 as the base (i.e., 1973 = 100~. SOURCES: 1945-1966 data: U.S. Office of Education; 1967-1984 data: Engineering Manpower Commission.

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90 cD cy s L~ - To ~oooo. m z APPENDIX B 1 280000 - ~- . oooooo z ma: on z ~ 70~- of by I . 1 FIRST-YEAR ENROLLS ENT INJ l ~ BACHELOR DEGREES am\ /' >: MASTER / DOCTOR DEGREES 1 94.S 1 9S0 1955 1960 1 96S 1970 1 97S 1980 1 98S YEAR FIGURE B-2 Trends in total first-year enrollments in four-year U.S. institutions and total bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees awarded from 1946 to 1983. SOURCES: See Table B-2.

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APPENDIX B aoo z LO 600 - o z Lo rot en 400 so L`J By C_) 200 Cal a- . 99 FOREIGN NATIONALS , _ ~ -- _ / WOMEN \ \ \ UNDER-REP. MINORITIES TOTAL - I I I I I I I I I i I I 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 YEAR FIGURE B-6 First-year engineering enrollments for 1973 to 1984, shown as a percent- age of 1973 enrollments ( 1973 = 100~. SOURCE: Engineering Manpower Commission. ,.00 in Lo Lo cat Lo ~ 1 200 m / sex ~/// Lo MINORITIES -=~TIONAL5 TOTAL a- ~I ~I ~ 1973 1974 1 97S 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 YEAR FIGURE B-7 Engineering bachelor's degrees awarded from 1973 lo 1984, shown as a percentage of 1973 awards ( 1973 = 100~. SOURCE: Engineering Manpower Commission.

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100 1 00.0 ~ so.o Lo ~ coo APPENDIX B ,/ /WO~EN / o _ MINORITIES FOREIGN NATION^= I I ~ I I I I 1973 1974 1875 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 YEAR FIGURE B-8 Engineering master's degrees awarded from 1973 to 1984, shown as a percentage of 1973 awards ( 1973 = 100~ . SOURCE: Engineering Manpower Commission. Too in LU cat s a: so cat to c~ 200 cn to UJ C, Z 1 oo /WO~EN MINORITIES '\ /~-/~ FOREION NATIONALS TOT-I 1973 1974 197S 1976 1977 1973 1979 1930 1961 1932 1933 1984 Y EAR FIGURE B-9 Engineering doctoral degrees awarded from 1973 to 1984, shown as a percentage of 1973 awards ( 1973 = 1001. SOURCE: Engineering Manpower Commission.

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102 an; . ~ 4= o Cat To ox _ C C) Ed .= CD Cat . Lo o o _ C) Cat o V, 4 - C) _ _ To _ _ Cat Cut 4 - .~ To Go of I_ . , ~ C - \ ~ ~ Z ._ ._ ._ C~ C~ ~ C) .= ~ ._ C~ C~ ._ x - I- ~o G~ o 5 z ~o o~ 5 z ~o C~ ow ~ C) 5 z ~o o~ C~ z ~ o C~ ~ ~ ~ C~) oo oo O Cx ~ ~ ~ ~ t~ C~ ~ ~ C~ 7_ ~ ~4 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~) O O X O G~ ~ O c~ oo ~ ~ c~ oo U~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oo ~ U~ _____________ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ G~ X X O O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~7_ ._ G~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ cM O cM O ~ ~ oo X oo ~ ~ O ~ c~ ~ ~ ~ u~ ~ CN ~) G~ oo G~ oO ~ ~ ~ O ~ O CM c~ oo O c~ 0O X O X ~ ~ 00 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oo O ~ ~ c~ _ _ _ _ O u~ O ~ ~ oo ~ ~ X ~ I~ Cx O ~ ~ c~ ~ ~ C ~ U: 00 00 G~ G~ _ _ ~ ~_ J CM 0O ~ C~ ~ ~ ~ C~ ~ O C~ C~ ~) oo oO ~> ~) =;1 G~ 4 Ct ) 7_ ~ ~ ~ ~t O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O O ~ O O ~ ~ ~ C~ ~ O O C~ O ~ ~ ~/ 1_ (~1 ~ ~) ~) ~ ~ ) ~) ~ C~ 00 - r_ oO G~ ~ ~ C~ ~ C~ oo CM C~ Lr) C~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C~ O O ~ C~ ~ C~ O ~ ~ O 0 00 C>\ O C~ 7_ ~_ C() C~) ~ ~ -I ~ ~ C> - 'J 00 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O X 00 00 f_ C~ c~ f_ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ G~ oo O X ~ oO O ~ t~ O X O 00 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c~ cO ~ ~ ~ ~ c~ oO 00 .} O ~ O ~ ~ oO ~ O ~ ~ oo ~ oO CN <1 ~ ~ ~ ~ <) ~ O ~ ~ oO c~ ~ ~ Cx ~ ~ O c~ oO ~ ~ _ _ _ _ '_ ~ ~ c~ X G~ O ~ c~ ~ ~ oo oo oo oo oO C~ ~ G~ ~ ~ ~ G~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ t_ f_ ~ t_ ~

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103 Lo of ~ C) _ ~ ~ Z Cal an; C) - 4 - ._ 5 Al Cal .; U) Cal 4= ._ o c/) o ED bC ._ C) Cat ._ L~ C) o C) ._ ._ . C~ C~ ._ f_, - ._ ._ C~ - ~o G~ o~ ~ C) Z o\ ~ Z Cx z , G~ C) z ~o o~ t_ C) Z O ~ ~ ~ ~ oo O ~ X ~ ~ ~ O G~ G~ ~ X 00 00 X ~ ~ O O oo t_ ~ ~ oo C~ ~ U~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ oo oo ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Lr ~ ._ ._ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ G~ C~ ~ ~ O ~ O O O ~ ~ ~ X ~ ~ oo ~ oo C~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - c~ O u~ ~ O G~ ~ ~ ~ - Oo 0 oo c~ ~ ~ _ c~ cr) cr) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oo ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ oo - - - - - - - - - - - - o ~ ~ ~ ~ c~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oo ~ O oO G~ ~ ~ ~ ~ G~ ~ oO oO O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~ ~ ~ oo ~ ~ ~ - ~ oo ~ ~ - - - - - - ~ c~ c~ ~ ~ G~ - ~ ~ O ~ - ~ c~ ~ ~ ~ oo - '0 ~ ~ ~ c~ ~ ~ ~ u~ ~ M _ ~ ~ ~N C~ O ~ 00 - - - Q: ~ ~ - o CJ G~ ~_ cM ~ - - G~ oo - - ~ ~ ~ ~ o - ~ o oo ~ ~ ~ oo cM ~ cO ~ ~ ~ u~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ cN ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ cM ~ oo ~ o o o ~ o ~ o ~ cN ~t ~ - ~ ~ - - ~ - - - - - - - ~ ~ oo ~ ~ ~ oo oo ~ ~ - ~ - oo ~ ~ G~ G~ ~ ~ ~ c~ ~ ~ ~ u: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oo ~ ~ G~ oo oo ~ O ~ c~ ~ ~ oo oo oo oo oo G~ ~ C~ Cx C~ G~ ~ ~ G~ ~ _ _ ~ _ ~ _ ~ ~ t_ ~ ~

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104 ._, 4= o t a' - C~ an 4 - oc ._ 5 Cal Cal au - - o v en - o o v ._ a' ._ on D so Go OF t_ -1 C~ _ ~ E0, Z ~; ~ - o V ._ C~ ._ C~ ._ ~ ~ .= ~ V ._ U) ._ V ~o G~ O~ ~ Z D ~O ~ O~ f_ -1 Z D ~O ~ O~ ~ D ~O ~ O~ ~ Z ~O Cx O~ ~4 Z C~ O O ~ O ~ ~ O c~ ~ G~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ G~ oo O t_ t_ t_ t_ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C~ ~ c~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ G~ ~ ~ u: c~ c~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ C~ ~ 00 d- oo oo ~ ~) ~- <) Lr) ~ ~ ) c~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 00 00 ~ O ~_ O Cx ~) ~ O ~) ~ ~ ,_ c~ ~) O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 00 ~ c~ ._ ~ c~ ~ ~ ~ G~ c~ Cx O ~ ~ ~ ~ G~ ~ c~ ~ ~ ~ G~ ~ CN oO t_ ~ c~ c~ ~ O oO O ~ ~ c~ ~ ON ~ ~ 00 u~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ oo G~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c~ c~ Cx ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oo G~ G~ o0 G~ ~ G~ _ .- ~ ~ ~ Lr) ~ cM ~ ~ ~ c~ O ~ ~ ~ O O ~ ~ ~ O O ~ ~ ~ O O ~ ~ ~ O '_ ~ c~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c~ O 00 t_ ~ oN cN _ oo ~ 00 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~_ O c~ ~ ~ 00 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~) ~ ~ C~ O ~) ~ ~ ~ 1- <) t~ ~ ~ c~ c~ ~ ~ ~ ~ u~ f_ u~ ~ c~ ~ u~ ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ c~ ~ ~ ~ _ _ ~ ~ O ~ ~ O O ~ 00 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c~ u~ O Lr) ~ ~ ~ G~ O U~ C~ ~ C~ oo t~ f~ ~ ~ ~ c~ c~ ~ ~ c~ ~ - ~ oo ~ ~ ~ o c~ ~ c~ ~ c~ u: C] ~ u~ ~ G~ ~ oO G~ ~ Lr) oo M c~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c~ eM oo G~ O ~ c~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~ ~ ~ l - oo oo oo oo oo G~ ~ G~ ~ C~ ~ G~ ~ ~ - ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~ ~ ~ - - ~ r -

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105 Cal Cal Cal C) 4 - _ C) CO C) C) a' ._ o Cal o o Cal - C~ ._ CC Cal o C) ._ ._ C) Cal ._ ._ ~ ~ .= ~ Cal ._ Cal 5 z at) To of ~ C) Z D To Go Of I_ C) To Go O' ~ Al Z D To Go Of t_ Z To Go Of ~ G) Z O ~ O CO ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~- Cat ~ 00 0 00 ~ ~ O ~ ~ _4 ,_ ~ ~ ~ Cal ~ O ~ ~ O 00 00 ~ ~ ~ ~ O Cal) Go ~ can ~ ~ Go Us ~ US O 00 ~ ~ ~ 00 ~ 00 ~ ~ 0 00 ~ ~ ~ ~ 00 Hi 1_ ~ ~ ~ ~ t_ ~ Car CM 00 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ Cal ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Go ~ O ~- ~ 00 C~ ~ ~ ~ O O ~ ~ C~ ~ O ~ ~ O ~ ~ t_ ~ ~ Lr) C~ ~) oo G~ O ~ ~ ~ G~ oo oo ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C~ ~ ~ O O O ~ oo O ~ ~ ~ ~ U~ ~ CM ~ O oO C~ t ~ oo C~ G~ ~ ~ C~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oo O G~ O O O ~ G~ ~ ~ ~ cO CO C~ ~ ~ C~ ~ ~ ~ C~ ~ oo ~ O O ~ ~ ~ O oo ~ ~ ~ oo ~ ~ C~ ~ C~ ~ C~ O oO O ~ ~ G~ ~ ~ Cx ~ O ~ ~ O ~ O ~ ~ ~ O ?_ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C~ CM U~ ~ ~ o U oo C~ C~ - C~ oo ~ O ~ ~ oo oo oo Cx ~ 3N G~ ~ ~ G~ G~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ?_ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o

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106 .~ 4= o (J Cal Cal 5 C: - C~ 4 - bC ._ a 5 5 Cal CC C) C) o IMPS O _ =0 _ .= 4 - CC Cal Z to\ ~ Cal ~ ~ Z ._ ._ Cal Cal ._ CC Cot ._ ~ ~ .= ~ ._ Cal ._ X 5 z - C~ No Go o~ t_ Z ~o o~ Z - ~o o~ t_ _ Z e~ - Cx X ~ U: ~ ~ o ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ O O ~ ~ U~ ~ ~ ~ ._ ~ C~ oo ~ ~ ~ ~ oo U~ ~ O O oo oo O ~ o C/) C~ C~ ~ ~ ~4 C~ ~ ~ ~ C~ C~ O ~ G~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O O ~ X oo ~ c~ c~ ~ oo c~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 00 ~ ~N X ~ ~ ~ ~ O O X e~ c~ ~ CM c~ c~ ~ '_ ~ ~ ~ O O O O O O O O O O O O O ~ O O O ~) ~ O 00 CM ~ Lt) 00 00 C~ t_ ~4 C~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ f_ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ O O O ~ ~ ~) O O O oo C~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~_ f_ O ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C~ ~ O ~ O oo ~ ~- ~ ~ ~ oo C~ ~ ~ ~ C ~ C~ C~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oo ~ ~ ~ C~ ~ C~ ~ ~ ~ O oo ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C O ~- ~ ~) O ~) ~- ~ oO O f_ ~ ~ O ~ ~ ~ O oo ~ ~ X ~ X ~ CO ._ oo oo ~ oo C~ oo ~ O ~ C~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oo oo oo Cx ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C~ t_ ._ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ t_ ~ C~ C~ o oc o O C) ._ C~ ._ oc O ~0 5 C) 4 - 4- ~ O a5> ~o 5 11 ~ C') ._ ~ C) 3 CC o C ._ C) ._ C) C) S~ C) o cn _ 0O ._ ._ .= C) _ - C~ - C) 3 4= CC C~ ._ o 4= 5 C) X C~ z ._ C) C~ 5 C~ ~ ~ _ - C ) O OCR for page 80
APPENDIX B 1 20,000 1 05,000 cD 90,000 LU LU a: 75,000 C) of ~60,000 of UJ 45,000 9. F i rst-Year En rol I meets / 10 2 1V I ~ ! '` 30,000 1 5,000 1. Returning World War I I veterans 2. 3. 4. 4 l at, Ale' BS Degrees MS Deorees PhD Degrees __~ _ I 194 5 1950 195 5 1960 1965 YEAR Diminishing veteran pool and expected surplus of engineers Korean War and increasing R&D expenditures Returning Korean War veterans 5. Aerospace program cutbacks and economic recession 6. Vietnam War and greater space expenditures 7. Increased student interest in social-program careers 8. Adverse student attitudes toward engineering, dec, eased space and defense expenditures, and lowered col lege attendance Improved engineering job market, positive student attitudes toward engineering, and entry of nontraditional students (women, minori- ties, and foreign nationals) 10. Diminishing 1 8-year-old pool A Manual on Graduate Study in Engineering issued, based on 1945 Committee Report chaired by L. E. Grinter B ASEE Evaluation Report recommends greater stress on mathematics 107 1970 1975 1980 1985 and science and the engineering sciences. C ASEE Committee on the Development of Engineering Faculties recom- mends the doctorate for future engineering faculty. D ASEE Goals of Engineering Education recommends the master's de- gree for the majority of those who complete their undergraduate degree in the coming decade. FIGURE B-10 Historical factors influencing changes in engineering enrollments and degrees awarded from 1945 to 1984.