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Twenty-First Symposium on
NAVAL HYDRODYNAMICS

Wave-Induced Ship Motions and Loads

Frontier Experimental Techniques

Wake Dynamics

Viscous Ship Hydrodynamics

Water Entry

Wave Hydrodynamics/Stratified Flow

Bluff Body Hydrodynamics

Hydrodynamics in Ship Design

Shallow Water Hydrodynamics

Cavitation and Bubbly Flows

Propulsor Hydrodynamics/Hydroacoustics

Fluid Dynamics in the Naval Context

CFD Validation



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Twenty-First Symposium on NAVAL HYDRODYNAMICS Twenty-First Symposium on NAVAL HYDRODYNAMICS Wave-Induced Ship Motions and Loads Frontier Experimental Techniques Wake Dynamics Viscous Ship Hydrodynamics Water Entry Wave Hydrodynamics/Stratified Flow Bluff Body Hydrodynamics Hydrodynamics in Ship Design Shallow Water Hydrodynamics Cavitation and Bubbly Flows Propulsor Hydrodynamics/Hydroacoustics Fluid Dynamics in the Naval Context CFD Validation

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Twenty-First Symposium on NAVAL HYDRODYNAMICS Attendees at the Twenty-First Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, Trondheim, Norway, June 24–28, 1996.

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Twenty-First Symposium on NAVAL HYDRODYNAMICS Twenty-First Symposium on NAVAL HYDRODYNAMICS Wave-Induced Ship Motions and Loads Frontier Experimental Techniques Wake Dynamics Viscous Ship Hydrodynamics Water Entry Wave Hydrodynamics/Stratified Flow Bluff Body Hydrodynamics Hydrodynamics in Ship Design Shallow Water Hydrodynamics Cavitation and Bubbly Flows Propulsor Hydrodynamics/Hydroacoustics Fluid Dynamics in the Naval Context CFD Validation Sponsored Jointly by Office of Naval Research Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Naval Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997

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Twenty-First Symposium on NAVAL HYDRODYNAMICS The National Research Council serves as an independent advisor to the federal government on scientific and technical questions of national importance. Established in 1916 under the congressional charter of the private, nonprofit National Academy of Sciences, the Research Council brings the resources of the entire scientific and technical community to bear on national problems through its volunteer advisory committees. Today the Research Council stands as the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering and is administered jointly by the two academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Research Council has numerous operating units. One of these is the Naval Studies Board, which is charged with conducting and reporting on surveys and studies in the field of scientific research and development applicable to the operation and function of the Navy. A portion of the work done to prepare this document was performed under Department of Navy Contract N00014-95-1-1189 issued by the Office of Naval Research under contract authority NR 201–124. However, the content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Department of the Navy or the government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. The United States Government has at least a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable license throughout the world for government purposes to publish, translate, reproduce, deliver, perform, and dispose of all or any of this work, and to authorize others so to do. Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Twenty-First Symposium on NAVAL HYDRODYNAMICS NAVAL STUDIES BOARD David R.Heebner, Science Applications International Corporation (retired), Chair George M.Whitesides, Harvard University, Vice Chair Albert J.Baciocco, Jr., The Baciocco Group, Inc. Alan Berman, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University Norman E.Betaque, Logistics Management Institute Norval L.Broome, Mitre Corporation Gerald A.Cann, Raytheon Company Seymour J.Deitchman, Chevy Chase, Maryland, Special Advisor Anthony J.DeMaria, DeMaria ElectroOptics Systems, Inc. John F.Egan, Lockheed Martin Corporation Robert Hummel, Hummel Enterprises, Inc. David W.McCall, Far Hills, New Jersey Robert J.Murray, Center for Naval Analyses Robert B.Oakley, National Defense University William J.Phillips, Northstar Associates, Inc. Mara G.Prentiss, Jefferson Laboratory, Harvard University Herbert Rabin, University of Maryland Julie JCH Ryan, Booz, Allen and Hamilton Harrison Shull, Monterey, California Keith A.Smith, Vienna, Virginia Robert C.Spindel, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington David L.Stanford, Science Applications International Corporation H.Gregory Tornatore, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University J.Pace VanDevender, Prosperity Institute Vincent Vitto, Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Bruce Wald, Arlington Education Consultants Navy Liaison Representatives Paul G.Blatch, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (N911T1) Ronald N.Kostoff, Office of Naval Research Ronald D.Taylor, Director

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Twenty-First Symposium on NAVAL HYDRODYNAMICS COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS Robert J.Hermann, United Technologies Corporation, Co-Chair W.Carl Lineberger, University of Colorado, Co-Chair Peter M.Banks, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan Lawrence D.Brown, University of Pennsylvania Ronald G.Douglas, Texas A&M University John E.Estes, University of California at Santa Barbara L.Louis Hegedus, Elf Atochem North America, Inc. John E.Hopcroft, Cornell University Rhonda J.Hughes, Bryn Mawr College Shirley A.Jackson, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Kenneth H.Keller, University of Minnesota Kenneth I.Kellermann, National Radio Astronomy Observatory Margaret G.Kivelson, University of California at Los Angeles Daniel Kleppner, Massachusetts Institute of Technology John Kreick, Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company Marsha I.Lester, University of Pennsylvania Thomas A.Prince, California Institute of Technology Nicholas P.Samios, Brookhaven National Laboratory L.E.Scriven, University of Minnesota Shmuel Winograd, IBM T.J.Watson Research Center Charles A.Zraket, Mitre Corporation (retired) Norman Metzger, Executive Director

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Twenty-First Symposium on NAVAL HYDRODYNAMICS FOREWORD The Twenty-First Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics was held in Trondheim, Norway, from June 24–28, 1996. This international symposium was organized jointly by the Office of Naval Research (Mechanics and Energy Conversion S&T Division), the National Research Council (Naval Studies Board), and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. This biennial symposium promotes the technical exchange of naval research developments of common interest to all the countries of the world. The forum encourages both formal and informal discussion of the presented papers, and the occasion provides an opportunity for direct communication between international peers. More than 170 participants from 23 countries attended the symposium. The attendees represented a mixture of experience and expertise, as some attendees were newly graduated students and others were of established international repute. Seventy-two papers were presented in thirteen topical areas covered by the symposium, including wave-induced ship motions and loads, viscous ship hydrodynamics, wake dynamics, wave hydrodynamics, cavitation and bubbly flows, propulsor hydrodynamics/hydroacoustics, water entry, bluff body hydrodynamics, shallow water hydrodynamics, fluid dynamics in the naval context, CFD validation, frontier experimental techniques, and hydrodynamics in ship design. These topical areas were chosen for this particular meeting because of the recent advances made in them. Examples of the significant advances presented in the papers are the high-resolution numerical solution of bow waves for slender hull forms showing the origin of bow waves in the bow splash, the influence of cavitation nuclei on the cavitation bucket for full-scale predictions, the coupling of hydrodynamic impact and elastic response during slamming, and the development of a two-fluid turbulent flow computational method for surface ships. This brief list illustrates the quality and timeliness of the symposium for naval hydrodynamics. The symposium featured invited lectures each morning. The lectures were presented by M. Longuet-Higgins, H.Miyata, P.Bearman, J. Milgram, and M.Sevik and covered topics from breaking waves to bluff body wakes to hydroacoustics, as well as CFD simulations and hydrodynamics in sailing. These lectures by prominent international experts set the pace for the sessions that followed. The success of this symposium is the result of hard work on the part of many people. There was, of course, the Organizing and Paper Selection Committee consisting of myself, Dr. Patrick Purtell, and Mr. James Fein (Office of Naval Research), Dr. Ronald Taylor (National Research Council), Prof. Odd Faltinsen (Norwegian University of Science and Technology), Dr. William Morgan (David Taylor Model Basin), and Mr. John Dalzell (Journal of Ship Research). The contribution of this committee was certainly the cornerstone for the success of the symposium. However, the administrative preparation and execution, and the production of this archival volume, would not have been possible without the support of Mrs. Susan Campbell, Mrs. Dixie Gordon, and the staff of the Naval Studies Board of the National Research Council. Special appreciation is also extended to Ms. Emma Kenney, from my office, for handling the abstract collection and following through with the preparation of the discussion sections. Edwin P.Rood Office of Naval Research

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Twenty-First Symposium on NAVAL HYDRODYNAMICS

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Twenty-First Symposium on NAVAL HYDRODYNAMICS

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Twenty-First Symposium on NAVAL HYDRODYNAMICS This page in the original is blank.

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CONTENTS     OPENING REMARKS        Dr. Fred E. Saalfeld Deputy Chief of Naval Research/Technical Director   3     TECHNICAL SESSIONS        Invited Lecture        Progress Toward Understanding How Waves Break M.Longuet-Higgins (University of California at San Diego, USA)   7      Wave-Induced Ship Motions and Loads        Radiation and Diffraction Waves of a Ship at Forward Speed M.Ohkusu, G.Wen (Kyushu University, Japan)   29      Nonlinear Ship Motions and Wave-Induced Loads by a Rankine Method D.Kring, Y.-F.Huang, P.Sclavounos (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA), T.Vada, A.Braathen (Det Norske Veritas, Norway)   45      Nonlinear Water Wave Computations Using a Multipole Accelerated, Desingularized Method S.Scorpio, R.Beck (University of Michigan, USA), F.Korsmeyer (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)   64      Computations of Wave Loads Using a B-Spline Panel Method C.-H.Lee, H.Maniar, J.Newman, X.Zhu (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)   75      Wave-Induced Motions and Loads        Simulation of Strongly Nonlinear Wave Generation and Wave-Body Interactions Using a 3-D MEL Model P.Ferrant (SIREHNA, France)   93      Analysis of Interactions Between Nonlinear Waves and Bodies by Domain Decomposition G.-X.Wu, Q.-W.Ma (University College London, United Kingdom), R.Taylor (University of Oxford, United Kingdom)   110      Fourier-Kochin Theory of Free-Surface Flows F.Noblesse (David Taylor Model Basin, USA), X.-B.Chen (Bureau Veritas, France), C.Yang (George Mason University, USA)   120      Frontier Experimental Techniques        24-Inch Water Tunnel Flow Field Measurements During Propeller Crashback C.-W.Jiang,1 R.Dong,2 H.-L.Liu,1 M.-S.Chang1 (1David Taylor Model Basin, 2Johns Hopkins University, USA)   136      Accuracy of Wave Pattern Analysis Methods in Towing Tanks F.-X.Dumez, S.Cordier (Bassin d'Essais des Carènes, France)   147      Unsteady Three-Dimensional Cross-Flow Separation Measurements on a Prolate Spheroid Undergoing Time-Dependent Maneuvers T.Wetzel, R.Simpson (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA)   161

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     Wave-Induced Ship Motions and Loads        Time-Domain Calculations of First- and Second-Order Forces on a Vessel Sailing in Waves L.Sierevogel, A.Hermans (Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands), R.Huijsmans (Maritime Research Institute, The Netherlands)   177      Third-Order Volterra Modeling of Ship Responses Based on Regular Wave Results L.Adegeest (Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)   189      Nonlinearly Interacting Responses of the Two Rotational Modes of Motion—Roll and Pitch Motions I.-G.Oh (Samsung Heavy Industries, Korea), A.Nayfeh (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA)   205      Nonlinear Shallow-Water Flow on Deck Coupled with Ship Motion Z.-J.Huang, C.-C.Hsiung (Technical University of Nova Scotia, Canada)   220      Wake Dynamics        Radar Backscatter of a V-like Ship Wake from a Sea Surface Covered by Surfactants G.Zilman, T.Miloh (Tel-Aviv University, Israel)   235      Turbulent Free-Surface Flows: A Comparison Between Numerical Simulations and Experimental Measurements D.Dommermuth,1 M.Gharib,2 H.Huang,2 G.Innis,1 P.Maheo,2 E.Novikov,3 J.Talcott,1 D.Wyatt1 (Science Applications International Corporation, 2California Institute of Technology, 3University of California at San Diego, USA)   249      Conductivity Measurements in the Wake of Submerged Bodies in Density-Stratified Media T.Sarpkaya, T.Massidda (Naval Postgraduate School, USA)   266      Macro Wake Measurements for a Range of Ships M.Hoekstra, A.Aalbers (Maritime Research Institute, The Netherlands)   278      Invited Lecture        Time-Marching CFD Simulation for Moving Boundary Problems H.Miyata (University of Tokyo, Japan)   291      Viscous Ship Hydrodynamics        Yaw Effects on Model-Scale Ship Flows J.Longo, F.Stern (University of Iowa, USA)   312      A Multigrid Velocity-Pressure-Free Surface Elevation Fully Coupled Solver for Calculation of Turbulent Incompressible Flow Around a Hull B.Alessandrini, G.Delhommeau (Ecole Centrale de Nantes, France)   328      The Shoulder Wave and Separation Generated by a Surface-Piercing Strut E.Pogozelski, J.Katz (Johns Hopkins University, USA), T.Huang (David Taylor Model Basin, USA)   346      Vorticity Fields due to Rolling Bodies in a Free Surface—Experiment and Theory R.Yeung, C.Cermelli, S.-W.Liao (University of California at Berkeley, USA)   359      Numerical Calculations of Ship Stern Flows at Full-Scale Reynolds Numbers L.Eça (Instituto Superior Técnico, Portugal) M.Hoekstra (Maritime Research Institute, The Netherlands)   377      Near- and Far-Field CFD for a Naval Combatant Including Thermal-Stratification and Two-Fluid Modeling E.Paterson,1 M.Hyman,2 F.Stern,1 P.Carrica,3 F.Bonetto,3 D.Drew,3 R.Lahey, Jr.3 (1University of Iowa, 2Naval Surface Warfare Center [Panama City], 3Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA)   392

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     Water Entry        Water Entry of Arbitrary Two-Dimensional Sections with and Without Flow Separation R.Zhao,1 O.Faltinsen,2 J.Aarsnes1 (1MARINTEK, 2Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway)   408      Coupled Hydrodynamic Impact and Elastic Response D.-J.Kim,1 W.Vorus,2 A.Troesch,2 R.Gollwitzer3 (1University of Pusan, Korea; 2University of Michigan, USA; 3Naval Surface Warfare Center [Panama City], USA)   424      A Practical Prediction of Wave-Induced Structural Responses in Ships with Large Amplitude Motion M.-K.Wu, J.Aarsnes, O.Hermundstad (MARINTEK, Norway), T.Moan (Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway)   438      Viscous Ship Hydrodynamics        Evaluation of Eddy Viscosity and Second-Moment Turbulence Closures for Steady Flows Around Ships G.Deng, M.Visonneau (Ecole Centrale de Nantes, France)   453      On the Modeling of the Flow Past a Free-Surface-Piercing Flat Plate A.Di Mascio, M.Landrini, E.Campana (Istituto Nazionale per Studi ed Esperienze di Architettura Navale, Italy)   470      Self-Propelled Maneuvering Underwater Vehicles H.McDonald (Pennsylvania State University, USA), D.Whitfield (Mississippi State University, USA)   478      Spray Formation at the Free Surface of Turbulent Bow Sheets Z.Dai, L.-P.Hsiang, G.Faeth (University of Michigan, USA)   490      Wave Hydrodynamics/Stratified Flow        Numerical Simulation of Three-Dimensional Breaking Waves About Ships A.Kanai, T.Kawamura, H.Miyata (University of Tokyo, Japan)   506      Generation Mechanisms and Sources of Vorticity Within a Spilling Breaking Wave D.Dabiri, M.Gharib (California Institute of Technology, USA)   520      The Flow Field in Steady Breaking Waves D.Coakley (David Taylor Model Basin, USA), J.Duncan (University of Maryland, USA)   534      Freak Waves—A Three-Dimensional Wave Simulation K.Trulsen, K.Dysthe (University of Bergen, Norway)   550      Invited Lecture        Bluff Body Hydrodynamics P.Bearman (Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, United Kingdom)   561      Bluff Body Hydrodynamics        Large-Eddy Simulation of the Vortical Motion Resulting from Flow over Bluff Bodies S.Jordan (Naval Undersea Warfare Center, USA)   580      The Wake of a Bluff Body Moving Through Waves R.Arkell, J.Graham (Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, United Kingdom)   592      Low-Dimensional Modeling of Flow-Induced Vibrations via Proper Orthogonal Decomposition D.Newman, G.Karniadakis (Brown University, USA)   605

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     Measurements of Hydrodynamic Damping of Bluff Bodies with Application to the Prediction of Viscous Damping of TLP Hulls P.Bearman, M.Russell (Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, United Kingdom)   622      Invited Lecture        Hydrodynamics in Advanced Sailing Design J.Milgram (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)   635      Hydrodynamics in Ship Design        Divergent Bow Waves M.Tulin, M.Wu (University of California at Santa Barbara, USA)   661      A Method for the Optimization of Ship Hulls from a Resistance Point of View C.Janson, L.Larsson (Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden)   680      Hydrodynamic Optimization of Fast-Displacement Catamarans A.Papanikolaou, P.Kaklis, C.Koskinas, D.Spanos (National Technical University of Athens, Greece)   697      Shallow Water Hydrodynamics        On Ships at Supercritical Speeds X.-N.Chen (University of Stuttgart, Germany), S.Sharma (Mercator University, Germany)   715      The Influence of a Bottom Mud Layer on the Steady-State Hydrodynamics of Marine Vehicles L.Doctors (Australian Maritime Engineering Cooperative Research Center, Australia), G.Zilman, T.Miloh (Tel-Aviv University, Israel)   727      A Hybrid Approach to Capture Free-Surface and Viscous Effects for a Ship in a Channel V.Bertram (Institut für Schiffbau, Germany), S.Ishikawa (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Japan)   743      Cavitation and Bubbly Flows        Shock Waves in Cloud Cavitation C.Brennen, G.Reisman, Y.-C.Wang (California Institute of Technology, USA)   756      Asymptotic Solution of the Flow Problem and Estimate of Delay of Cavitation Inception for a Hydrofoil with a Jet Flap K.Rozhdestvensky, I.Belousov (St. Petersburg State Marine Technical University, Russia)   772      Examination of the Flow Near the Leading Edge and Closure of Stable Attached Cavitation A.Leger, P.-W.Yu, K.Laberteaux, S.Ceccio (University of Michigan, USA)   783      Wave Hydrodynamics/Stratified Flow        Numerical Investigation on the Turbulent and Vortical Flows Beneath the Free Surface Around Struts U.-C.Jeong, Y.Doi, K.-H.Mori (Hiroshima University, Japan)   794      Steep and Breaking Faraday Waves L.Jiang, M.Perlin, W.Schultz (University of Michigan, USA)   812      The Forces Exerted by Internal Waves on a Restrained Body Submerged in a Stratified Fluid N.Gavrilov, E.Ermanyuk, I.Sturova (Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics, Russia)   827

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     Cavitation and Bubbly Flows        Influence of the Cavitation Nuclei on the Cavitation Bucket when Predicting the Full-Scale Behavior of a Marine Propeller B.Gindroz (Bassin d'Essais des Carènes, France), G.Bailo (MARISPENAV, Italy), F.Matera, M.Elefante (MARISTAT SPMM, Italy)   839      Inception, Development, and Noise of a Tip Vortex Cavitation L.Briançon-Marjollet, L.Merle (Bassin d'Essais des Carènes, France)   851      Velocity and Turbulence in the Near-Field Region of Tip Vortices from Elliptical Wings: Its Impact on Cavitation A.Pauchet (Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Techniques Avancées, France)   865      Calculations of Pressure Fluctuations on the Ship Hull Induced by Intermittently Cavitating Propellers Y.-Z.Kehr, C.-Y.Hsin, Y.-C.Sun (National Taiwan Ocean University, Taiwan)   882      Invited Lecture        Hydroacoustic Considerations in Marine Propulsor Design M.Sevik (David Taylor Model Basin, USA)   898      Propulsor Hydrodynamics/Hydroacoustics        Prediction of Unsteady Performance of Marine Propellers with Cavitation Using Surface-Panel Method Y.-G.Kim (Samsung Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Korea), C.-S.Lee (Chungnam National University, Korea)   913      A Comparative Study of Conventional and Tip-Fin Propeller Performance P.Anderson (Technical University of Denmark, Denmark)   930      A New Way of Simulating Whale Tail Propulsion J.van Manen (Whale Tail Development, The Netherlands), T.van Terwisga (Maritime Research Institute, The Netherlands)   946      Effects of Tip-Clearance Flows Y.-T.Lee,1 J.Feng,2 C.Merkle,2 M.Tse1 (1David Taylor Model Basin, 2Pennsylvania State University, USA)   959      Experiments in the Swirling Wake of a Self-Propelled Axisymmetric Body A.Sirviente, V.Patel (University of Iowa, USA)   973      Hydrodynamic Forces on a Surface-Piercing Plate in Steady Maneuvering Motion Z.-J.Zou (Wuhan Transportation University, China)   986      Fluid Dynamics in the Naval Context        Advances in Panel Methods H.Söding (Institut für Schiffbau, Germany)   997      Effect of Ship Motion on DD-963 Ship Airwake Simulated by Multizone Navier-Stokes Solution T.Tai (David Taylor Model Basin, USA)   1007      Large-Eddy Simulation of Decaying Free-Surface Turbulence with Dynamic Mixed Subgrid-Scale Models M.Salvetti (Università di Pisa, Italy), Y.Zang, R.Street (Stanford University, USA), S.Banerjee (University of California at Santa Barbara, USA)   1018

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     CFD Validation        Fully Nonlinear Hydrodynamic Calculations for Ship Design on Parallel Computing Platforms G.Cowles, L.Martinelli (Princeton University, USA)   1033      Validation of Incompressible Flow Computation of Forces and Moments on Axisymmetric Bodies Undergoing Constant Radius Turning C.-H.Sung, T.-C.Fu, M.Griffin, T.Huang (David Taylor Model Basin, USA)   1048      The Validation of CFD Predictions of Nominal Wake for the SUBOFF Fully Appended Geometry P.Bull (Defence Research Agency, United Kingdom)   1061      APPENDIX—LIST OF PARTICIPANTS   1077