Aviation Fuels with Improved Fire Safety

A PROCEEDINGS

Committee on Aviation Fuels with Improved Fire Safety

National Materials Advisory Board

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

NMAB-490

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1997



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Aviation Fuels with Improved Fire Safety: A Proceedings Aviation Fuels with Improved Fire Safety A PROCEEDINGS Committee on Aviation Fuels with Improved Fire Safety National Materials Advisory Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NMAB-490 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997

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Aviation Fuels with Improved Fire Safety: A Proceedings NOTICE: The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an advisor to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This study by the National Materials Advisory Board and the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology was conducted under Federal Aviation Administration Research Grant No. 93-G-040 and Department of Defense Contract No. MDA972-92-C-0028. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 97-68118 International Standard Book Number 0-309-05833-3 Available in limited supply from: National Materials Advisory Board 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW HA-262 Washington, D.C. 20418 202-334-3505 nmab@nas.edu Additional copies are available for sale from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area) Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Cover: Schlieren frames of Jet A under different air and fuel flow rate conditions. Source: Thor I. Eklund and Joseph C. Cox. 1978. Flame Propagation Through Sprays of Antimisting Fuels. NAFEC Technical Letter Report NA-78-66-LR. Atlantic City, N.J.: National Aviation Facilities Experimental Center. Printed in the United States of America.

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Aviation Fuels with Improved Fire Safety: A Proceedings COMMITTEE ON AVIATION FUELS WITH IMPROVED FIRE SAFETY JOHN J. WISE (chair), Mobil Research and Development Corporation, Paulsboro, New Jersey JAMES DAY, Belcan Engineering Group, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio FREDERICK DRYER, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey PEYMAN GIVI, State University of New York, Buffalo RICHARD HALL, Imbibitive Technologies, Midland, Michigan SYED QUTUBUDDIN, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio ELIZABETH WECKMAN, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario Technical Consultant THOR I. EKLUND, Federal Aviation Administration (retired), Atlantic City, New Jersey National Materials Advisory Board Liaison Representative MICHAEL JAFFE, Hoechst Celanese Research Division, Summit, New Jersey National Materials Advisory Board Staff THOMAS E. MUNNS, Senior Program Officer JOHN A. HUGHES, Research Associate BONNIE A. SCARBOROUGH, Research Associate AIDA C. NEEL, Senior Project Assistant

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Aviation Fuels with Improved Fire Safety: A Proceedings NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD ROBERT A. LAUDISE (chair), Lucent Technologies, Inc., Murray Hill, New Jersey REZA ABBASCHIAN, University of Florida, Gainesville JAN D. ACHENBACH, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois MICHAEL I. BASKES, Sandia-Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California JESSE BEAUCHAMP, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena FRANCIS DISALVO, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York EDWARD C. DOWLING, Cyprus AMAX Minerals Company, Englewood, Colorado ANTHONY G. EVANS, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts JOHN A. S. GREEN, The Aluminum Association, Washington, D.C. JOHN H. HOPPS, JR., Morehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia MICHAEL JAFFE, Hoechst Celanese Research Division, Summit, New Jersey SYLVIA M. JOHNSON, SRI International, Menlo Park, California LIONEL C. KIMERLING, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge HARRY LIPSITT, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio RICHARD S. MULLER, University of California, Berkeley ELSA REICHMANIS, Lucent Technologies, Inc., Murray Hill, New Jersey KENNETH L. REIFSNIDER, Virginia Polytechnic University & State University, Blacksburg EDGAR A. STARKE, University of Virginia, Charlottesville KATHLEEN C. TAYLOR, General Motors Corporation, Warren, Michigan JAMES WAGNER, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland JOSEPH WIRTH, Raychem Corporation (retired), Menlo Park, California BILL G.W. YEE, Pratt and Whitney, West Palm Beach, Florida ROBERT E. SCHAFRIK, Director

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Aviation Fuels with Improved Fire Safety: A Proceedings BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY ROYCE W. MURRAY (co-chair), University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill JOHN J. WISE (co-chair), Mobil Research and Development Corporation, Paulsboro, New Jersey HANS C. ANDERSEN, Stanford University, Stanford, California JOHN L. ANDERSON, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania DAVID C. BONNER, Westlake Group, Houston, Texas PHILIP H. BRODSKY, Monsanto Company, Saint Louis, Missouri MARVIN H. CARUTHERS, University of Colorado, Boulder GREGORY R. CHOPPIN, Florida State University, Tallahassee MOSTAFA EL-SAYED, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta JOANNA S. FOWLER, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York JUDITH C. GIORDAN, ViE, Inc., Villanova, Pennsylvania LOUIS C. GLASGOW, E.I. duPont de Nemours and Company, Wilmington, Delaware JOHN G. GORDON, IBM, San Jose, California ROBERT H. GRUBBS, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena VICTORIA F. HAYNES, B.F. Goodrich Company, Brecksville, Ohio GEORGE J. HIRASAKI, Rice University, Houston, Texas GARY E. MCGRAW, Eastman Chemical Company, Kingsport, Tennessee WAYNE H. PITCHER, JR., Genencor International, Inc., Palo Alto, California GABOR A. SOMORJAI, University of California, Berkeley JOAN S. VALENTINE, University of California, Los Angeles WILLIAM J. WARD III, General Electric, Schenectady, New York DOUGLAS J. RABER, Director

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Aviation Fuels with Improved Fire Safety: A Proceedings Preface Fire hazards associated with aircraft fuels have been a major concern of the military services, the Federal Aviation Administration, aircraft manufacturers, and aircraft operators. Current approaches to reduce the likelihood of fuel ignition emphasize design criteria for the routing of electrical wiring and fluid lines, fuel tank venting, engine fire walls, fire detection and suppression systems, and material fire resistance, as well as procedural rules regarding the storage, handling, and dispensing of fuel. However, as described in the 1996 National Research Council publication Fire-and Smoke-Resistant Interior Materials for Commercial Transport Aircraft: "Fuel flammability can overwhelm post-crash fire scenarios." Thus the reduction of the fire hazard of fuel is most critical for improving survivability for impact-survivable accidents. The purpose of the Workshop on Aviation Fuels with Improved Fire Safety, held on November 19–20, 1996, at the National Research Council's Georgetown Facility, Washington, D.C., was to review the current state of development, technological needs, and promising technology for the future development of aviation fuels that are more resistant to ignition during a crash. The organizing committee, which included recognized experts in aviation fuels, propulsion systems, combustion and flammability, additive materials, and analysis methods, developed the workshop format and agenda and identified potential participants. The committee felt that the most effective way to address this multidisciplinary topic was to include a series of invited presentations to provide background and perspective for workshop discussions and to introduce information on state-of-the-art technological developments. The invited speakers prepared summary papers, which are included in this proceedings (Parts II–IV). The workshop summary presented in Part I of this proceedings describes the subsequent workshop discussions and presents ideas for research and development that workshop participants felt were needed to develop fuels with improved fire safety. This workshop provided a unique opportunity for participants representing a diverse range of technical backgrounds and experiences to get together to discuss a very difficult and important problem. The importance of the problem was impressed on the participants by a tragic accident that occurred at Baldwin Municipal Airport outside Quincy, Illinois, on the first evening of the meeting (November 19). The accident, as reported by the Chicago Tribune (November 20, 1996), involved a collision, on the ground, of a commuter aircraft with a private aircraft. The subsequent fuel fire, which resulted in 13 fatalities, was so intense that rescue personnel could not intervene. This proceedings provides a summary of the results of the workshop and represents the views and opinions of the participants. The objective of the workshop was to identify technical issues and develop ideas for investigation and further development in an important area that has been essentially neglected for more than a decade. The committee hopes that the results of this effort catalyze further assessments by government and industrial organizations that will lead to real improvements in aviation fuel fire safety for both military and commercial operations. Comments and suggestions can be sent via Internet electronic mail to nmab@nas.edu or by FAX to the NMAB (202) 334-3718. JOHN J. WISE, CHAIR COMMITTEE ON AVIATION FUELS WITH IMPROVED FIRE SAFETY

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Aviation Fuels with Improved Fire Safety: A Proceedings Acknowledgments The committee on Aviation Fuels with improved fire safety acknowledges the hard work of the invited speakers, who prepared outstanding presentations that provided important background for workshop discussions and excellent papers for inclusion in this proceedings. The committee would also like to thank all of the workshop participants for contributing their time and energy to the workshop discussions. The committee would also like to thank Douglas Mearns of the Naval Air Systems Command and Robert Morris of the Naval Research Laboratory for their help in planning the workshop. The committee is particularly grateful to Thor I. Eklund, whose vision helped to initiate this effort and whose perseverance and expertise helped to complete the proceedings. Finally, the committee gratefully acknowledges the support of Thomas Munns, National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB) senior program officer, Aida C. Neel, NMAB senior project assistant, and Jack Hughes (until August, 1996) and Bonnie Scarborough, NMAB research associates.

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Aviation Fuels with Improved Fire Safety: A Proceedings Contents I. SUMMARY OF WORKSHOP     1   Background and Historical Perspective   3     Aircraft Fire Safety   3     Federal Aviation Administration Research on Fuel Fire Safety   4     Policy Context   6     References   6 2   Workshop Discussions   7     Fuel and Additive Technologies   7     Aircraft Fuel System Requirements   8     Characterizing Fuel Fires   10     Fire Inerting and Suppression Technologies   11     Cost Considerations   12     References   12 3   Summary of Progress and Opportunities   13     Fuel and Additive Technologies   13     Aircraft Fuel System Requirements   14     Characterizing Fuel Fires   14     General Concepts   15     Research Opportunities   15 II. PRESENTED PAPERS: FUEL AND ADDITIVE TECHNOLOGIES     4   Potential Surfactant Additives: The Search for the Oxymoron Paul Becher   19 5   Fire Safety in Military Aircraft Fuel Systems Robert Clodfelter   21 6   Rheology: Tools and Methods Saad Khan, Joseph R. Royer, and Srinivasa R. Raghavan   31 7   Jet Fuel Chemistry and Formulation William F. Taylor   47 8   Concepts for Safe-Fuel Technology Bernard R. Wright   53 III. PRESENTED PAPERS: AIRCRAFT FUEL SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS     9   Engine Fuel System Design Issues Matthias Eder   61 10   Applications of Vulnerability Analysis and Test Methods to Aircraft Design Hugh Griffis   65 11   Aircraft Fuel System Design Issues Harendra K. Mehta and A. Thomas Peacock   73

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Aviation Fuels with Improved Fire Safety: A Proceedings IV. PRESENTED PAPERS: CHARACTERIZING FUEL FIRES     12   Combustion Fluid Mechanics: Tools and Methods Gerard M. Faeth   81 13   Fundamentals of Fuel Ignition and Flammability William A. Sirignano   97 14   Post-Crash Fuel Dispersal Sheldon R. Tieszen   107 APPENDICES     A   Workshop Participants   123 B   New Concepts in Fuel Fire Research: Final Summary Report of Short-Term Advisory Services (STAS) Team   125 C   Biographical Sketches of the Committee Members and Technical Consultant   141

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Aviation Fuels with Improved Fire Safety: A Proceedings Figures and Tables FIGURES 1-1   Controlled impact demonstration (CID) at Edwards Air Force Base, December 1984,   5 5-1   Availability of distillate fuels   22 5-2   Demand for kerosene jet fuel in the United States   23 5-3   The fire pyramid   24 5-4   Autoignition temperature (AIT) and flash point temperature measurement apparatus   24 5-5   Flammable liquids classification from the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and Hazardous Substances Act as related to flash point   25 5-6   Rate of flammability volume buildup   26 5-7   Flammable zone between leaking fuel-rich vapors and ambient air   26 5-8   Flammable regions for JP-4   27 5-9   Flame spread across a jet fuel spill   27 5-10   Fire problem associated with projectiles piercing the fuel tank   28 6-1   Rod climbing (Weissenberg effect)   32 6-2   Tubeless siphon   33 6-3   Two types of shear deformation   33 6-4   Examples of material behavior under steady shear (flow curves)   35 6-5   Maxwell model for a viscoelastic material   37 6-6   Dynamic rheology and microstructure of colloidal dispersions   38 6-7   Dynamic mechanical spectrum (G´ and G´´ as functions of frequency ∞) for a typical polymer melt over a wide range of frequencies   39 6-8   A rheological experiment on a cone-and-plate geometry on a strain-controlled rotational rheometer   40 6-9   Uniaxial extensional flow on a cylindrical fluid element   41 6-10   Typical behavior of a polymer melt under steady shear and steady uniaxial extension   42 6-11   Steady shear viscosity (η) as a function of shear rate for two colloidal dispersions   42 6-12   Elastic (G´) and viscous (G´´) moduli as a function of frequency for the fumed-silica dispersions shown in Figure 6-11   43 6-13   Steady shear viscosity (η) as a function of shear stress for aqueous solutions of an associative polymer   43 6-14   Elastic (G´) and viscous (G´´) moduli as a function of frequency for two associative polymer solutions   44 7-1   Two examples of chemical processing sequences used to produce jet fuel blend stocks   48 7-2   Two examples of catalytic treatments in the presence of hydrogen used to manufacture jet fuel bland stocks   49 7-3   Typical aviation fuel distribution system   51 9-1   Fuel system design for military aircraft: schematic drawing of the engine hydromechanical control system   62 9-2   Fuel system design for commercial aircraft: schematic drawing of PW 4084 fuel distribution system   63 10-1   Fire and explosion elements   65 10-2   Trade-off study approach   68

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Aviation Fuels with Improved Fire Safety: A Proceedings 11-1   Airplane fuel system, general arrangement   74 11-2   Engine and APU fuel feed system   75 11-3   A shrouded fuel line in a pressurized compartment   76 11-4   Typical installation of a fuel tank vent system   77 12-1   Measured and predicted structure of a laminar liquid-fueled diffusion flame   82 12-2   Measured universal state relationship for carbon dioxide species concentrations in laminar hydrocarbon-fueled diffusion flames   83 12-3   Measured mean mixture fraction distributions for round buoyant turbulent plumes plotted in terms of self-preserving variables   84 12-4   Measured and predicted profiles of mean streamwise velocities for self-preserving round buoyant turbulent plumes   84 12-5   Measured turbulent Prandtl/Schmidt numbers for self-preserving round buoyant turbulent plumes   85 12-6   Measured and predicted trajectory of the center-line of a plume for a round 204 MW fire source in a 4 m/s cross-flow with a -9.2 K/km lapse rate   86 12-7   Measured and predicted properties of a round buoyant turbulent acetylene/air diffusion flame   87 12-8   Measured and predicted temperatures for a rectangular liquid pool fire burning in air within an enclosure   87 12-9   Measured and predicted spectral radiation intensities for horizontal paths through the axis of acetylene-fueled round buoyant turbulent diffusion flames burning in air   88 12-10   Predicted state relationships for major gas species for an n-pentane spray burning in air at atmospheric pressure   89 12-11   Measured SMD after turbulent primary breakup of round liquid jets in still air with fully developed turbulent pipe flow at the jet exit   91 12-12   Measured and predicted mean and fluctuating particle properties in a round turbulent particle/air jet in still air at NTP   93 13-1   Basic configuration for flame spread above a liquid pool   98 13-2   Effect of initial fuel temperature (T0) on spread rate and domain size (δflow) for liquid motion   98 13-3   Pulsation cycle for flame spread above liquid fuel at low initial temperatures (T0)   99 13-4   Schematic diagram of the flow field approximations used around a hot projectile ignition   101 13-5   Variation along the limit of the relative velocity of the hot projectile with projectile temperature (TW) and projectile characteristics (L or R) or near wake length (L´)   101 13-6   Ignition time delay versus equivalence ratio (normalized mixture ratio) and initial droplet radius   102 13-7   Ignition time delay and ignition energy (Qig) versus distance from a hot wall   103 13-8   Ignition delay versus equivalence ratio for a polydisperse spray   103 13-9   Fuel vapor mass fraction versus axial position at various times   104 13-10   Gas temperature versus axial position at various times   105 14-1   Dual role of fuel dispersal from a process perspective   108 14-2   Processes involved in aircraft crashes as a function of time   109 14-3   Classification of crashes by impact velocity   110 14-4   Stages of pre-ignition fuel dispersal in the medium-impact velocity regime   111 14-5   Stages of post-ignition fuel dispersal in the medium-impact velocity regime   111 14-6   Transition from medium-to high-impact velocity regimes   113 14-7   Stages of fuel dispersal in the high-impact velocity regime   113 14-8   Example of numerical simulation tool for the impact stage of dispersal   114 14-9   Example of impact facility for studying the impact stage showing liquid impact into soil to determine dispersal   115

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Aviation Fuels with Improved Fire Safety: A Proceedings 14-10   Example of a numerical simulation tool for the study of the interphase momentum exchange stage using a modified version of the KIVA-II code,   116 14-11   Example of impact facility for studying the impact stage showing liquid impact into a runway,   117 B-1   Hypothetical structure of an ''association" polymer,   131 B-2   Micro-emulsion system water/K oleate/1-hexanol/hexdecane. S/CS ratio: 3/5,   133 B-3   Effect of temperature,   133 B-4   Ternary water-alcohol-hydrocarbon solutions,   134 B-5   Plan for "new" fire-resistant fuel (FRF),   137 TABLES 5-1   Comparison of the Properties of Aviation Fuels,   21 5-2   Characteristics of Current Military Fuel Additives,   22 5-3   Flammability Properties of Aircraft Fluids,   28 5-4   Fire Prevention, Fire Detection, and Fire Control Techniques (MIL-F-87168),   29 5-5   Effects of Fuel Properties on Aircraft Performance and Fire Safety,   29 7-1   Examples of Some Jet Fuel Specifications,   48 7-2   Variations in Kerosene Hydrocarbon Compounds,   50 10-1   Ignition Sources from Ballistic Threats,   66 10-2   Ignition Sources from Mechanical Failures,   66 10-3   Location of Flammable Materials,   67 10-4   Damage Modes and Effects,   67 10-5   Factors That Alter the Probability of Fires and Explosions,   68 10-6   Hardening Approaches to Reducing Fires,   69 10-7   Hardening Approaches to Reducing Explosions,   70 B-1   Reference Fuel Properties,   130 B-2   Plan for "New" Fire-Resistant Fuel (FRF),   137

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