Appendix B Risk Assessment Expert Panel on the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility Quantitative Risk Assessment

The Risk Assessment Expert Panel on the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility Quantitative Risk Assessment (the Expert Panel), was established to provide an ongoing independent review of the DCD/TOCDF QRA. The Expert Panel is a group of five experts who were brought together under contract with MITRETEK Systems, Inc., and who operate independently of project management. Three of the panel members have extensive QRA experience, primarily in the field of nuclear reactor safety, with additional experience in the analysis of aerospace and chemical process facilities. One panel member is a member of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. Another is a combustion expert from Brigham Young University in Salt Lake City, Utah, who also provides some degree of local perspective for the panel. Two are professors of engineering at major universities. Two are chemical engineers with process safety experience. All five have extensive professional experience and are consultants for major organizations. Biographical information on members of the Expert Panel follows:

George Apostolakis is a professor of nuclear engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His research interests include mathematical methods for risk and reliability assessment of complex technological systems; uncertainty analysis; decision analysis; fire risk assessment; human reliability models; expert systems; the application of probabilistic models to safety and reliability analyses of nuclear reactors; chemical process systems, space systems, and the control of hazardous substances.

Dr. Apostolakis has served as a consultant to many organizations. Currently, he is a member of the Senior Seismic Hazards Analysis Committee of the Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Electric Power Research Institute. He is a member of the Sandia National Laboratories Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Working Group and was a senior PRA advisor for U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Director, New Production Reactors. His recent work includes the development of an integrated approach to incorporating organizational performance into probabilistic safety assessment methodology and formal methods for incorporating expert judgment into risk assessments.

Dr. Apostolakis has received many honors and special recognition. He is a fellow of the Society for Risk Analysis and the American Nuclear Society. He served as honorary chairman of the American Nuclear Society Topical Meeting on PSA in 1993. In 1991, he received an Outstanding Service Award from the Society for Risk Analysis.

Formerly, Dr. Apostolakis was a professor in the School of Engineering and Applied Science at the University of California at Los Angeles. His Ph.D., from the California Institute of Technology, is in engineering science and applied mathematics.

Robert J. Budnitz has been involved with the safety of both nuclear and chemical installations for many years. From 1978 to 1980, he was deputy director, then director of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission' s (U.S. NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. In 1981, Dr. Budnitz formed a private consulting firm,



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Appendix B Risk Assessment Expert Panel on the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility Quantitative Risk Assessment The Risk Assessment Expert Panel on the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility Quantitative Risk Assessment (the Expert Panel), was established to provide an ongoing independent review of the DCD/TOCDF QRA. The Expert Panel is a group of five experts who were brought together under contract with MITRETEK Systems, Inc., and who operate independently of project management. Three of the panel members have extensive QRA experience, primarily in the field of nuclear reactor safety, with additional experience in the analysis of aerospace and chemical process facilities. One panel member is a member of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. Another is a combustion expert from Brigham Young University in Salt Lake City, Utah, who also provides some degree of local perspective for the panel. Two are professors of engineering at major universities. Two are chemical engineers with process safety experience. All five have extensive professional experience and are consultants for major organizations. Biographical information on members of the Expert Panel follows: George Apostolakis is a professor of nuclear engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His research interests include mathematical methods for risk and reliability assessment of complex technological systems; uncertainty analysis; decision analysis; fire risk assessment; human reliability models; expert systems; the application of probabilistic models to safety and reliability analyses of nuclear reactors; chemical process systems, space systems, and the control of hazardous substances. Dr. Apostolakis has served as a consultant to many organizations. Currently, he is a member of the Senior Seismic Hazards Analysis Committee of the Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Electric Power Research Institute. He is a member of the Sandia National Laboratories Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Working Group and was a senior PRA advisor for U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Director, New Production Reactors. His recent work includes the development of an integrated approach to incorporating organizational performance into probabilistic safety assessment methodology and formal methods for incorporating expert judgment into risk assessments. Dr. Apostolakis has received many honors and special recognition. He is a fellow of the Society for Risk Analysis and the American Nuclear Society. He served as honorary chairman of the American Nuclear Society Topical Meeting on PSA in 1993. In 1991, he received an Outstanding Service Award from the Society for Risk Analysis. Formerly, Dr. Apostolakis was a professor in the School of Engineering and Applied Science at the University of California at Los Angeles. His Ph.D., from the California Institute of Technology, is in engineering science and applied mathematics. Robert J. Budnitz has been involved with the safety of both nuclear and chemical installations for many years. From 1978 to 1980, he was deputy director, then director of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission' s (U.S. NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. In 1981, Dr. Budnitz formed a private consulting firm,

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Future Resources Associates, Inc. His clients have included U.S. government organizations, including the U.S. NRC, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Army, and the National Science Foundation, as well as foreign government organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Dr. Budnitz has served as chairman and committee member of many professional groups. Currently, he chairs the National Research Council Committee on Remediation of Buried and Tank Wastes. He is chairman of DOE's Oversight Panel for the Yucca Mountain Seismic Hazards Evaluation and chairman of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company's Senior Seismic Advisory Panel. He is a member of DOE's Expert Panel on Aircraft Crash Risk Analysis Methodology and a member of the Sandia National Laboratories peer review team for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment. Dr. Budnitz is a U.S. representative on the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development Safety Review Group for the nuclear safety of Soviet designed reactors. In 1987, Dr. Budnitz served as a member of the review panel organized by General Atomics for the U.S. Army Chemical Munitions Disposal Risk Assessment. Dr. Budnitz has been prominent in the field of nuclear reactor safety assessment, including probabilistic risk assessment. In recent years, Dr. Budnitz's research has concentrated on the analysis of external accident initiators (e.g., earthquakes, floods, winds, and aircraft). Dr. Budnitz has published numerous papers and reports, among them the principal invited paper on external events at the International Topical Meeting on Probabilistic Safety Assessment, which was cited as the ''Outstanding Paper.'' Dr. Budnitz has a B.A. from Yale University and an M.A. and Ph.D. from Harvard University, all in physics. Paul O. Hedman is a professor of chemical engineering at Brigham Young University. His interests include chemical and jet propulsion, combustion and gasification, laser instrumentation, fossil energy, and reacting flows. Dr. Hedman has led research in these areas under contracts with several organizations, including the U.S. Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the National Science Foundation, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. He has taught courses on principles of chemical processes, heat and mass transfer, thermodynamics, combustion, and several other subjects. He has also published numerous technical papers and reports. While on professional development leave at United Technologies Research Center, Dr. Hedman conducted combustion research in high pressure diffusion and premixed gaseous flames. He has also held fellowships at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, where he made combustion measurements using laser diagnostics on a simulated jet engine combustor. Dr. Hedman has been a consultant to the Environmental Protection Agency's Science Advisory Board; the National Bureau of Standards; Occidental Research Corporation; Lockheed Research; Jaycor, Inc.; Atlantic Research Corporation; and Utah Power and Light. He is a member of the Combustion Institute and three honor societies. He is also an independent member of the American Flame Research Committee of the International Flame Research Foundation. Dr. Hedman's previous professional experience includes four years at Marquardt Corporation, six years at Thiokol Chemical Corporation, three years at Lockheed Propulsion Company, two years with Tetra Tech, Inc., and two years with the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration. Dr. Hedman received his B.S. degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Utah and his Ph.D. in chemical engineering from Brigham Young University. Gareth W. Parry is a senior advisor on probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation at the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. For the major part of this review, he was a project manager in the Energy Risk and Reliability Department of Halliburton NUS. Throughout his career, Dr. Parry has provided expertise in several key areas of PRA, such as data analysis and parameter estimation, common cause failure analysis, external hazard analysis, human reliability analysis, and uncertainty analysis. He has written numerous publications in these areas. Some of Dr. Parry's recent projects include: managing the individual plant examination for external events (IPEEE) being performed by NUS for three nuclear stations; participating in the development of methods for human reliability analysis sponsored by the Nuclear

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Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC); and making improvements to the systematic human action reliability procedure (SHARP). Dr. Parry has done extensive development work on the analysis of common cause failures (CCFS) and authored U.S. NRC/Electric Power Research Institute and International Atomic Energy Agency procedural guides for CCF analysis. He has also performed data development and uncertainty analyses in support of PRAs for numerous nuclear power plants. He was a principal author of the chapter on Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis in the U.S. NRC PRA Procedures Guide. Prior to his employment with NUS, Dr. Parry worked for the United Kingdom's Atomic Energy Authority. He also has carried out research in theoretical high energy physics at the University of Durham and the International Centre of Theoretical Physics, in Trieste, Italy. Dr. Parry has a Ph.D in theoretical physics from the Imperial College, London University. Richard W. Prugh is president of Process Safety Engineering, Inc., (PSE), of Wilmington, Delaware. As a chemical process safety consultant, he has conducted many process safety studies as well as authored numerous papers. His specialties include chemical process safety analysis, explosion hazards analysis, toxic vapor cloud analysis, safety assessments, fire protection, and electrical hazards analysis. Mr. Prugh has been with PSE (formerly known as Hazard Reduction Engineering) since 1985. During this time he was also a consultant to E.I. duPont de Nemours and CONDUX, Inc., and has been a part-time staff member of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers Center for Chemical Process Safety. From 1955 to 1985, Mr. Prugh was employed by E.I. duPont de Nemours. From 1952 to 1954, he served in the U.S. Air Force as a second lieutenant in the Air Rescue Service. Mr. Prugh has recently conducted several process safety studies, including an Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) HAZOP study for a chemical plant in North Carolina; a failure modes and effects analysis for a chemical plant in New Jersey; an over-pressure protection design study for an electrical equipment manufacturer in New York; and a pre-startup safety review for OSHA/EPA for a chemical plant in Arkansas. Mr. Prugh has an M.S. degree in chemical engineering from Stevens Institute of Technology. He has undertaken additional studies in the areas of nuclear engineering (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), biomedical engineering (Drexel Institute of Technology), business law (Temple University) and chemical engineering (University of Delaware). Mr. Prugh is a certified quantitative consequence analyst, a certified safety professional, and a hazardous materials first responder. He is also certified as a professional engineer in New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and California.