4
Findings and Recommendations

The Joint Working Group (JWG) believes that increased cooperation between U.S. and Mexican ocean scientists could yield many benefits to the environmental quality, economic prosperity, and quality of science in both nations. In previous chapters, the JWG has discussed both potential science activities and other important actions that would promote binational research. These discussions provide the basis for the findings and recommendations outlined below. The JWG believes that the recommended actions should be implemented expeditiously. In most cases, federal agencies of the two nations should work together to implement them. Other recommendations are more applicable to ocean scientists, universities and marine science institutions, scientific societies, and the national academies of science. It is crucial that the recommendations listed below are implemented in ways that lead to genuine collaborative programs and interactions in ocean sciences, not merely in the creation of new levels of bureaucracy.

BINATIONAL AND MULTINATIONAL RESEARCH

Finding: There are strong scientific reasons and compelling societal concerns to justify multidisciplinary, long-term, regional-scale studies of ocean processes occurring on both the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific coasts, as shown by the examples provided in Chapter 2 .

There has been an increasing trend toward cooperation between Mexican and U.S. ocean scientists in the past half century. The JWG believes, however, that many significant opportunities have been missed and that cooperative ocean science activities could be expanded manifold, to the benefit of both nations. In



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Building Ocean Science Partnerships: The United States and Mexico Working Together 4 Findings and Recommendations The Joint Working Group (JWG) believes that increased cooperation between U.S. and Mexican ocean scientists could yield many benefits to the environmental quality, economic prosperity, and quality of science in both nations. In previous chapters, the JWG has discussed both potential science activities and other important actions that would promote binational research. These discussions provide the basis for the findings and recommendations outlined below. The JWG believes that the recommended actions should be implemented expeditiously. In most cases, federal agencies of the two nations should work together to implement them. Other recommendations are more applicable to ocean scientists, universities and marine science institutions, scientific societies, and the national academies of science. It is crucial that the recommendations listed below are implemented in ways that lead to genuine collaborative programs and interactions in ocean sciences, not merely in the creation of new levels of bureaucracy. BINATIONAL AND MULTINATIONAL RESEARCH Finding: There are strong scientific reasons and compelling societal concerns to justify multidisciplinary, long-term, regional-scale studies of ocean processes occurring on both the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific coasts, as shown by the examples provided in Chapter 2 . There has been an increasing trend toward cooperation between Mexican and U.S. ocean scientists in the past half century. The JWG believes, however, that many significant opportunities have been missed and that cooperative ocean science activities could be expanded manifold, to the benefit of both nations. In

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Building Ocean Science Partnerships: The United States and Mexico Working Together Chapter 2, the JWG describes a set of potential cooperative activities based in the Pacific Ocean, the Gulf of California, and the Intra-Americas Sea. In the Pacific Ocean, there are important research questions related to the cause of regional variations in fish abundance, and the role of oceanic physical processes and their effects on top predators such as marine mammals and seabirds. There is evidence that the physical-biological regime of the California Current System varies between alternate conditions, possibly in response to global climate variations. Also in relation to climate, both the California Borderland and the Gulf of California provide the opportunity to study past conditions through analysis of laminated sediments whose deposition is affected by climate. Although the Gulf of California is located entirely within the borders of Mexico, the United States has a large effect on this gulf because of the reduction of the quantity and quality of the water entering the head of the gulf through the Colorado River, as well as the major impact of U.S. tourists on the region. In addition, the open Pacific coast and the Gulf of California are physically connected and share many features of biology and geology. A number of research topics specific to the Gulf of California are both scientifically interesting and important to society, for example, the transport of materials across the Gulf of California continental shelf, the tectonics and geology of the gulf, and the unusual sediment-covered hydrothermal vents that exist in this region. The Gulf of Mexico is bordered by the United States and Mexico. Because of the semienclosed nature of this basin, the activities of the two nations can have significant and long-lasting effects on the marine environment. The Gulf of Mexico-Caribbean Sea region is a logical location for a regional ocean observing system, coordinated communication networks for research and public education, and large-scale binational research programs. The Loop Current-Florida Current System links the Yucatán Peninsula with South Florida. Research is needed to understand the connections between the physical processes in this ocean area (circulation, Loop Current and ring dynamics, and water mass exchange) and fisheries, continental weather, and natural hazards. Scientific activities related to oil and gas exploration and development, the impacts of oil and other pollutants on marine organisms and humans, and the ecology of hydrocarbon and saline seeps are also important. Finally, habitat destruction and changes in biological diversity that result from human activities are important societal issues throughout the region. Management and mitigation of such human impacts can best be accomplished through policy based on accurate and complete scientific information. Unfortunately, much of the information about marine systems necessary for policy development is not yet available. Our combined ocean areas are rich in marine life, especially invertebrate species. Studies worldwide have demonstrated that marine invertebrates produce a wide range of biochemicals that may be useful to humans. The field of marine natural products chemistry has been developed to search for such useful compounds, understand their natural functions, and predict their commercial poten-

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Building Ocean Science Partnerships: The United States and Mexico Working Together tial. There is great potential for collaboration between the United States and Mexico in exploring for and developing marine natural products. Cooperative, regional-scale studies would foster and facilitate numerous smaller-scale binational research efforts and educational programs. These activities would enhance ocean sciences in both countries, would promote the applied research necessary to solve societal problems (e.g., marine environmental quality, sustainable fisheries, impacts from offshore oil production), and would set the stage for an era of improved ocean information services in both nations. The 20 members of the JWG represent only a fraction of the ocean scientists of the two nations that would be interested in a formal program of binational research. A broader group of ocean scientists from both nations should be involved in selecting topics and providing detailed advice to extend the potential research topics provided in this report. The scientific communities can be involved through workshops focused on individual topics or on specific regions and designed to promote planning of specific projects. Federal agencies that support ocean sciences in the two nations should support larger, more inclusive workshops of scientists from Mexico and the United States, using this report as a foundation, that broaden the proposed science and provide an opportunity for detailed planning related to projects such as those described in Chapter 2. Such workshops could be held in conjunction with a meeting of one of the major international scientific societies, such as the American Geophysical Union (AGU), the Mexican Geophysical Union, the Oceanography Society, the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO), or the Estuarine Research Federation. Planning for workshops should begin as soon as possible, pending identification of appropriate forums and adequate funding for such efforts. Cooperation could also be promoted in the longer term by arranging a session of binational science at every meeting of a society or at intersociety meetings such as the Ocean Sciences meeting convened by AGU and ASLO biennially. Agencies that fund basic and mission-oriented science activities and ocean-related industries should be encouraged to become involved with traditional sponsors of fundamental ocean sciences in supporting ocean research activities. The JWG recommends that the agencies that fund ocean sciences in the United States and Mexico consider the research projects described in this report as a basis for new joint research initiatives. Relevant agencies in the United States include the National Science Foundation (NSF), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Office of Naval Research, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency, and Minerals Management Service. Relevant agencies in Mexico include the National Science and Technology Council (Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología [CONACyT]); Mexican Petroleum Institute (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo [IMP]); Mexican Petroleum Corporation (Petróleos Mexicanos [PEMEX]); Secretariat of the Environment, Natural Resources, and Fisheries (Secretaría de Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca [SEMARNAP]);

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Building Ocean Science Partnerships: The United States and Mexico Working Together and the Secretariat of Public Education (Secretaría de Educación Pública [SEP]). It is important that government agencies in the two nations coordinate their programs to conduct and fund marine research. Agency involvement will result in increased cooperation between Mexican and U.S. agencies, which is important for future collaboration between scientists of the two nations and could lead to increased media and public attention to marine environmental issues. A database should be established in Mexico, probably at the National Institute for Statistics, Geography, and Computer Sciences (Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática [INEGI]), and should be linked to relevant U.S. databases, such as those at the National Oceanographic Data Center and the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. Rules should be drafted for the prompt submission of data from joint programs to these data centers and the prompt sharing of data among investigators. The fundamental need is for enhanced ocean science funding through existing national structures (e.g., NSF, CONACyT, and other agencies). However, support of selected explicit binational efforts in ocean sciences, using limited resources, can have a positive effect in highlighting awareness of the importance of these problems in both the national scientific communities and the government agencies, which in turn can facilitate stronger support of the basic national structures. The binational interactions engendered by the inter-academy creation and support of the JWG itself stand as an example of this indirect effect. Binational project planning is complicated by communication barriers, cultural differences, and other factors. It is important to address these issues, as well as more typical ones such as data sharing and authorship of publications, as part of the planning processes for new binational research. Projects envisioned by the JWG are true collaborations and must avoid conflicts related to data sharing and authorship of publications. Thus, any collaborative projects between Mexican and U.S. investigators should develop (in advance) clear, explicit, and mutually agreeable plans for data sharing, authorship, time to completion, and time for data or sample sharing, among participating scientists. The JWG offers a variety of suggestions in the following pages to enhance collaboration between the United States and Mexico in ocean sciences and to improve the resources available to such collaboration. The recommendations of this report could be implemented most effectively if government agencies worked together with the academic marine science community and universities to develop cooperative programs that would facilitate such functions as sharing of human and physical resources and joint planning exercises. Bilateral agreements between U.S. and Mexican institutions could accomplish a great deal if (1) a clear exchange policy exists between the institutions and (2) funding is available for student and faculty support in the host country. In the past 15 years, state and federal agencies in Mexico have made a concerted effort to institute local Ph.D. programs that could be greatly improved by interchanges of personnel and equipment between participating institutions.

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Building Ocean Science Partnerships: The United States and Mexico Working Together Recommendation: The two federal governments should expeditiously initiate planning of joint ocean science activities. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and National Science Foundation should work together to develop a coherent program of resource inducements to secure Mexican commitments to greater binational ocean science research. Ongoing Programs Finding: Several important research areas with high scientific significance and clear socioeconomic importance are already pursued binationally and merit continued or enhanced support. The California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations program and the MEXUS-Pacifico and MEXUS-Golfo fisheries programs are examples. The United States and Mexico are involved separately and together in an array of ocean science activities, as described earlier, although at present, the financial support directed to binational science activities is relatively minor. For example, NSF has a U.S.-Mexico grant program and NOAA funds some binational fisheries activities (e.g., the MEXUS programs). Although many mutually important environmental issues could best be addressed binationally (e.g., fisheries, pollution, biodiversity, natural hazards), relatively few financial resources have been devoted to funding binational marine science. The governments of the two nations should recognize the importance of these activities by devoting new funds or reprogramming existing funds to binational ocean science activities. Recommendation: U.S. and Mexican agencies should encourage and foster support for existing marine research programs that address binational issues. Multinational Funding Finding: Experience elsewhere (e.g., the European Science Foundation and the European Community) has demonstrated the great catalytic value of a multinational fund devoted to multinational research projects selected competitively. The regional nature of many environmental problems and natural processes and the benefits of regional scientific cooperation are so obvious that numerous organizations have been developed over the past century to promote regional scientific activities. For example, the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) was formed in 1902 to promote the exchange of information and ideas related to the sea and its resources and to encourage cooperation among scientists of member nations, primarily bordering the North Atlantic Ocean. Likewise, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) funds Advanced Research Workshops and other activities to promote science among individuals from NATO nations. The North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES) was

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Building Ocean Science Partnerships: The United States and Mexico Working Together formed by convention in 1992 as a cooperative venture among six nations bordering the North Pacific Ocean. It is modeled after ICES. The European Commission has committed significant financial resources to fund research of multinational European interest and significance, especially in member nations' collective exclusive economic zones (EEZs). For example, the Marine Science and Technology Programme funds basic marine sciences, strategic marine research, and marine technology development to understand marine processes in shared European waters and to ''improve coordination and develop European cooperation'' (http://europa.eu.int/en/comm/dg12/marine, 6/21/97). Marine research is only one facet of the European Commission's Directorate for Science, Research, and Development. Western Hemisphere examples of regional cooperation include the Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research and the Canada-United States-Mexico Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC, associated with NAFTA). No organizations exist to promote regional approaches to addressing marine environmental issues, although the CEC has made some progress on marine topics within its larger mandate. The Department of State and NSF in the United States and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Secretaria de Relaciones Exteriores [SRE]) and CONACyT in Mexico should investigate setting up a cooperative program for ocean science and related topics. As this program becomes successful, Canada and other nations of the Western Hemisphere could be added. Recommendation: The United States and Mexico, particularly NSF and CONACyT, should investigate the possibility of establishing an entity similar to the Science, Research, and Development Directorate of the European Commission and the Marine Board of the European Science Foundation to foster cooperative research on questions of mutual concern. Mechanisms for Binational Projects Finding: The U.S.-Mexico Foundation for Science has demonstrated the ability to administer programs that enhance cooperative science activities between the two nations. Its funding has been spread among all science topics that are of interest to the two nations, but this foundation also accepts and distributes funding for discipline-specific activities. There are few existing sources of funding for exchange of ocean scientists between the United States and Mexico. The U.S.-Mexico Foundation for Science was formed by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the Academia Mexicana de Ciencias (AMC) to encourage collaborative binational science activities. The foundation has demonstrated the usefulness of joint science activities through the funding of approximately 50 peer-reviewed binational research projects within a broad spectrum of science topics. The foundation provides a

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Building Ocean Science Partnerships: The United States and Mexico Working Together good basis for future bilateral science activities. It has a proven record in conducting exchanges and could be a useful vehicle for specific exchanges of ocean scientists if U.S. and Mexican agencies and foundations are willing to contribute the financial support necessary to develop new and more substantial exchange programs. In addition, exchange programs could be established by specific agencies or combinations of agencies through the foundation to meet their specific missions. Additional resources devoted to the foundation (or a similar entity) by both governments and by other nonprofit foundations and industry in both countries, particularly for marine science-specific activities, would increase the opportunities for ocean scientists from the United States and Mexico to conduct joint research projects such as those described in Chapter 2. Recommendation: U.S. and Mexican agencies and foundations should continue to provide support for the U.S.-Mexico Foundation for Science, or similar bodies, for collaborative ocean sciences, enlisting the help of ocean scientists from both nations to select binational research projects. Trilateral Scientific Activities Finding: The Environmental Side Agreement, entered along with the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) calls for Mexico, the United States, and Canada to cooperate on a variety of environmental concerns, including research and systematic observations. NAFTA is not primarily an environmental treaty, but in recognition of the potential effects of enhanced trade on the environment, it includes an agreement that discusses environmental cooperation. The Commission for Environmental Cooperation, based in Canada, serves as the coordinator for NAFTA environmental activities. Marine environmental issues shared among Mexico, the United States, and Canada (e.g., fisheries and marine mammals) could be addressed profitably through this organization. The CEC also promotes bilateral activities among the three nations. A notable marine example is CEC's project on Conserving the Marine Resources of the Southern California Bight. This is a regional pilot project intended to implement the United Nations Environmental Programme's Global Program of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-Based Activities. A workshop was held on this project in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico, in September 1996. A similar project, but concentrated on conserving the marine resources of the Northwestern Bight of the Gulf of Mexico, may be a good starting point to encourage binational cooperation in ocean sciences in this region. The project could be a continuation or an extension of the U.S. Minerals Management Service's LATEX (Louisiana-Texas Shelf Circulation and Transport Process) program of the 1980s. Such a program should include the western Gulf of Mexico and the Bay of Campeche. The JWG believes there is merit in developing a U.S.-Mexico-Canada body

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Building Ocean Science Partnerships: The United States and Mexico Working Together for funding and/or coordinating ocean sciences in addition to any binational activities between Mexico and the United States. Such a body could be associated with the trilateral CEC and include cooperative trinational projects comparing processes at different latitudes. The National Research Council (NRC) has conducted several binational projects with Mexico or Canada, but few trilateral projects have been conducted. Interactions among the Royal Society of Canada, the Academia Mexicana de Ciencias, and National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council could provide an important basis for regional scientific exchanges and joint research. Recommendation: The environmental cooperation encouraged by the NAFTA side agreement establishes a potentially useful institutional mechanism for obtaining funds and committing them to certain kinds of marine research and this mechanism should be used to supply more ample funds than are now available for marine research. The national academies or research councils of the three nations should develop collaborative activities related to ocean sciences. EXCHANGES AND AWARENESS Finding: The marine science community in each nation is only imperfectly aware of the status of scientific activities and accomplishments in the other nation, or of collaborative research opportunities across the border. Progress in understanding our shared ocean areas could be accelerated in both countries by raising the levels of awareness and information exchange among the scientists, agencies, and ocean science leaders of the two nations. The lack of awareness of ocean science activities by colleagues across the U.S.-Mexico border stems from a number of sources but results primarily because there is not enough binational collaboration of ocean scientists and not enough communication of research results through presentations at scientific meetings and in publications that are accessible to scientists in both nations. Increasing communication would undoubtedly increase opportunities for collaboration. The development of new programs for scientific exchanges, both short and long term, is crucial. Particular attention should be given to promoting binational sabbatical assignments and adjunct professorships, as well as extended binational training of graduate students and technicians. Such exchanges have the additional advantage of building scientific capacity. For purposes of enhanced communication, it is important that these exchanges be two-way programs, because scientists in each country need to gain more knowledge and experience about the research and scientific infrastructure in the other country. For example, Mexican scientists should be invited to lecture (with proper compensation) at U.S. ocean science institutions, and likewise U.S. scientists should be invited to lecture at Mexican ocean science institutions. Collaborative projects in the Pacific Ocean and Gulf of Mexico could be

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Building Ocean Science Partnerships: The United States and Mexico Working Together enhanced by coordinating the efforts of regional laboratories. The National Association of Marine Laboratories in the United States could provide the foundation for binational interactions among marine laboratories. Coordination could also be promoted if electronic continuity is achieved throughout each region by establishing regional networks for the transmission of information via the Internet (for information, maps, data), and developing the capability to communicate via videolinks between centers for research and education. Such a network could be expanded by linking other public and private educational facilities to it, for example, elementary and high schools, junior colleges, and teacher education programs. A further extension of such communication networks might include government regulatory bodies charged with managing fisheries, oil and gas exploration and development, and coastal zone areas. In addition to joint planning, reports published by the governments, private foundations, national academies of science and engineering, and national research councils of the two nations should be shared. Discussions at JWG meetings indicated that many reports could be of use to scientists if they are aware of them and have access to them. Improved access to the World Wide Web is one means to accomplish such transfer because it increases the availability of reports, abstracts, and citations and can be searched easily. For example, the NRC publishes all reports on-line and also provides an on-line listing of available reports and ordering information (http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/). Likewise, NOAA, the National Technical Information Service, NSF, and other U.S. federal agencies provide information about their programs, reports, and ordering reports on the World Wide Web. Recommendation: Governments, agencies, and nongovernmental ocean science organizations in the United States and Mexico should begin to encourage and support a wide variety of mechanisms for scholarly exchanges, as the most cost-efficient means of increasing the cross-border flow of information and awareness. Exchanges may include students, faculty members, technicians, and government officials; regular academy-to-academy consultations on ocean science issues; information dissemination and sharing; and scientific symposia focused on binational ocean sciences. Publication Issues Finding: The impact of research results is decreased if they are not published in peer-reviewed journals that are available internationally. In some cases, even when scientific information is published in such journals, its authors do not receive the maximum credit and proper recognition for their work because the journal is not included in accepted citation services. The JWG discussed the problem of access of Mexican scientists to scientific journals and problems associated with Mexican journals that are not included in

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Building Ocean Science Partnerships: The United States and Mexico Working Together the most popular science citation and abstract services such as Science Citation Index. This issue was highlighted in a more general sense by Scientific American (Gibbs, 1995). Solution of this complex problem will require the use of several different approaches. First, the quality and significance of research results must be great enough to merit publication, and writing quality must be improved in some cases. New collaborations (such as those described in this report) may yield more significant science and boost the writing quality in both nations. English-speaking editors and reviewers should seek to reduce the extra difficulties of authors whose first language is not English, while upholding journal standards related to scientific content and significance. Leading ocean science societies and journals in the United States should continue to enlist help from the U.S. ocean science community in improving the composition of significant articles written by scientists whose first language is not English. Second, some scientific information could be disseminated more efficiently by using new media such as electronic journals and CD-ROMs. Third, progress must be made in including existing and new journals in citation services, perhaps using strategies similar to those of the UN-sponsored citation services (Gibbs, 1995). A related issue is the access by Mexican and U.S. scientists to printed ocean science journals. With the burgeoning number of journals and increasing subscription costs, it is increasingly difficult for libraries to subscribe to a full range of journals. Mexican and U.S. ocean science leaders should discuss the possibility and need for establishing a bilingual journal or enhancing an existing journal of this type. Recommendation: Ocean scientists should make every effort to publish in peer-reviewed journals. The NRC and AMC, as well as individual ocean scientists in their roles on journal editorial boards and as reviewers, should act to ensure fair and equitable treatment for publication of papers by Mexican authors in leading marine science journals, many of which are published in English in the United States. Mexican Ocean Agency Finding: There is no government agency in Mexico charged with regular, long-term ocean observation. As a result, it is difficult or impossible to mount research programs that require such observations and difficult to arrive at clear policies for ocean issues. In the United States, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is the focal point for research, monitoring, and operations related to the ocean and atmosphere. NOAA was formed during the Nixon Administration by combining a variety of existing government entities to respond to the 1969 recommendations of the Stratton Commission. NOAA considers its mission "to describe and predict changes in the Earth's environment, and conserve and manage wisely the

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Building Ocean Science Partnerships: The United States and Mexico Working Together Nation's coastal and marine resources to ensure sustainable economic opportunities" (http://www.noaa.gov). NOAA has collected and archived oceanic and atmospheric data for 25 years, continuing much longer records begun by predecessor agencies (e.g., the National Weather Service and the Coast and Geodetic Survey). This agency has also sponsored significant research in climate, marine ecosystems, fisheries, pollution, coastal policy, and other areas that have been crucial for the advance of marine science in the United States and its translation into policy. NOAA supports fisheries and environmental research laboratories that conduct such research and also provides funding to external scientists through its Office of Global Programs, Coastal Ocean Program Office, National Undersea Research Program, and National Sea Grant College Program. Much of the coastal science, policy development, and management achieved in the United States has been implemented through NOAA, and it has had an indisputably important role in this area (NRC, 1994c,d). Research is only a small portion of NOAA's total budget; much of its budget is devoted to operational aspects of NOAA' s mission. For example, the National Oceanic Data Center serves as a World Data Center and is the repository for much of the oceanographic data collected in the United States. Mexico does not presently have a similar facility, and much oceanographic data remain solely in the possession of the investigators who collected the data. Because there is no government agency analogous to NOAA in Mexico, it is difficult to coordinate national ocean activities and to conduct government-to-government cooperative activities. The United States and Mexico have, however, established useful cooperation in specific topic areas in which there are analogous offices or departments within agencies. Examples include fisheries programs such as MEXUS-Pacifico and MEXUS-Golfo, in which a component of NOAA, the National Marine Fisheries Service, is cooperating with the Mexican National Fisheries Institute (Instituto Nacional de la Pesca [INP]). Recommendation: The Mexican federal government should investigate the need for an entity of the government responsible for marine affairs, including ocean sciences and technology, either as a new agency or placed within an existing agency. Ocean Component of the Academia Mexicana de Ciencias (AMC) or Fundación National de Investigación (FNI) Finding: Regular communication and interaction between Mexican and U.S. ocean science communities would be enhanced by the existence of a Mexican counterpart to the U.S. National Research Council's Ocean Studies Board. The NAS has issued advice related to marine science and technology since the U.S. Civil War, issuing early reports on ironclad warships and ship compasses, and evaluating Matthew F. Maury's observations of ocean circulation (NAS, 1863). The NRC was formed in 1916 as the operating arm of the National

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Building Ocean Science Partnerships: The United States and Mexico Working Together Academy of Sciences to assist the NAS in its mission of providing advice on matters of science and technology to the U.S. federal government. The NRC has created a number of different entities with responsibilities for ocean sciences, policy, and engineering since 1916. Most recently (in 1985), NRC formed the Ocean Studies Board (OSB), whose responsibilities include promoting the advancement of scientific understanding of the ocean by overseeing the health and stimulating the progress of ocean sciences; encouraging the wise use of the ocean and its resources through the application of scientific knowledge; leading in the formulation of national and international marine policy and clarifying scientific issues that affect this policy; and promoting international cooperation in oceanographic research and improving scientific and technical assistance to developing countries. It is notable that cooperation with the AMC in forming the AMC-NRC Joint Working Group on Ocean Sciences (JWG) is one way in which the OSB has fulfilled the fourth point of its charge. In the course of its existence, the OSB has provided advice to the government, ocean scientists, industry, and environmental organizations on the topics of coastal research priorities, fisheries research and management, marine bio-diversity, interactions between coastal science and policy, marine mammals and underwater sound, chemical sensors, Arctic Ocean research priorities and facilities, major ocean science programs, global ocean observing systems, and warfare applications of ocean sciences. It also evaluated the status of ocean sciences in the United States in 1992 and has reviewed the research programs of several U.S. federal agencies. The OSB and its predecessor (the Board on Ocean Science and Policy) played a major role in initiating the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study, the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, and the Ridge Inter-Disciplinary Global Experiment. Other NRC boards have also contributed to marine-related science, engineering, and policy in the United States, including the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, and the Marine Board. The Mexican AMC did not have an analogue to the U.S. NRC until 1995, when the National Foundation for Research (Fundación Nacional de Investigación [FNI]) was formed. It is not yet certain how the FNI will organize itself and whether it will develop specific disciplinary components (e.g., focused on ocean sciences). Such a decision will undoubtedly be based on the total budget available, the funding structure of the FNI, and the national significance of ocean sciences in relation to other topics. Recommendation: Mexico's AMC (or FNI) should investigate the need for a counterpart to the OSB to facilitate regular communication on marine issues of binational interest.

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Building Ocean Science Partnerships: The United States and Mexico Working Together SCIENTIFIC CAPACITY Finding: There is a need to enhance the human capability of the marine science community, both Ph.D. level and support staff, especially in Mexico, in order to respond successfully to the binational research challenges and opportunities that exist. Although this may ultimately require growth in numbers of personnel, the realistic near-term route to this end, given budget limitations, is to expand the abilities and scope for action of the existing community by improving the funding and physical infrastructure, and streamlining bureaucracy. Mexico supports a significant base of talented ocean scientists. The United States is significantly better equipped than Mexico in terms of laboratory equipment and ships. To optimize Mexico's collaborations with U.S. ocean scientists and the ability of Mexican scientists to respond to national challenges, a two-step approach can be used. Initially, there should be sharing of U.S. physical and human resources to help Mexico utilize its human capacity and existing facilities more efficiently. In the longer term, it is important for Mexico to increase its infrastructure for ocean sciences including the education of a new generation of ocean scientists. Enrollment is declining in most Mexican marine science graduate programs. Recognizing its budget limitations, it might be necessary for the Mexican government, with input from the scientific community, to pick a few key ocean science areas on which to focus. Recommendation: Mexican and U.S. agencies and foundations should provide increased support for cross-national programs designed to provide pertinent training, as well as field and laboratory experience for graduate and postdoctoral students and technical staff in the neighboring country. INDUSTRY'S ROLE Finding: Industries in the United States and Mexico that pose risks to the marine environment or extract resources from it (e.g., oil, gas, electrical power generation, fishing, marine transportation, tourism, waste disposal) share with the ocean science community a responsibility for developing an understanding that will allow long-term stewardship of the marine environment and resources. Marine industries could receive a significant return on investments in basic ocean sciences in areas such as the Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of California, and Pacific Ocean. An improved knowledge base would facilitate the efficient and environmentally sound management of commercial operations and allow multiple uses of coastal and ocean areas. The binational ocean science community could work with industry by undertaking applied research in direct support of the objectives of marine industries. To engage industry in marine science activities, it would be helpful to develop a binational forum in which scientists and industry representatives could discuss their mutual interests and develop plans for joint activities.

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Building Ocean Science Partnerships: The United States and Mexico Working Together Recommendation: U.S. and Mexican governments and professional societies should work with leaders of marine industries and organizations such as the Marine Technology Society in the United States and Petroleos Mexicanos to promote joint activities related to marine research. OBSERVATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE Observations and Instruments Finding: Oceanography is an observational science that has made significant advances in understanding as a result of advances in instrumentation and techniques for observing the ocean. Ocean scientists depend on a variety of observations of oceanic properties and processes collected in situ from ships, moorings, and drifting floats, as well as observations collected from satellites, aircraft, and acoustic arrays. New observations are made possible by new observing equipment and techniques. Developments such as satellite sea surface height and ocean color revolutionized our knowledge of ocean currents, seafloor topography, and the regular timing and large extent of oceanic phytoplankton blooms. The development and use of ship-based magnetometers, deep-sea drilling, and differential global positioning systems allowed ocean scientists to develop and establish the plate tectonics paradigm. Similarly, the development and refinement of mass spectrometers have allowed the entire field of isotopic geochemistry and paleoceanography to develop. It is imperative that significant funding be provided to continue support for instrument and facility development (Wunsch, 1989; NRC, 1993). In addition, facilities and equipment that already exist could be used more productively if shared between U.S. and Mexican institutions. There does not seem to be a formal mechanism for such sharing at present, but strategies could be developed through the U.S. University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) and/or the National Association of Marine Laboratories. Recommendation: Agencies that fund basic and mission-oriented research in both nations should sustain an appropriate level of support for development of new techniques to observe the ocean. Well-coordinated sharing of major facilities (e.g., better use of the "idle time" of expensive instruments or ships; provision or loan of instrumentation from one country for use in field research in the other) would enhance the effectiveness of such instruments and facilities after they are developed. Ships Finding: Research vessels constitute an essential component of ocean sciences. For their effective use, funding for (1) construction and renewal of ships; (2) ship

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Building Ocean Science Partnerships: The United States and Mexico Working Together operations, maintenance, and technical support; and (3) research projects that use the ships must be balanced. Demand for ship time in Mexico is limited by a lack of funding for ship-based research. In 1992, UNOLS coordinated the operations of 26 ships, and U.S. federal agencies operated an additional 39 ships (NRC, 1992). There has been some turnover in both fleets and a net reduction in the federal fleet, but this is still a huge resource that must be maintained and used efficiently. Future surpluses or deficits of ship time will depend on new ships that enter the UNOLS fleet, retirement of ships from the UNOLS fleet, and government ship turnover (e.g., potential reduction or elimination of the NOAA fleet). Mexico has three academic ships devoted to oceanography. Mexican oceanography received a tremendous productivity boost when the research vessels El Puma and Justo Sierra started operating in 1981 and 1982, respectively. Both nations are facing limitations in funding for ship operations and for science projects to use the ships. Greater opportunities for Mexican scientists, technicians, and ship operators to interact with UNOLS and its committees could be mutually beneficial. It is important that the Mexican government fund its own research vessels to participate in joint operations with U.S. ships in both Mexican and U.S. waters. Recommendation: Agencies in both nations should seek to sustain an appropriate balance of expenditures related to ship construction and use. Balanced funding of research and associated ship time for existing Mexican ships must be pursued. Observing Systems Finding: Regional large-scale, long-term observations are needed to understand and predict key oceanic processes. Both nations, particularly the United States, have incipient activities related to a global ocean observing system. An ocean observing system can and should provide information useful both for basic and applied research and for near-real-time marine operations, including information necessary for the continued development of accurate regional and global ocean forecasting capabilities. The benefits of such systems can greatly outweigh their costs. Regional ocean observing systems (ROOSs) shared by Mexico and the United States in their common Pacific Ocean and Gulf of Mexico areas could help find answers to pressing regional problems in marine operations (offshore oil and gas, transportation, and search and rescue), fisheries, pollution, biodiversity, and ocean circulation, that face both nations. At the same time, such ROOSs could be important components of a global ocean observing system (GOOS). Recommendation: Mexican and U.S. agencies should cooperate in establishing coordinated observing systems that will enhance and sustain regionally important ocean monitoring efforts and also serve as integral parts of a global system.

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Building Ocean Science Partnerships: The United States and Mexico Working Together Finally, attention should be devoted to developing a legal framework and ethics code for the conduct of joint oceanographic research between Mexico and the United States. The laws and regulations of both countries and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea provide a legal framework for binational ocean sciences, and should be fully respected by scientists of both countries. There is a perception among some scientists in Mexico that U.S. scientists have not adequately involved Mexican scientists in research conducted in Mexican waters and have not shared data and publication rights. Such behavior would counteract all the positive efforts mentioned elsewhere in this report and should be avoided at all costs. An important means to meet expectations of joint research is to reach specific agreements about duties, responsibilities, joint or separate authorship of publications, credit, patent rights, and timetables prior to conduct of the research. Mutually agreed-upon means to streamline the legal requirements surrounding research activity could, in some cases, lead to more productive research efforts. Both governments, particularly the Department of State in the United States and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Secretaria de Relaciones Exteriores) in Mexico, should respond to the advice of their respective scientific communities by identifying and establishing such streamlined procedures. It would be appropriate for the AMC and NRC to reexamine progress in cooperation among U.S. and Mexican ocean scientists at some time in the future to determine if the recommendations of this report have been implemented.