BUILDING OCEAN SCIENCE PARTNERSHIPS

THE UNITED STATES AND MEXICO WORKING TOGETHER

AMC-NRC Joint Working Group on Ocean Sciences

Academia Mexicana de Ciencias

and

Ocean Studies Board

Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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Building Ocean Science Partnerships: The United States and Mexico Working Together BUILDING OCEAN SCIENCE PARTNERSHIPS THE UNITED STATES AND MEXICO WORKING TOGETHER AMC-NRC Joint Working Group on Ocean Sciences Academia Mexicana de Ciencias and Ocean Studies Board Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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Building Ocean Science Partnerships: The United States and Mexico Working Together NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the U.S. National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The Board of the Academia Mexicana de Ciencias also approved this project. The members of the working group responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report was supported by contracts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the National Science Foundation in the United States and through funding provided by the National Research Council and the Academia Mexicana de Ciencias. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors. Library of Congress Catalog Number 97-68979 International Standard Book Number 0-309-05881-3 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Box 285 Washington, D.C. 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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Building Ocean Science Partnerships: The United States and Mexico Working Together AMC-NRC JOINT WORKING GROUP ON OCEAN SCIENCES AGUSTÍN AYALA-CASTAÑARES (Co-chairman), Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. ROBERT A. KNOX (Co-chairman), University of California, San Diego J. EDUARDO AGUAYO-CAMARGO, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. M. ELIZABETH CLARKE (until September 1996), University of Miami, Florida DANIEL COSTA, University of California, Santa Cruz ELVA G. ESCOBAR-BRIONES, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. D. JOHN FAULKNER, University of California, San Diego ARTEMIO GALLEGOS-GARCÍA, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. GERARDO GOLD-BOUCHOT, Centro de Investigaciones y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Mérida, Mérida, Yucatán EFRAÍN GUTIERREZ-GALINDO, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Ensenada, B.C. ADRIANA HUYER, Oregon State University, Corvallis DALE C. KRAUSE, University of California, Santa Barbara DANIEL LLUCH-BELDA, Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, La Paz, Baja California Sur CHRISTOPHER S. MARTENS, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill MARIO MARTÍNEZ-GARCÍA, Centro de Investigaciones Científicas del Noroeste, S.C., La Paz, Baja California Sur CHRISTOPHER N.K. MOOERS, University of Miami, Florida JOSÉ LUIS OCHOA DE LA TORRE, Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, Ensenada, Baja California GILBERT T. ROWE, Texas A&M University, College Station LUIS A. SOTO, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. FRANCISCO VICENTE-VIDAL LORANDI, Dirección de Posgrado e Investigación, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Cuernavaca, Morelos VÍCTOR MANUEL VICENTE-VIDAL LORANDI, Dirección de Posgrado e Investigación, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Cuernavaca, Morelos Staff EDWARD R. URBAN, JR., Study Director JENNIFER WRIGHT, Senior Project Assistant

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Building Ocean Science Partnerships: The United States and Mexico Working Together OCEAN STUDIES BOARD KENNETH BRINK (Chairman), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts ALICE ALLDREDGE, University of California, Santa Barbara DAVID BRADLEY, Pennsylvania State University, State College DANIEL BROMLEY, University of Wisconsin, Madison OTIS BROWN, University of Miami, Florida WILLIAM CURRY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts RANA FINE, University of Miami, Florida CARL FRIEHE, University of California, Irvine ROBERT B. GAGOSIAN, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts JOHN E. HOBBIE, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts EILEEN E. HOFMANN, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia EDWARD HOUDE, University of Maryland, Solomons JOHN KNAUSS, University of California, San Diego ROBERT A. KNOX, University of California, San Diego RAY KRONE, University of California, Davis LOUIS J. LANZEROTTI, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey NANCY MARCUS, Florida State University, Tallahassee B. GREGORY MITCHELL, University of California, San Diego NEIL OPDYKE, University of Florida, Gainesville MICHAEL ORBACH, Duke University, Beaufort, North Carolina TERRANCE J. QUINN, University of Alaska, Fairbanks JAMES P. RAY, Equilon Enterprises LLC, Houston, Texas GEORGE SOMERO, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, California PAUL STOFFA, University of Texas, Austin KARL K. TUREKIAN, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut Staff MORGAN GOPNIK, Director EDWARD R. URBAN, JR., Senior Program Officer DAN WALKER, Senior Program Officer SUSAN ROBERTS, Program Officer ROBIN MORRIS, Administrative Associate SHARI MAGUIRE, Senior Project Assistant LORA TAYLOR, Senior Project Assistant JENNIFER WRIGHT, Senior Project Assistant ANN CARLISLE, Project Assistant

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Building Ocean Science Partnerships: The United States and Mexico Working Together COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES GEORGE M. HORNBERGER (Chairman), University of Virginia, Charlottesville PATRICK R. ATKINS, Aluminum Company of America, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania B. JOHN GARRICK, PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, California THOMAS E. GRAEDEL, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut DEBRA KNOPMAN, Progressive Foundation, Washington, D.C. KAI N. LEE, Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts JUDITH E. MCDOWELL, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts RICHARD A. MESERVE, Covington & Burling, Washington, D.C. HUGH C. MORRIS, Canadian Global Change Program, Delta, British Columbia RAYMOND A. PRICE, Queen's University at Kingston, Ontario H. RONALD PULLIAM, University of Georgia, Athens THOMAS C. SCHELLING, University of Maryland, College Park VICTORIA J. TSCHINKEL, Landers and Parsons, Tallahassee, Florida E-AN ZEN, University of Maryland, College Park MARY LOU ZOBACK, United States Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California Staff ROBERT M. HAMILTON, Executive Director CRAIG SCHIFFRIES, Associate Executive Director for Special Projects GREGORY H. SYMMES, Assistant Executive Director JEANETTE SPOON, Administrative and Financial Officer SANDI FITZPATRICK, Administrative Associate MARQUITA SMITH, Administrative Assistant/Technology Analyst

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Building Ocean Science Partnerships: The United States and Mexico Working Together The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William Wulf are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Academia Mexicana de Ciencias (AMC), formerly the Academia de la Investigación Científica (AIC), is an independent, nonprofit association, established in 1959, to which distinguished Mexican scientists are affiliated on an individual basis. The AMC has pursued the development of scientific research in Mexico and the consolidation of the national academic community. The AMC has advocated that the production of knowledge should always be for the benefit of mankind and the preservation of the environment, while ensuring that scientific activity be governed by the ethical principles of the common good. The AMC's commitment to the Mexican nation entails promoting dialogue between scientists and members of civil society and state authorities for the examination and solution of national problems. Dr. Francisco Bolivar Zapata is its president. The Fundación Nacional de Investigación (FNI) is a consortium of three Mexican Academies, namely the Academia Mexicana de Ciencias, the Academia Nacional de Medicina, and the Academia Nacional de Ingeniería. FNI is an auxiliary organization that serves as the operating branch of the three academies for the undertaking of joint studies with Mexican and foreign experts.

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Building Ocean Science Partnerships: The United States and Mexico Working Together Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Robert Dunbar, Stanford University J. Frederick Grassle, Rutgers University Robert Herzstein, Shearman and Sterling, Washington, D.C. John Knauss, Scripps Institution of Oceanography/University of Rhode Island Thomas Malone, North Carolina State University Bruce Phillips, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia Alberto Zirino, Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego The report also was reviewed by three other individuals, including two Mexican reviewers, who wished to remain anonymous. While the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, it must be emphasized that responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the NRC.

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Building Ocean Science Partnerships: The United States and Mexico Working Together Preface It is with great pleasure that we present the following report of the Joint Working Group on Ocean Sciences (JWG) that was a collaboration between the Academia Mexicana de Ciencias (AMC) and the U.S. National Research Council. This report resulted from cooperative efforts of Mexican and U.S. ocean scientists over a period of two and one-half years. The report is published in both Spanish and English to make its information accessible to scientists in both nations. We believe this report will provide the foundation for increased cooperation between ocean scientists and policymakers of Mexico and the United States, to the benefit of the citizens of both nations. It has been rewarding to work together as colleagues and to discuss exciting scientific opportunities that would best be explored in binational scientific activities. We were also challenged by the social and environmental issues that will require a strong ocean science capability in both nations. We hope that this will be only the beginning of stronger binational cooperation. It is encouraging to see members of the JWG lead the way in binational cooperation by inviting participation in a research cruise, hosting a scientist on sabbatical, and jointly organizing a multinational conference focused on the Gulf of Mexico. We hope that this report will encourage such activities to multiply. We extend our thanks to all JWG members, who worked diligently to produce this report. Special thanks are due to Ed Urban, the study director at the Ocean Studies Board, without whose extraordinary hard work, patience, and diligence this report could not have been completed. The JWG also thanks the sponsors of this study: the AMC in Mexico and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Science Foundation, and National Research Council in the United States. AGUSTÍN AYALA-CASTAÑARES Mexican Co-chairman ROBERT A. KNOX U.S. Co-chairman

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Building Ocean Science Partnerships: The United States and Mexico Working Together Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   7 2   EXAMPLES OF PROMISING SCIENCE PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS   15     Pacific Ocean and Gulf of California Regions   16     Oceanographic Setting   16     Variability of Fisheries   20     Marine Mammals and Seabirds   25     Climate-Controlled Laminated Sediments   28     Marine Pollution   28     Sediment Transport in the Upper Gulf of California   30     Tectonic Development of the California Borderland and the Gulf of California   31     Sediment-Smothered Hydrothermal Vents   35     The Intra-Americas Sea   38     Introduction   38     Physics of the Intra-Americas Sea   43     Biophysical Coupling   49     Biology of the Intra-Americas Sea   52     Sedimentary Dynamics and Environmental Impacts on the Coastal and Oceanic Zones of the Gulf of Mexico   55     Oil- and Gas-Associated Seeps in the Southern Gulf of Mexico   56     Marine Environmental Quality   56     Marine Natural Products   60     Conservation of Marine Biological Diversity   61     Marine Biotechnology   62     Regional Climate Change   63

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Building Ocean Science Partnerships: The United States and Mexico Working Together 3   ACTIONS TO IMPROVE COOPERATION AND INFLUENCE OCEAN SCIENCE POLICYMAKING   65     Human Resources and Capacity Building   65     Graduate and Postdoctoral Education   67     Continuing Education of University and Government Scientists and Binational Exchanges   68     Scientific Infrastructure   69     Fiscal Resources   70     Physical Resources   71     Mexican-U.S. Cooperation in Large International Ocean Science Programs   75     Regional and Global Ocean Observing Systems   76     Science Events and Publications   78     Potential Funding Sources for Binational Activities   80 4   FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   83     Binational and Multinational Research   83     Ongoing Programs   87     Multinational Funding   87     Mechanisms for Binational Projects   88     Trilateral Scientific Activities   89     Exchanges and Awareness   90     Publication Issues   91     Mexican Ocean Agency   92     Ocean Component of the Academia Mexicana de Ciencias (AMC) or Fundación Nacional de Investigación (FNI)   93     Scientific Capacity   95     Industry's Role   95     Observational Infrastructure   96     Observations and Instruments   96     Ships   96     Observing Systems   97     REFERENCES   99     APPENDIXES     A   Agreement to Form AMC-NRC Joint Working Group on Ocean Sciences   117 B   Biographies of Joint Working Group Members   119 C   Definition of Acronyms   125