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Manpower Considerations The primary source of technician manpower data is the Engineering Manpower Commission (EMC), which conducts annual surveys of educational institutions to obtain data on programs, enrollment, and degrees granted. The annual reports of the Accreditation Board for Engi- neering and Technology {ABET) also list information on institutions and programs. In addition, employers are surveyed to obtain data on salaries and future demand. Although EMC uses common definitions, the application of these definitions by officials in the reporting institutions varies. Further- more, the numbers of institutions reporting vary considerably from one reporting period to the next. Nevertheless, the EMC data are the most extensive available and serve to indicate national trends. Enrollment The number of reporting technical institutes increased from 44 to 69 in the surveys conducted by Smith and Lipsett from 1945 to 1955. Enrollment of full-time day students increased from 8,721 to 26,766, of which 10.6 percent t2,837) were enrolled in technology programs. More recently, EMC records show that the number of institutions reporting technology enrollments alone has increased each year from 44 in 1968 to 166 in 1980. Enrollment in the same period has increased from 23,597 in 1968 to a peak of 65,677 in 1977. 30

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MANPOWER CONSIDERATIONS 31 Degrees Associate degree data show that there has been an increase of 136.3 percent [from 30,172 to 71,288) in the number of associate degrees awarded from 1971 to 1979. For the same period, the number of bacca- laureate degrees increased from 5,148 to 9,355. Institutions and Programs The 51st Annual Report of the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology3 shows that 195 institutions have 731 accredited pro- grams in the categories shown in Table 1. Table 2 presents the historic TABLE 1 Status of Engineering Technology Programs, by Program Area and Level as of October 1983 Accredited Programs Program Area Associate Bachelor's Total Aeronautical 4 5 9 Air conditioning 6 1 7 Architectural 25 6 31 Automotive 1 0 1 Bioengineering technology 3 3 6 Chemical 12 0 12 Civil and construction 71 47 1 18 Computer 13 8 21 Drafting and design 14 5 19 Electrical and Electronic 149 78 227 Electromechanical 8 2 10 Engineering technology (general) 0 4 4 Environmental 2 8 10 Industrial engineering technology 15 7 22 Manufacturing 7 18 25 Marine 0 1 1 Mechanical 95 59 154 Metallurgical 2 1 3 Mining 6 3 9 Nuclear 3 0 3 Petroleum 1 1 2 Surveying 9 1 10 Other 14 13 27 Totals 460 271 731 SOURCE: Fifty-fiTstAnnualReportoftheAccreditationBoardforEngineeringandTech- nology New York: September 30, 1983).

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32 ENGINEERING TECHNOLOG Y ED UCATION TABLE 2 Historical Growth of Accredited Engineering Technology Programs Associate 1 12 17 19 29 36 45 57 62 67 70 83 88 91 91 12 27 41 46 81 102 121 150 155 178 189 221 242 257 271 22 32 32 49 61 63 69 82 92 101 110 117 128 139 149 159 166 185 188 192 195 Year Institutions 1946 3 1951 22 1956 32 1961 32 1966 49 1967 61 1968 62 1969 68 1970 80 1971 85 1972 94 1973 98 1974 100 1975 103 1976 111 1977 117 1978 121 1979 123 1980 132 1981 136 1982 140 1983 142 Programs 7 62 95 116 164 193 194 222 257 272 299 315 322 324 344 377 387 390 416 434 447 460 Baccalaureate Total Institutions Programs Institutionsa Programs 3 7 62 95 116 164 195 203 234 284 313 345 396 424 445 494 532 565 579 637 676 704 731 aSome institutions have both associate and baccalaureate degree programs and are only included once in the total for any one year. SOURCE: Fifty-first Annual Report of the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Tech- nology New York: September 30, 1983) . development of the associate and baccalaureate programs in engineer- ing technology. In addition to the accredited programs in engineering technology, there are other programs for which procedures for accredi- tation have not been completed. The concomitant development in enrollment is presented in Table 3, taken from the Engineering Man- power Commissioni4 published historical summary. While it must be assumed that the Higher Education General Infor- mation Systems jHEGISJ reports have the required information about programs, enrollments, and degrees, to this date information is not available in summary form for engineering and technology. A study sponsored by the Ford Foundation and managed by the Coun- cil on Post-Secondary Education jCOPEJ is preparing specifications for institutional statistics. Once standard specifications are formulated, all institutions can maintain statistical data in their computers in the

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34 ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION required format. Providing institutions are willing to cooperate, it would then be possible for an interrogating computer to gain the infor- mation needed for national statistics without employing survey forms. Recommendation Manpower statistics on enrollment, degrees, and salaries should be maintained at the college, state, and national levels.