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lo> Faculty Student:Faculty Ratios Betweenl975andl981,undergraduate engineering enrollmentin the United States increased by 60 percent, while the number of engi- neering faculty increased by only about 10 percent. Graduate enroll- ment dropped 10 percent because of declining numbers of American students. During those years, institutional support did not rise in pro- portion to the increase of the student:faculty ratios in engineering departments. Furthermore, many faculty positions went unfilled. The high student:faculty ratios and the number of unfilled but autho- rized faculty positions have not been uniform in all engineering disci- plines. The 1982-1983 surveys by the Accreditation Board for Engi- neering and Technology {ABETI show ratios as high as 25: 1 to 30:1 in such fields as aeronautical, chemical, and electrical engineering, and 11:1 in agricultural engineering, with an average of 22.25 to 1 in all departments of member schools. This average ratio compares with an overall institutional average of 16.65 to 1 at the same locations at that time. The percentage of vacant faculty positions has been highest in elec- trical engineering and computer science lEE/CS). In the fall of 1982, a survey of engineering deans reported about 17 percent of EE/CS posi- tions unfilled; in the other engineering disciplines, unfilled positions ranged from 6 percent to 9 percent of authorized positions. Not only are there unfilled positions, but the number of authorized positions is 44

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FACULTY 45 below the perceived need at many universities, which reflects financial constraints and an unwillingness or inability to reallocate resources. It is not possible to establish a desired ratio of undergraduate students to faculty for all institutions because they vary widely in goals and purposes, range of activities expected of faculty, types of education offered, and size of graduate schools. For example, some large urban universities with relatively small full-time graduate schools have stu- dent:facultyratiosof38to 1; state-supported engineering schools, such as those at Purdue and Texas ARM universities, have ratios of about 24 to 1; private universities with large graduate schools, such as the Mas- sachusetts Institute of Technology EMITS and Stanford University, have ratios of 6 or 8 to 1. But all institutions, no matter what their base of support, have experienced increases in student:faculty ratios. Consequences of High Student:FacultyRatios The increase in undergraduate enrollment coupled with the shortage of faculty has educational costs that extend throughout the system. Increased enrollment has meant that individual faculty members must teach substantially greater numbers of students. In many cases, it has meant larger class sizes with less personal attention available to stu- dents; canceled courses; the use of nonfaculty and adjunct faculty as classroom teachers; and crowded laboratories, with larger groups using the same limited equipment. The intellectual renewal that is required to keep courses and laboratories up to date and to develop new courses often has to be postponed, and textbooks organizing important recent advances have not been written. Increased student:faculty ratios have also increased the amount of time needed by full-time faculty members to advise students. This is caused partly by the greater numbers of students they teach, but also partly by the use of adjunct faculty: while adjunct faculty are available to teach courses, they often are not available to answer student ques- tions, and they usually play little or no role as academic advisers. In some cases, faculty are responsible for the academic, career, and per- sonal advising of some 50 students. Because of the numerous duties of faculty, such a responsibility cannot be met with quality. FacullyActivities In addition to classroom teaching and student advising, engineering faculty have various other roles, most of which relate directly to main- taining their own long-term value as professional educators and to

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46 ENGINEERING UNDER GRAD UATE ED UCATION supporting the long-term effectiveness of engineering educational pro- grams. In varying degrees depending on the type of institution to which they belong, faculty are responsible for the following activities: frontier research and technology transfer in their engineering disciplines; the education and research supervision of graduate students; interaction with industry in consultative and eollegial relationships; performance of public service in the form of national, state, and local committees dealing with professional issues; review and editing of journal articles; review of research proposals and engineering projects of peers; develop- ment of new curricula and writing of textbooks; keeping up to date in related disciplines; exploration of new teaching and research areas; and raising funds to help support their own research and equipment needs as well as a portion of their salaries. When the immediate activities of classroom teaching and student advising monopolize the time of fac- ulty members, neglect of these long-range activities erodes their profes- sional base and that of the engineering system. The pressures just discussed also reflect on the attractiveness of teaching as a career, and could deter from academic careers even the best of the graduate students who saw and suffered through such an environment as students. A Role forEducational Technology Clearly, new technology offers some promise ~1~ of making more efficient use of the human capital engaged in teaching engineering and `2J of improving the effectiveness of engineering courses. New uses of the computer in interactive teaching and the sharing of courses by video and satellite transmission promise to relieve engineering faculty from much routine classroom teaching. And yet this opportunity arises when the amount of faculty time to develop its use is severely limited and when young faculty who might be more receptive to and conver- sant with the new possibilities are in short supply. (See section below on "Educational Technology in Teaching." A Role for Accreditation While the diversity of institutions precludes setting a single standard for the student: faculty ratio as an accreditation requirement, the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology might neverthe- less gather information on student: faculty ratios; these data could be used with the other information that ABET analyzes to determine eligibility for continued accreditation of particular programs. The qual

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FACULTY 47 ity of departmental programs could be evaluated not only on the con- tent of the courses and the current quality of faculty and facilities but on the access that students have to faculty and on the ability of the faculty to fulfill their long-term responsibilities for a strong program. A related accreditation issue is the minimum number of faculty required for accreditation of a given engineering program. With the great demand for engineering programs, particularly in EE/CS, schools with very little background, depth, or previous experience in engineer- ing education will find it attractive to offer such degrees. Whether or not a viable EE/CS program can be provided by three or four faculty members, and thus without access to a complete range of disciplinary , . . . . . OtterlIlgS, IS an important issue. The Panel on Undergraduate Engineering Education recommends that engineering schools not only examine and use strategies that will maintain quality under the pressure of the demand for quantity, but that theyalsoplan for the long term to maintain elasticityin the system by encouraging flexibilityin faculty and other educational resources. Difficulties in Maintaining Faculty Versatility Maintaining the versatility of engineering faculty is an important long-term problem for universities. Because student interests and industrial demands change, it is impractical for a university to add permanent staff to respond to periodic shifts in enrollment. Ideally, versatility within and among departmental faculties would allow insti- tutions to respond to these shifts in a timely and creative manner. However, departmental boundaries within the university's organiza- tion are so confining that faculty find few opportunities to change fields. University departments see enrollment pressure as an opportu- nity to hire new faculty members, not to permit existing faculty mem- l~ers to shift fields. Disciplinary Specialization Although some disciplines experience sudden change, most engi- neering fields change more steadily and gradually. Significant shifts of educational content within most fields occur over a 5- to 10-year period. Faculty must meet the ongoing requirement of staying current in their respective fields through involvement in research and advanced study. The abilities to advance to the research frontier and to make signifi- cant contributions there are the essence of the requirement for the

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48 ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION award of the Ph.D. degree. It is expected that once this research process is learned during doctoral study, it will be repeated throughout the professional life of a faculty member. For this reason, the Ph.D. is almost a universal requirement for the permanent faculty member in engineering departments. However, this very process of continued research leads to a depth of specialization that inhibits versatility not only within individual fields but also among different engineering dis . . Clp. lneS. Lack of Support It is assumed that versatility is achieved through the ongoing profes- sional development of individual faculty members. However, few uni- versities take specific steps to support this aspect of faculty and institu- tional development, which means that in addition to their heavy teaching and advising responsibilities, most engineering faculty are expected to take full responsibility for their own continued profes- sional development. Not only are they expected to accomplish research and scholarly activity, but they are also expected to raise the funds for their activities and those of their graduate students, including funds for professional travel, equipment, and other research expenses. See sec- tion below on "Faculty Development Programs." Departmental Boundaries Faculty are locked in to a departmental structure which not only protects the special territory that the department has defined as its field but that also keeps its members from moving into areas across depart- mental lines. This self-imposed isolation is sometimes bemoaned, but . it continues. By the time a faculty member is awarded tenure and senior status, he or she has a considerable investment in a particular specialization in a particular department. The continual need for raising research funds depends on this investment and its accompanying reputation, but it makes major shifts of field difficult if not unwise. Minor shifts are possible, but a major change requires competing for limited research funds with already-established experts in a field. Thus, an individual may stay with a given line of research beyond the point of diminishing intellectual return. Departments also have a considerable investment in the individual faculty member. There is little acceptance of professional peer relation- ships across departmental lines of individuals who were not hired,

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FACULTY 49 promoted, tenured, and managed by a given department. Department heads may even discourage extradepartmental activities, and faculty who pursue such relationships are suspect and apt to suffer in terms of salary and access to university resources. The result is a system that promotes in-depth specialization and strongly discourages the general- ist's approach to achieve versatility. Since faculty versatility is an educational essential in rapidly chang- ing areas of engineering, this problem must be addressed. To do so requires strong leadership. Individual deans will have to induce their departmental faculties to develop academic and personnel policies that support interconnections within and beyond the traditional engineer- ing fields. During its visits to engineering schools, ABET might also raise the question of what is being done to prepare for the promise of the future. The Panel on Undergraduate Engineering Education recommends that, since the ability of engineering education to adapt to change depends on encouragement and toleration of curricular and faculty flexibility, shared teaching across departmental boundaries should be encouraged. The need for educational experimentation must be recog- nized and given institutional support. ABET could play a supportive rolein such developments. Obsolescence Among Faculty Members Short-term considerations in engineering education override long- term concerns. The heavy work loads associated with increased under- graduate enrollment, while manageable in a crisis mode year by year, have created conditions that can easily lead to obsolescence among faculty members. As noted earlier in this chapter, the daily need to meet large classes and to see large numbers of individual students displaces research activities and professional development. Changing Fashions One of the responsibilities of the faculty is to advance scholarship in their disciplines. To be successful in this endeavor requires that faculty be excellent in their specialties, which has the effect of concentrating the research focus of engineering faculty. However, as shifts in research support occur, some areas fall out of fashion. For a school to respond to the new challenges that continually arise requires~a healthy institu- tional presence in a wide variety of disciplines. Thus, faculty who have maintained quality research programs through difficult times provide

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50 ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION considerable strength to their institutions as new demands arise. Therefore, the distinction needs to be made between faculty obsoles- cence and changes in outside funding or fashion. University adminis- trators must avoid declaring faculty obsolete when they are unable to maintain the expected amount of outside funds. Avoiding Obsolescence One response of faculty who find themselves "out of fashion" is to move into related fields. Some do this with considerable success, in both a personal and an institutional sense. As mentioned previously, however, departmental protection of territory discourages such efforts to maintain vitality. Another response by faculty to being " out of fashion" is to attempt to move into interdisciplinary areas. Unfortunately there are few oppor- tunities for interdisciplinary research in the university environment. In addition to the inherent difficulties of organizing such research, federal mission agencies which occasionally support these efforts are also quick to discontinue them on relatively short notice, creating difficult situations for the faculty and students who are engaged in such ventures. There are no simple answers to the questions of how to avoid obsoles- cence or how to utilize faculty better. The pressure of tenure and the strictures of departmental boundaries coupled with the demands of professional specialization all work against the movement of faculty into areas where there are high student:faculty ratios. In departments that have particularly high student:faculty ratios, team teaching by departmental faculty and engineering faculty from outside those departments could both alleviate the high ratios and help transfer some of the emerging technologies to less crowded departments. But as long as departments can translate increased enrollments into pressure for hiring new faculty, high student: faculty ratios will be seen as valuable currency not willingly shared with departments whose faculty are underutilized. Healthier institutions will result, however, if emerging areas of high interest are dispersed among several university depart- ments through shared teaching and project work. Curricula will become more relevant to today's students in all departments if faculty share some of the increased student numbers. Although administrators have not introduced incentives to facilitate such sharing, they should do so in order to create a measure of flexibility in the system and to reduce the financial burden of underutilized disciplines.

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FACULTY 51 Faculty Development Programs Few universities have specific faculty development programs. The assumption is that individual initiatives for professional development together with access to the research and course offerings at the univer- sity will enable faculty to lead, or at least to be current, in their fields. For some institutions, this may be a valid assumption. If a university has vital ongoing research programs and strong graduate courses in most of the important and emerging fields and if the faculty have the time and the opportunity to include these activities as part of their normal work load, then they should be able to remain current as educa- tors and as researchers. Institutional Commitment Few universities meet the requirements noted above. High student: faculty ratios and greater difficulty in raising support for program devel- opment and research leave little release time for continuing faculty development. Patterns of research funding suggest that in the future only a few universities will have an on-campus environment in which there can be faculty development through access to the latest equip- ment and strong research programs and with the assistance of direct . . . ac .mmlstratlve support. All universities will need to provide more formal mechanisms to ensure both the continued development of their faculties and the vital- ity of their educational programs. Such support would include the fol- lowing activities: travel to other universities for cooperative research, short courses, and sabbaticals; periods of residence in industry and government laboratories where there are equipment and expertise not found in the universities; release time on campus for course and labora- tory development, taking courses, and internal educational fellow- ships; and team teaching in emerging areas by combinations of special- ists and experienced faculty. While recognizing the problem, rather than initiating such formal mechanisms most universities have hoped that it would be solved through individual faculty and departmental initiatives without the universities' payment of the costs. Attractiveness of Academe Potential faculty members should find out what mechanisms a uni- versity has to help them continue their professional development. Many industries recognize the wisdom of using available human

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52 ENGINEERING UNDER GRAD HATE ED UCATION resources more efficiently and of providing specific programs for profes- sional development; potential professional employees expect these things. If universities are to compete successfully with industry in their effort to obtain new faculty, they need to recognize the developmental needs of their teachers and researchers they need to protect their investment as jealously as industry does. A Role forAccreditation The Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology could play a helpful role in the area of faculty development. Recognizing that the continued vitality of undergraduate engineering programs requires a more formal approach to continued professional development of engi- neering faculty, ABET might gather data on existing mechanisms for professional development, on how many faculty are involved in these programs each year, and on what professional activities are supported. This information, together with other data gathered, could contribute to improving the quality of current undergraduate programs and their future vitality. The Panel on Undergraduate Engineering Education recommends that engineering schools create specific faculty development programs with sharedinstitutional, industrial, andgovernmentalfi~nding. Special Problems Even those institutions with organized faculty development pro- grams face special problems. First, emerging areas in engineering edu- cation and research require large amounts of equipment and sufficient numbers of faculty in various specialties to work as a team. Second, increased competition for decreased federal funding has further con- centrated research facilities and expertise in a smaller number of insti- tutions See Chapter 6 in this reportJ. New patterns of research and education will be required to make this environment more available to the entire engineering education community; appropriate mecha- nisms would include summer programs, cooperative use of courses developed to utilize advances in educational technology, university research consortia, students' residence on such campuses for part of their research program, and visiting professorships. Use of Part-Time or Adjunct Faculty The use of part-time or adjunct faculty is a frequent practice in higher education. The four primary uses of these faculty are { 1 J to substitute

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FACULTY 53 for faculty who are on a special assignment or on sabbatical leave, t2) to staff recitation sections in courses with large enrollments, t3~ to teach selected courses where special expertise is required, and ~4~ to teach regular courses when a faculty shortage exists. The last two categories are particularly pertinent to this study on engineering education. Current Practice Part-time and adjunct faculty have been widely used during the recent period of faculty shortages. While their use is limited lay- geo- graphical considerations, a sufficient pool exists near many engineer- ing colleges. When chosen carefully and properly monitored, adjunct faculty have been very effective at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. They represent the first line of defense in periods of overenroll- ment and/or faculty shortage. At the undergraduate level there are some inherent disadvantages in using part-time or adjunct faculty. Often they are neither available nor sufficiently informed to advise students properly on curricular matters. Also, they usually do not participate in either the academic life of an institution Departmental meetings, for example) or in its governance (committee assignments). Another frequent observation is that such faculty underestimate the extent of the work load and of the commit- ment that is required. In spite of the disadvantages, these faculty can play an important role, especially at the upper-class undergraduate and graduate levels. Some practicing professionals are well qualified to provide the design and experiential imperative in engineering education. In fact, in some countries and on many U. S. campuses there is a conscious effort to use adjunct faculty on a continuing basis because they are thought to be better qualified to teach in areas in which current practice is important. Professors of Professional Practice As a result of curricular trends of the past 25 years, the strong ten- dency to emphasize the theoretical has resulted in the Reemphasis of things practical. One could almost state it as a theorem: The pure drives out the applied. This trend prompted the move to restore the role of design in engineering education and to make it an explicit require- ment for ABET accreditation. However, there has not been a strong complementary move to include this academic component through the conscious and continuing use of practicing professionals as adjunct faculty. An opportunity exists to achieve an important educational goal

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54 ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION through the structured use of practicing engineers in the educational process. To achieve the desired level of involvement and recognition, such adjunct appointments could be made with the title Professor of Professional Practice. If this opportunity was pursued in a conscious manner, a cadre of such professionals could have significant impact on . . . engmeermg ec .ucatlon. The Panel on Undergraduate Engineering Education recommends that colleges of engineeringidentifyand utilize facultyother than those in tenure tracks military retirees, persons reentering or shifting careers, adjunct faculty, and other professionally qualified persons, with orwithoutPh.D.s, who welcome short-term contracts or second careers. Colleges of engineering and professional societies shoul~promote the use of Professors of ProfessionalPractice. Such appointments could be either as adjunct faculty or, preferably, as full-time resident faculty for specific periods of time. The cooperation and support of industryin providing loaned staff are essential to achieving the educational goal of greater emphasis on practical aspects of engineering. The use in indus- tryofregu~arfacultyon complementaryleaves would also support this goal. Overenrollments in Electrical and Computer Engineering About five years ago enrollments in electrical and computer engi- neering programs began to rise markedly. The students in these two disciplines now comprise 40 to 50 percent of the student population in some engineering schools. Although part of this surge has been in response to a strong demand {jobsJ, it results mainly from the percep- tion that successive revolutions in communications and circuit tech- nology, combined and integrated with computers, are creating a new technological age. Many engineering educators believe that a struc- tural change in engineering education is indeed occurring. During this transitional period the profession must recognize the need for change and respond accordingly. The result of the recent increase in enrollments is appreciable over- enrollment in electrical and computer engineering programs. These academic areas have the most severe faculty shortages. Courses are oversubscribed. Laboratory facilities and staff are overextended, and building and classroom space is inadequate. In response, schools have applied a patchwork of corrective action. Part-time instructors and even undergraduate students have been utilized to teach courses. Caps have been put on course enrollments, or extra sections have been sand

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FACULTY 59 expected to give adequate support to the aspirations of women and minority students without the experience of working in peer relation- ships with women and minority faculty? If today's undergraduate women and minority students are to achieve supervisory and senior management positions in industry and senior faculty positions in uni- versities, then a significant number of today's majority students must become accustomed to minorities and women in leadership roles in . . . . . engmeermg, in this case as pro essors. Educational Technology in Teaching The enormous influence of technology on our society will have "lit- tle or no effect in the near term on education unless educators do much more than they are now doing to adapt and exploit technology." Some compare the unresponsiveness of our present educational system to that of smokestack industries. The hope is that " the needs of education for information technology are so strong that [it] will ultimately lie adopted" tDeringer end Moluar, 1979:iii~. Present Barriers to Adoption The present barriers to the adoption of technology in education are social, economic, educational, and, understandably, personal. Educa- tors find it almost impossible to adopt information technology that is not compatible with existing educational systems. The large initial investment in hardware, software, and courseware, for instance, is recoverable only through widespread utilization of the result. Schools, on the other hand, are small, decentralized, diverse, and independent organizations accustomed to " cottage industry" production and devel- opment methods. They do not buy complete instructional systems: they hire faculty. Further, faculty feel threatened by labor-saving instructional systems. Faculty need rewards and assistance to develop educational technol- ogy jE-T). They respond to bonuses and other incentives to attract and retain qualified personnel. Faculty who have aptitudes in needed disci- plines need assistance in making midcareer changes to help enhance their productivity and quality. * Finally, lukewarm interest in educational technology results in a * Much information in this paragraph and the rest of this section is from Baldwin and Down (1981), which concentrates on instructional television.

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60 ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION lack of coordination of resources despite great effort to provide such coordination. Well-documented courses covering standard material are not generally exchanged among universities despite the existence of the Association for Media-Based Continuing Education for Engineers {AMCEE), which produces a catalog of more than 500 courses. The professional prerogative of designing one's own course materials handi- caps these legitimate opportunities to increase productivity while maintaining quality. Instructional Goals The most common instructional goals for educational technology in engineering are 1. To enrich, improve, and individualize instruction 2. To reduce or contain costs Of teachers and/or administrators 3. To serve the unserved or enlarge coverage To reach these goals, a systems approach to E-T is needed educators must know the institutional or programmatic goals, adapt appropriate technologies to them, and be able to measure their accomplishment through E-T. Theory of Educational Technologyin Teaching The first teaching machines were based on B. F. Skinner' principles: 1. Reinforce the student's responses frequently and immediately. 2. Give the student control of the learning rate. 3. Make the student follow a coherent, controlled sequence. 4. Require participation through responses. When self-paced instruction E.g., the Personalized System of Instruction APSIS, " the Keller Plan" J is mediated by instructional televi- sion jITV) or any other E-T, it should include the following compo- nents: 1. Self-pacing by ability and demands on the student's time 2. Unit perfection required to advance to the next unit 3. Motivational rather than simply informational lectures and dem onstrat~ons 4. Stress on written word and teacher-student communication 5. Use of proctors for repeated testing, immediate scoring {feed- back), tutoring, and personal-social dimension

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FACULTY 61 Simplicity and active participation are essential to the effectiveness of educational technology. Delivery Systems The first modern educational technology, though now little used despite its proven effectiveness, was radio. Other audio transmission systems are recordings Records and tapesJ and telephone. Telephone lines can also be used for document and video transmissions. Delivery was a problem in the older ITV systems tapes, examinations,- and papers required transportation. Now courses can be sent over any dis- tance and used throughout any area if a large, aggregated audience can justify the expense of using a satellite. Subcarriers of the signal can deliver examinations. Even the problem of aggregating a large audience can be solved by taping the signal at each receiving location for later broadcast. The Appalachian Community Service Network uses satellite trans- mission to offer college courses and adult education in more than 2.5 million homes. AMCEE can distribute videotaped courses to engineers throughout the nation. The Public Broadcasting System uses lower power signals received by special antennas for its National Narrowcast Service to carry a wide variety of both postsecondary and precollege programs {Grayson, 1982:24-25J. The National Technological Univer- sity published its first bulletin for the 1984-1985 academic year. It included 100 master' e-level courses, of which 24 were listed in its class schedule for fall 1984. They were scheduled to be offered at 7 of the 15 institutions Including the University of AlaskaJ that indicated the intention of cooperating in the venture [Baldwin, 1984J . Costs of Instructional Systems The costs of video and computer-based instructional systems can be great, but so can the savings in time and the effectiveness for learning. Costs for live production increase greatly when a lecture, demonstra- tion, or course is produced for repeated use the time required can be multiplied by as much as 100, or by even more for the commercial quality required for nationally broadcast programs jGrayson, 1983J. However, the economies of scale are likewise multiplied. In 1980 about 500 colleges and universities enrolled 20,000 students in courses that were based on the viewing of such programs as The Ascent of Man and supported by additional course materials [Licklider, 1979:4-5J. The costs of computer-assisted instruction; CAIJ can be even greater

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62 ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION than those of instructional television, although with CAI the invest- ment is in professional time rather than in hardware and visual resources; most producers will not make the effort required. It takes 100 to 1,000 hours of development time to create one hour of high- quality CAI tutorial materials, and techniques have not been discov- ered to reduce the creation time significantly while maintaining high quality. And in cases of rapidly changing subject matter, massive revi- sions can keep costs high. However, in most cases programs can be upgraded progressively, year after year, without attenuation due to for- getting. And the very best programs unlike the best human teach- ers can be replicated inexpensively and distributed widely. Uses of Video-Based E-T While the applications of instructional television are as varied as human ingenuity permits, the basic applications parallel instructional activities: lectures, demonstrations, laboratory work, tutoring, reviewing, off-campus teaching, presentations and critiques, and job placement interviews and career guidance. The only difference in the effectiveness of instructional television from that of live lectures and presentations is flexibility of viewing Time, place, and numbers of viewers). While this flexibility allows students to review lectures or to view some for the first time, students sometimes stop viewing the lectures after the novelty of ITV wears off. The attitude of undergraduates is frequently unenthusiastic even though learning has been proved to be unimpaired, and is sometimes even enhanced by outstanding instruction, when material is presented . . . on te evlslon. Classroom demonstrations are possible through ITV during lectures and recitations. In large lecture rooms, oversized screens are mounted on either side of the hall for close-up viewing by all students. In labora- tory courses, ITV allows close viewing of microscopic experiments and simulations of experiments, machinery, and processes that cannot be duplicated on campus. A special, related technique is the "electronic blackboard" {see Gupta, 1981), which is a method of sending television images to remote classrooms that are wired for two-way discussions between students and instructors. The advantages are participation in many locations; taping and reuse of discussions; and, after the capital outlay, cost savings. It is difficult for instructors to relate to remote students, but this can be done to some extent via the electronic black- board since instructors can speak directly with students. Electronic blackboards also incur additional costs for delivery of homework and

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FACULTY 63 exams, counseling, and administrative coordination; in addition, each link in the network costs $30,000 per year to operate. ITV offers a convenient way to present off-campus graduate and con- tinuing education at the work site and at other locations. Junior col- leges that have agreements to articulate their programs with senior colleges might begin to offer the senior college courses to students who are still on the junior college campuses. High schools in remote areas can receive precollege math and science from ITV. Off-campus uses of E-T offer some of the best opportunities for innovation, since these sites are so new and are rarely under the direct control of the institu- tion's regular system of governance. The cardinal rule for this kind of arrangement is "Pay as you go" i. e., maintain self-sufficiency so that the use of E-T for off-campus purposes does not face the same financial constraints it faces in other academic programs (Baldwin and Down, 1981:32, 41, 73J. Review of lectures and other course work with a tutor through the use of ITV during recitation or in small tutoring sessions (as is required in PSI) is an improvement over the discussion of a lecture that must be recalled from memory. Project presentations can be videotaped for the student to review with an evaluator. The same sort of technique is useful in practicing for or in actually doing interviews during career placement to help grad- uates polish their job-searching techniques. Videotapes of interviews with leading engineers and other key people E.g., employers, students, guidance counselors) and documentary information about the profes- sion can also encourage students to investigate careers in engineering. Audio-Based E-T Audiocassettes have prompted the eerie image of a classroom with a cassette player on the teacher's desk facing a room full of corresponding cassette recorders, but the idea also suggests that students and teachers alike are at home with at least one medium of educational technology. The taping of speeches and musical events is commonplace. The use of cassettes appears to be limited only by the limits of ingenuity. Some faculty, for instance, require a blank audiocassette with each laboratory or other report. The instructor uses the cassette to record comments, which are keyed on the student's written report by red-penciled num- bers and underlined passages. Voice tone adds a personal dimension to the tutoring. More important, the relative speed of speaking versus writing makes the task less time-consuming and more complete.

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64 Computer-Based E-T ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION In the 18 months preceding May 1982, the number of computers available for instruction in elementary and secondary schools increased by one-third, to 97,000. Market surveys indicate that the number will increase by over 300 percent lay 1985. Manufacturers are now offering large discounts on personal computers to universities that are committed to using them extensively and/or are undertaking major experiments in the application of computers to education and related endeavors. Apple Computer has established the "Macintosh Consor- tium, " with discounts of 60 percent to 24 institutions. IBM and Digital Equipment Corporation alone and together are supplying, and some- times working with, groups of universities and individual institutions on special projects. Barriers to Computer Use In spite of the developments referred to alcove, wide use of computers lags behind its potential because most faculty have yet to master com- puter use and not enough of them are involved in development of software. Software development requires large expenditures of money and faculty time, and dissemination of hardware is limited. To over- come such barriers, CONDUIT, a nonprofit university consortium, has established a national clearinghouse for microcomputer-l~ased instruc- tional materials to collect and evaluate instructional programs and to disseminate information about them {Grayson, 1982:15~. Potential for Learning A 1980 review of 59 studies of computer-l~ased collegiate education showed that the computer made a small but significant contribution to the effectiveness of teaching students at all aptitude levels, raising scores on examinations by about one-quarter of a standard deviation {Grayson, 1983:364~. Whether or not computer-assisted instruction is significantly laetter than other teaching techniques, its main value is for individualized learning. Computers can focus the student's atten- tion on central problems rather than on routine calculations: For exam- ple, in a word processing mode the emphasis is on composition and revision rather than on routine correction and retyping. Computers foster the discovery and organization of ideas. Computer languages give students new approaches to thinking, new ways of deal- ing with information and knowledge. Their requirement of specificity

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FACULTY 65 forces concreteness on otherwise vague or abstract ideas. Computer modeling permits students to concentrate on the individual parts of a complex concept and then to put the parts together without losing track of any of the parts. Beyond these immediate advances is a longer- term development-that of human adaptation to some of the complex information structures and formal languages that are "natural" to the computer. Heretofore, natural languages have dominated human efforts to preserve and transfer knowledge and have been challenged only on narrow fronts-by the languages or symbolism of mathematics and the special terminology of scientific or technical fields. But the computer appears to be introducing powerful new ways of representing ideas and relationships among ideas; these new representations may someday be as significant to education as the computer itself {Licklider, 1979:61. Educational Uses of Computers Among the simplest and most time-saving uses of the computer in teaching and learning are drill and practice in certain types of skills, particularly in mathematics. Fully computerized instruction has been used successfully in such courses as accounting, calculus, and com- puter programming, and its use will increase, at least in appropriate sub ject areas. As it does, it will become more and more possible to offer student-managed home study{Licklider, 1979:7~. Another important use of computers in education is that of accessing not only the catalog of the local library but also, through international computer networks and the interlibrary loan system, many of the hold- ings represented by the collective catalogs of most of the world's major libraries. The greatest problem with this use of computers is the cost to libraries; without sufficient support from public and private agencies, the user will have to pay for such service [Rosenberg, 1983J. Computers can also store data and documentary information as a base for case studies, which helps the student practice investigation and analysis and find the best solutions to real-life problems. Further- more, interactive computers can allow an instructor's intervention to influence the unfolding of such "real-life" situations-gaming. Another flexible use of CAI that is especially important for the educa- tion of engineers is interactive graphics for computer-aided design/ computer-aided manufacturing CAD/CAM design applications. Interactive graphics offers pedagogical and industrial advantages that are particularly helpful to human intervention in complex designs. Not only is interactive graphics useful for practice in analysis and synthesis,

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66 ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION but it also helps develop intuitive and visualization skills; and it allows testing, trial and error, and correction in design. * Computer graphics encourages intuition, rather than exact calculation, because of the instantaneous reporting of results. The industrial advantages are reduc- tions in design time, in expensive experimentation, and in time between design and production. Simulation is closely related to interactive graphics. Once a student has separated chemicals from a mixture several times in a laboratory, simulations can reinforce procedures learned there by allowing the student to analyze many other mixtures. While the computer does not wet the hands of the undergraduate hydrodynamicist, it costs much less than a real physical model, flow laboratory. Simulation is certain to play an important role in engineering education of the future {Alameda, 1983: 107J. Many people question whether the benefits of the undergraduate laboratory justify the effort required of both students and faculty they describe undergraduate laboratory work as an infinite sink for time and effort and some look to the computer as a substitute that will make the work more manageable. The computer can remove the tedium of data acquisition and data reduction for many experiments without eliminating student effort in the analysis of the results. That analysis aims at the goal of undergraduate study, namely, understanding of the principles and methods of science and engineering. Furthermore, auto- mated laboratory systems can sometimes detect, report, and react to subtle changes in experimental conditions better than unaided systems can. Computer-aided instruments are also capable of producing greater precision, accuracy and reliability in data taking, and the data collected are in digital form, ready for postrun computer processing. Ultimately, however, educational technology must be viewed as an effective sup- plement, not as a substitute, for learning laboratory procedures. The computer is best used to enhance learning in the laboratory and to refine experimental findings there ~Saltsburg et al., 1983:81-83J . Computer-managed instruction {CMIJ is a further dimension of this educational technology. The Educational Testing Service has investi- gated how computers can simultaneously test a student's ability and provide instruction by encouraging the student when he or she arrives at correct answers or by giving hints and allowing the student to try again when errors are made ~Grayson, 1983:362J. Such interactive * See Baldwin and Down (1981:66-68), summarizing M. J. Wozny, "Interactive Graphics for Engineering Education," Professional Engineering 48iJune 1978) :14-18.

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FACULTY 67 techniques can also show the instructor when many students in a class have not mastered a concept; course materials can then be revised as needed. Also, the more advanced word processors can identify punctua- tion and grammatical errors, freeing the teacher to concentrate on sub- stance, writing style, clarity, and organization of ideas. The systems described above have great potential for elaboration. Some have demonstrated that they can score tests, keep records of each student's mastery of major objectives, prompt students end refer them to sources of help, flag student problems for instructors, keep track of supplemental assignments, manage course assignments efficiently, and provide data for evaluation of course results [Grayson, 1984: 13- 14~. The Panel on Undergraduate Engineering Education recommends that faculty weave computer use into the fabric of engineering curric- ula. Administrators must treat this incorporation of computers as a "mainline77 activity by allocating a percentage of the budget to the endeavor. Combined Technologies Random-access videodiscs give ITV the same interactive and feed- l~ack capability that computers have. They also allow forms of visual instruction beyond the text and graphics of CAI. The videodisc resem- bles a long-playing record and can store 30 or 60 minutes of full-motion video on each side. The optical or laser disc can store 54,000 slides, one- half hour of continuous-motion pictures, or a combination of the two, because it can code and display each of its frames individually. The disc lends itself to a dynamically programmed format for stand-alone use or in conjunction with an external computer in an interactive mode. IBM has one of the most elaborate videodisc training systems in its 36 Guided Learning Centers for small-business-systems customers. Each center offers 20 training programs of one to five days on three videodisc players, remote control units, TV monitors, audiocassette recorders, and surrogate computer terminals for completing student exercises. During the first year of operation of this program {1980), 21,000 customers completed40,000 student-days of instruction (Gray- son, 1984:28-30~. Twenty-one engineering colleges and universities have joined under AMCEE to produce and distribute videotapes of courses, seminars, and other materials for off-campus use. One type is the "candid class- room," which allows the viewer to hear and see everything that the on- campus students do. The other type is produced in a television studio.

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68 ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION General Electric Company has produced a series of nine videotaped courses on electronics applications for the continuing education of its engineers and engineering managers throughout the world. By 1982, after less than two years of operation, 7,000 people had enrolled in these courses jGrayson, 1984:28-30~. Conclusions To enter fully into the current age of technology and to take full advantage of the powerful resources offered to education, there must lee encouragement in the form of policy and fiscal support from federal and state governments, from private sources, and from educational institutions. Faculty participation in the development of educational technology is also essential. Such participation is difficult for many faculty members, and, for some faculty {for reasons already cited) the change will be slower than is acceptable. Engineering education will have to depend on the professional pride of some faculty to respond once they are convinced of the advantages of bringing the new technol- ogies into their classrooms. Student acquaintance with technology through videogames and aggressive advertising by hardware manufac- turers will probably spur this pride more quickly than has been the case in the past. Once convinced of its importance and of the need for it, we must define the place of educational technology within the educational process in order to take full advantage of it. An overall systems approach to the use of educational technology must be developed so that it is known what goals are being sought, how technology will support these goals, and how their accomplishment will be measured . Such an approach is essential, since the costs associated with imple- menting educational technology will be exceptionally high. The Panel on Undergraduate Engineering Education recommends that the engineering profession undertake a comprehensive study- an cl immediately implement its findings- about how to make educa- tional technology more efficient and how to improve both the process of education and the reaming experience. Funding by government, foundations, and industryis essential to achieve this result. References and Bibliography Alameda, George K. 1983. "Data Acquisition and Analysis With Computers," The Undergraduate Engineering Laboratory New York: The Engineering Foundation). Baldwin, Lionel V. 1984. "The Education Marketplace: Role of Video," IEEE Spectrum {November).

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FACULTY 69 Baldwin, LionelV., end Kenneth S. Down. 1981. Educational TechnologyinEngineer- ing [Washington, D. C.: National Academy Press J. Deringer, Dorothy K., and Andrew R. Molnar, eds. 1979. Technology in Science and Education: The Next Ten Years {Washington, D.C.: NationalScience Foundation). Grayson, Lawrence P. 1982. "The Delivery of Engineering Education Through Tech- nology." Unpublished manuscript submitted to American Society for Engineering Education. Grayson, Lawrence P. 1983. "Leadership or Stagnation? A Role for Technology in Math- ematics, Science and Engineering Education," Engineering Education {Febru- aryJ :364. Gupta, Madlin S. 1981. "Remote Teaching by Electronic Blackboard," Engineering Education 72{NovemberJ :163-166. Licklider, J. C. R. 1979. "Impact of Information and Technology on Education in Sci- ence and Technology," in Technology in Science Education: The Next Ten Years {Washington, D. C.: National Science Foundation). National Science Foundation. 1982. Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engi- neersin the United States: 1981 (Washington, D.C.: NSF). Rosenberg, Victor. 1983. "Library Automation Reaches Out to the PC," PC Magazine (NovemberJ: 509-512. Saltsburg, H., R. H. Heist, and T. Olsen. 1983. "A Micrc~computer-Aided Chemical Engineering Lab, " in The Undergraduate Engineering Laboratory (New York: Engi- neering FoundationJ. "Women in Engineering." 1983. Notes prepared for Advisory Committee to Assistant Director of the National Science Foundation for Engineering, July 11.