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commercial, as opposed to a defense, industrial and technological base. In short, the Defense Department will become more attuned to and hence more involved in the commercial considerations surrounding technology development.

This emphasis on dual-use technology could have a profound effect on research and development in the United States. Although the dual-use policy has been evolutionary and responds to the circumstances of a post-Cold War environment, it has still provoked controversy, skepticism, and questions such as:

  • Can the dual-use policy be effective in meeting military needs?

  • Does the DoD have the skill and muscle to pull it off?

  • Can the DoD develop a consensus that will sustain it for the long term?

The ramifications of the dual-use policy will be felt by U.S. trade partners as well as the U.S. industrial base which responds to DoD needs.

The Japanese reaction is worth special attention. The Japanese government has its own approach to technology development. Japan is also in a position to be most affected by the U.S. dual-use policy both for opportunities to cooperate in the implementation of the policy and to feel the commercial impact of the policy.

Finally, the U.S. industrial base will surely be affected. Is it efficient for government to engage in this kind of activity—attending to the commercial dimensions of technology policy—or could industry better adjust by responding to the DoD as a customer with changing requirements?

We have on the panel today Paul Kaminski, the Undersecretary of Defense, who has been a major architect and proponent of the dual-use technology that the DoD has begun to implement.

We also have, from the House National Security Committee, Bill Andahazy, who has been grappling with technology issues in the national security area and dual-use policy.

Next we have a well-known expert on Japanese technology policy, MIT's Professor Richard Samuels, who can give us some insight on the foreign international reaction to dual-use technology policy.

And our final panelist is Jacques Gansler, a prolific writer, commentator, and activist in the area of defense base and military conversion.

A New Model for Defense Acquisition

Paul Kaminski, Department of Defense

Today I will share with you some of my views about where the DoD is headed in dual-use technologies and international cooperation and some of my thoughts about a new model for defense acquisition.

Currently, the DoD's technology strategy is shaped by three dramatic changes that are occurring in the national security environment. The first change has to do with the post-Cold War needs transition, or why we need weapons systems. Al-



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