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less of its national origin. That is the national criteria standard they adopted, and it appears to be a very compelling standard and one which relies on good judgment of program administrators. Of course, here in the United States, some would have us codify a set of legal principles to address these issues, which may take on the dimensions of Hammurabi's Code.

Linkages: A third point is the issue of linkages. Issues that are seemingly separate, such as public procurement, investment regimes, and trade practices, are in fact intimately linked. For example, some private sector speakers objected to the idea that they could cooperate on developing a technology together but then would not be allowed to sell that product in the home markets of the partners.

Legislative complexity: Fourth, not only do the practices in each of the countries discussed differ, even the programs of the federal government in the United States differ quite substantially. Moreover, to ''realign" all of the U.S. technology programs to ensure that same condition of access would not only be conceptually difficult (given their different objectives and origins), but as Tom Kalil, who works with the White House National Economic Council, pointed out, opening up the legislation for all these programs would be impractical. Indeed, he jested that the policy solution for access to U.S. programs that the Congress might adopt is to abolish them all.

The underlying point is, of course, that the topic of international access, like many others addressed in the course of this conference, could be the subject of a full day of presentations and discussion.

We have three outstanding participants for this session: William Spencer, who is both a respected leader and a survivor of cooperation among American companies, will be our first speaker.

We are also very pleased to have with us today the head of the Office of Naval Research, Rear Admiral Marc Pelaez. The Admiral has very kindly agreed to bring a perspective that was touched on earlier today with the DoD program and the dual-use program. Admiral Pelaez is responsible for a vast array of Navy and Marine Corps programs designed to provide a competitive edge in that most critical and unforgiving of environments, the battlefield.

Our last speaker is William Keller, who works for the Office of Technology Assessment [OTA] which provides an invaluable service through its objective and thorough analyses of the technically complex questions that are raised by public policy issues today.

Opportunities and Challenges in International Collaboration: A Civilian Perspective

William Spencer, SEMATECH

I am here to give you some idea of what we have done at SEMATECH, some of the lessons we have learned, and then some thoughts that might translate into ways we could cooperate internationally.



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