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munity project, and compare this to SEMATECH, where would you see the major differences or similarities?

REINHARD LOOSCH: In terms of the structure, SEMATECH is much closer to JESSI than to ESPRIT, ESPRIT being a program of a particular directed initiative. In fact, JESSI is a special animal in the EUREKA family. It is by far the biggest project. It alone accounts for approximately a fourth of the sums that I mentioned before, something like 3.8 billion ECU over eight years.

But clearly also, between JESSI and SEMATECH, there is more than just a certain similarity in structure. There is also increasing linkage, not between JESSI as such and SEMATECH as such, but between the partners in SEMATECH and the partners in JESSI.

ESPRIT is a different animal because, as I said, it is a program broken down into many different areas and many different projects, many of which are not really related to each other.

KARL-HEINZ PAQUÉ?: I have a short question for Mr. Loosch about EUREKA. In your talk I heard that the two striking characteristics of EUREKA are, first, that it is bottom-up, not top-down, and second that it has no funds. The question arises, why do we need it? Because apparently it is just a clearinghouse for private corporations, and it appears to give something like a quality stamp to particular corporations. So I do not see the deep economic rationale for its existence, although I am sympathetic.

REINHARD LOOSCH: As we just heard, there is a general tendency to support the idea that governments should support industry-led international cooperation. The OECD apparently wants to take over the EUREKA message, because that is exactly what we have been doing. It is the joint role of the European governments concerned and the European Union to say, please cooperate.

Clearly, what we can provide is only certain brokerage help. On the other hand, this is very necessary, particularly when you are looking at the smaller companies. They are not used to international cooperation; they need a little prodding. And for that reason, it is a good attempt because it is clear, since all the governments are behind it, if somebody comes and says I would like to do this as a EUREKA project, he may also find a more open ear when applying for national or European Union funding, although there is certainly no defined preference for a EUREKA project in any one of the national schemes, except that some of the member governments have allotted particular seed money for launching and for preparing EUREKA projects, but not for the project work itself.

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