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the implementation of trade agreements that are specific to the aerospace industry, identifies constraints on the trade performance of the U.S. aerospace industry, and recommends ways to neutralize such constraints. Prior to her appointment with the U.S. government, she spent a year with LTV Aerospace and Defense Corporation in Dallas, Texas, as a senior market analyst. And prior to that, she was with the aerospace industry's national association in Washington, D.C., as chief statistician for nine years.

After these two presentations, we will then hear the views of industry. First will be Raymond Waldmann from Boeing. He is vice president of international business for the Boeing Company. He provides policy direction on key issues in international strategy, trade policy, regulation, technology, and competitiveness. He also represents Boeing's positions with federal agencies, the Congress and the public.

Our final speaker is Jonathan Schofield, who will give the perspective of the Airbus company. He is chairman and chief executive officer of Airbus, North America. Prior to his current position, he had numerous positions with United Technologies.

An Assessment of Project Goals, Means, and International Consequences

David Mowery, University of California at Berkeley

My goal is to lay out the background concerning the development of Airbus and identify some of the issues for transatlantic and, perhaps, global high-technology trade that Airbus symbolizes or illustrates. To do this, I will make some summary comments about the origins and original goals of Airbus; some comments about policy of the respective sponsor governments toward Airbus, comparing that with the U.S. government domestic policy toward its aerospace industry; what Airbus has accomplished; and some observations on some of the factors that have contributed to its accomplishments. I will also discuss some of the responses of the U.S. government and industry to Airbus' s accomplishments and talk about some of the implications of those responses for high-technology trade in general.

It is important to recognize several things about the origins of Airbus. First, the structure of the Airbus Consortium represented a new way of organizing and financing a regional aerospace industry that had achieved a fairly high level of technological development. The respective aerospace industries of France, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Holland certainly entered the 1960s with substantial technological assets and substantial involvement in the large commercial aircraft industry.

What triggered the formation of the Airbus Consortium was the recognition of the end of the road for the national champion policy, wherein individual gov-



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