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ing measures have been assigned, more or less by default, the task of addressing specific problems created by this divergence.

Interestingly, some opponents of antidumping believe that the practice is spreading as other nations emulate United States policy. Howell argues that, on the contrary, as countries such as Taiwan begin to liberalize and remove formal and informal barriers to trade, it then becomes necessary for the first time to have an overt mechanism to protect national industry from predatory trade practices. More broadly, Howell suggests that antidumping policies serve as an interface mechanism, a sort of political clutch between dramatically different economic systems. As such, he believes antidumping policy plays a critical role in the maintenance of support for a liberal multilateral trading system.

The greater depth provided by the analysis put forward in these papers is designed to contribute to a better understanding of issues often positioned at the intellectual fault-lines that mark national policymaking on trade and technology policy or most favored nation treatment for investment and foreign participation in publicly funded cooperative research. The importance of these issues, their cross-cutting nature, and their impact on scientific and technological cooperation and international trade are reflected in the observations of the academic experts, industrialists, and senior policymakers brought together by the conference. While no attempt was made to agree on conclusions or recommendations, the conference deliberations did serve to underscore the necessity of a more integrated approach to issues too often treated independently. Recognizing the linkages among these seemingly disparate issues is essential in encouraging cooperation and reducing friction in the development and trade of high-technology products.

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