around the world who were not paid by us. They were like a network of different governments, universities, different entities—a complete mix. We were going to standardize on some collaborative work. We were going to do Lotus Notes. We decided not to, because the training requirements became too difficult and you had to fly them all someplace to get trained anyway. If you used video, you had to have all this language capability to translate, which was a problem because you had to explain the translation of the words. It became such a quagmire to figure out whether there was a way to standardize that we ended up with a network that was a complete hodgepodge of everything from PCs to fax machines to the most advanced systems.

Is there anything in the works that is going to address what I think is a problem people are not looking at: how do you conduct the collaboration when the players are not in the same organization? If it involves just one company, you would make a corporate decision, but you cannot do it in an interagency deal.

KLEINROCK: From a technology point of view, I cannot give you any answers to that question. I mentioned foreign language, the one you selected as a problem. Sure, translators will help, but they are a long way off. I am not sure what technology will overcome that problem. I think it is too early to standardize on a lot of this. We are just probing now; I would be frightened to do it at this point.



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