Appendix C Biographies of Presenters

David D. Clark, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

David Clark, who became CSTB's chair in 1996, graduated from Swarthmore College in 1966, and received his Ph.D. from MIT in 1973. He has worked since then at the MIT Laboratory for Computer Science, where he is currently a senior research scientist in charge of the Advanced Network Architecture group. Dr. Clark's research interests include networks, network protocols, operating systems, distributed systems, and computer and communications security. After receiving his Ph.D., he worked on the early stages of the ARPANET and on the development of token ring local area network technology. Since the mid-1970s, Dr. Clark has been involved in the development of the Internet. From 1981-1989, he acted as chief protocol architect in this development, and chaired the Internet Activities Board. His current research area is protocols and architectures for very large and very high-speed networks. Specific activities include extensions to the Internet to support real-time traffic, explicit allocation of service, pricing, and new network technologies. In the security area, Dr. Clark participated in the early development of the multi-level secure Multics operating system. He developed an information security model that stresses integrity of data rather than disclosure control. Dr. Clark is a member of the IEEE, the ACM, and the National Academy of Engineering. He received the ACM SIGCOMM award and the IEEE award in International Communications for his work on the Internet. He is a consultant to a number of companies and serves on the boards of two corporations. Dr. Clark chaired the committee that produced the CSTB report, Computers at Risk: Safe Computing in the Information Age. He also served on the committees that produced the CSTB reports, Toward a National Research Network; Realizing the Information Future: The Internet and Beyond; and The Unpredictable Certainty: Information Infrastructure Through 2000.

Michael L. Dertouzos, Massachusetts Institute Technology

Michael Dertouzos, a founding member of CSTB, is professor of computer science and electrical engineering and director of the MIT Laboratory for Computer Science—the home base of the World Wide Web. He is author or co-author of six books. One, Made in America: Regaining the Productive Edge, is the result of the study by the MIT Commission on Industrial Productivity, which he chaired. Dr. Dertouzos is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and an advisor to the U.S. and European governments. He concentrates his current efforts on the architecture, uses, and impact of tomorrow's information infrastructures. He accompanied Vice



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--> Appendix C Biographies of Presenters David D. Clark, Massachusetts Institute of Technology David Clark, who became CSTB's chair in 1996, graduated from Swarthmore College in 1966, and received his Ph.D. from MIT in 1973. He has worked since then at the MIT Laboratory for Computer Science, where he is currently a senior research scientist in charge of the Advanced Network Architecture group. Dr. Clark's research interests include networks, network protocols, operating systems, distributed systems, and computer and communications security. After receiving his Ph.D., he worked on the early stages of the ARPANET and on the development of token ring local area network technology. Since the mid-1970s, Dr. Clark has been involved in the development of the Internet. From 1981-1989, he acted as chief protocol architect in this development, and chaired the Internet Activities Board. His current research area is protocols and architectures for very large and very high-speed networks. Specific activities include extensions to the Internet to support real-time traffic, explicit allocation of service, pricing, and new network technologies. In the security area, Dr. Clark participated in the early development of the multi-level secure Multics operating system. He developed an information security model that stresses integrity of data rather than disclosure control. Dr. Clark is a member of the IEEE, the ACM, and the National Academy of Engineering. He received the ACM SIGCOMM award and the IEEE award in International Communications for his work on the Internet. He is a consultant to a number of companies and serves on the boards of two corporations. Dr. Clark chaired the committee that produced the CSTB report, Computers at Risk: Safe Computing in the Information Age. He also served on the committees that produced the CSTB reports, Toward a National Research Network; Realizing the Information Future: The Internet and Beyond; and The Unpredictable Certainty: Information Infrastructure Through 2000. Michael L. Dertouzos, Massachusetts Institute Technology Michael Dertouzos, a founding member of CSTB, is professor of computer science and electrical engineering and director of the MIT Laboratory for Computer Science—the home base of the World Wide Web. He is author or co-author of six books. One, Made in America: Regaining the Productive Edge, is the result of the study by the MIT Commission on Industrial Productivity, which he chaired. Dr. Dertouzos is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and an advisor to the U.S. and European governments. He concentrates his current efforts on the architecture, uses, and impact of tomorrow's information infrastructures. He accompanied Vice

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--> President Albert Gore as a U.S. delegate to the G7 meeting on the Global Information Society in Brussels. Professor Dertouzos is a dual national of the United States and the European Union, and is involved on both sides of the Atlantic with the strategic steering of governments and large organizations into the Information Age. Dr. Dertouzos was the prime mover behind CSTB's report, The National Challenge in Computer Science and Technology. Edward A. Felgenbaum, U.S. Air Force Edward Feigenbaum, a founding member of CSTB, is chief scientist of the U.S. Air Force, Washington, D.C. He serves as chief scientific advisor to the chief of staff and the secretary and provides assessments on a wide range of scientific and technical issues affecting the Air Force mission. Dr. Feigenbaum has served on the DARPA Information Science and Technology study committee. He has been a faculty member at Stanford University for 29 years, and is founder and co-director of the Knowledge Systems Laboratory, a leading laboratory for work in knowledge engineering and expert systems. A professor of computer science, Dr. Feigenbaum is internationally known for his work in artificial intelligence and expert systems, and is the co-author of seven books and monographs as well as some 60 scientific papers. He is a co-founder of three start-up firms in applied artificial intelligence and has served on the board of directors of several companies. He has served as a member of the Board of Regents of the National Library of Medicine and as a member of NSF's Computer Science Advisory Board. Dr. Feigenbaum received his B.S. in electrical engineering from the Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pennsylvania; and his Ph.D. degree from the Graduate School of Industrial Administration, Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pennsylvania. In 1991, he was elected a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and also received the Career Achievement Award from the World Congress on Expert Systems (the Feigenbaum Medal, named in his honor). He was elected a fellow of the American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering in 1994, and he is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Howard Frank, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Howard Frank at the time of the symposium was director of DARPA's Information Technology Office, where he managed a $350-million annual budget aimed at advancing the frontiers of information technology. Dr. Frank was responsible for DARPA's research in advanced computing, communications, software, and intelligent systems, with programs ranging from language systems and human-computer interaction to scalable high-performance computing, networking, security, and microsystems. Before becoming director of ITO, he was the director of the Computing Systems Technology Office (now part of ITO), and earlier, special assistant to the director of DARPA for Information Infrastructure Technology. While at DARPA, Dr. Frank helped found the DARPA/DISA Joint Program Office, a joint activity with the Defense Information Systems Agency. He then completed a two-year assignment as its first director. In September 1997 Dr. Frank became the dean of the College of Business and Management at the University of Maryland. Dr. Frank was chair of the Technology Policy Working Group (TPWG) of the administration's Information Infrastructure Task Force and led the TPWG's Advanced Digital Video and Security Process Projects. He is also DARPA's representative on the White House National Science and Technology Council's Committee on Information and Communications. Dr. Frank has been a member of six editorial boards and a featured speaker at over 100 business and professional meetings; he has authored over 190 articles and chapters in books. Dr. Frank is a fellow of the IEEE. He is a senior fellow at the Wharton School's SEI Center for Advanced Studies in Management. Before joining DARPA, Dr. Frank was an advisor to large companies in information and corporate strategy, market positioning, and mergers and acquisitions. Earlier, he was founder, chairman, and CEO of Network Management Inc.; president and CEO of Contel Information Systems (a subsidiary of Contel); president, CEO, and founder of the Network Analysis Corporation; a visiting consultant within the Executive Office of the President of the United States in charge of its network analysis activities; and an associate professor at the University of California, Berkeley. He served on the committee that produced the CSTB report, Toward a National Research Network.

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--> Henry Fuchs, University of North Carolina Henry Fuchs, a CSTB member at the time of the symposium, is Federico Gil professor of computer science and adjunct professor of radiation oncology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He received a B.A. in information and computer science from the University of California at Santa Cruz in 1970, and a Ph.D. in computer science from the University of Utah in 1975. He received the 1992 Computer Graphics Achievement Award from ACM/SIGGRAPH and the 1992 National Computer Graphics Association Academic Award. He was an associate editor of ACM Transactions on Graphics (1983-1988) and guest editor of its first issue (January 1982). He was the technical program chair for the ACM/SIGGRAPH 1981 Conference, chairman of the 1985 Chapel Hill Conference on Advanced Research in VLSI, chairman of the 1986 Chapel Hill Workshop on Interactive 3D Graphics, co-director of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on 3D Imaging in Medicine (1990), and co-chair of the National Science Foundation Workshop on Research Directions in Virtual Environments (1992). He serves on various advisory committees for government and industrial groups. Seymour E. Goodman, University of Arizona Seymour Goodman is professor of MIS and policy, a member of the Center for Middle Eastern Studies at the University of Arizona (since 1981), and Carnegie Science Fellow at the Center for International Security and Arms Control at Stanford University (since 1994). He studies the global diffusion and other international developments in information technologies and related public policy questions. Professor Goodman has had various permanent and visiting appointments at the University of Virginia (computer science, Center for Soviet and East European Studies), Princeton University (mathematics, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs), and the University of Chicago (economics). He has served on numerous government, academic, and industry study and advisory committees, and is contributing editor for international perspectives for The Communications of the ACM. He has visited all seven continents and approximately 70 countries during the past 15 years. Professor Goodman was an undergraduate at Columbia University and received his Ph.D. from the California Institute of Technology. He chaired the committee that produced CSTB' s report, Global Trends in Computer Technology and Their Impact on Export Control. Donald P. Greenberg, Cornell University Donald Greenberg is the Jacob Gould Schurman professor of computer graphics at Cornell University. He was the founding director of NSF' s Science and Technology Center for Computer Graphics and Scientific Visualization. He is also the director of the Program of Computer Graphics and former director of the Computer-Aided Design Instructional Facility at Cornell University. Since 1965, he has been researching and teaching in the field of computer graphics; he is primarily concerned with physically-based image synthesis and with applying graphic techniques to a variety of disciplines. His specialties include color science, parallel processing, and realistic image generation. He teaches computer graphics, computer-aided design, digital photography, and computer information courses in the computer science, architecture, art, and business schools, respectively. His application work now focuses on medical imaging, architectural design, digital photography, and interactive video. In 1987, he received the ACM Steven Coons Award, the highest honor in the field, for his outstanding creative contributions in computer graphics. He also received the National Computer Graphics Association Academic Award in 1989. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a fellow of the International Association of Medical and Biological Engineering and of the ACM. Juris Hartmanis, Cornell University Juris Hartmanis at the time of the symposium was a CSTB member and the Walter R. Read professor of engineering and computer science at Cornell University. In 1996 he became NSF's Assistant Director for Computer and Information Science and Engineering. He was the first chair of Cornell' s computer science department,

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--> founded in 1965, and had been at Cornell since then. His research interests include theory of computation and computational complexity. He shared the 1993 ACM Turing Award with R.E. Stearns for their seminal work on computational complexity. In 1995, he received the B. Bolzan Gold Medal from the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic and the honorary Dr.h.c. from the University of Dortmund, Germany. Dr. Hartmanis is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, New York Academy of Sciences, fellow of the ACM and AAAS, and foreign member of the Latvian Academy of Sciences. He has authored two books, Algebraic Structure Theory of Sequential Machines and Feasible Computations and Provable Complexity Properties. In addition, he has authored over 140 research papers. Dr. Hartmanis graduated with a B.S. in physics from the University of Marburg in 1949. He received his M.A. in mathematics from the University of Kansas City and his Ph.D. in mathematics from the California Institute of Technology in 1951 and 1955, respectively. He chaired the committee that produced the CSTB report, Computing the Future: A Broader Agenda for Computer Science and Engineering. Deborah A. Joseph, University of Wisconsin Deborah Joseph, a current CSTB member, is an associate professor of computer science and mathematics at the University of Wisconsin. She received a B.A. (interdisciplinary-ecology, 1976) from Hiram College, and an M.S. (computer science, 1978) and a Ph.D. (computer science, 1981), both from Purdue University. Dr. Joseph held the National Science Foundation's Presidential Young Investigator Award for 1985-1990. Her research interests include complexity theory, computational problems in molecular biology, computational geometry, and mathematical logic-recursion theory. Leonard Kleinrock, University of California, Los Angeles Leonard Kleinrock, a founding member of CSTB, has been a professor of computer science at the University of California, Los Angeles, since 1963. He received his B.S. degree in electrical engineering from the City College of New York in 1957, and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from MIT in 1959 and 1963, respectively. His research interests focus on performance evaluation of high-speed networks and parallel and distributed systems. He has had over 190 papers published and is the author of five books. He is the principal investigator for the DARPA Advanced Networking and Distributed Systems grant at UCLA. He is also founder and CEO of Technology Transfer Institute, a computer-communications seminar and consulting organization located in Santa Monica, CA. Dr. Kleinrock is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, a Guggenheim Fellow, and an IEEE fellow. He has received numerous best paper and teaching awards, including the ICC 1978 Prize Winning Paper Award, the 1976 Lanchester Prize for outstanding work in operations research, and the Communications Society 1975 Leonard G. Abraham Prize Paper Award. In 1982, he received the Townsend Harris Medal. Also in 1982, he was co-winner of the L. M. Ericsson Prize, presented by His Majesty King Carl Gustaf of Sweden, for his outstanding contribution in packet switching technology. In July 1986, Dr. Kleinrock received the 12th Marconi International Fellowship Award, presented by His Royal Highness Prince Albert, brother of King Baudouin of Belgium, for his pioneering work in the field of computer networks. In the same year, he received the UCLA Outstanding Teacher Award. In 1990, he received the ACM SIGCOMM award recognizing his seminal role in developing methods for analyzing packet network technology, and in 1996, he was given the Harry Goode Award. Dr. Kleinrock chaired the committees that produced the CSTB reports, Toward a National Research Network and Realizing the Information Future: The Internet and Beyond . He served on the committee that produced the CSTB report, Computing the Future: A Broader Agenda for Computer Science and Engineering . Ellen M. Knapp, Coopers & Lybrand Ellen Knapp is vice chairman, technology, for Coopers & Lybrand, L.L.P., and a member of the firm's management committee and its board of partners. She is responsible for providing technology leadership and

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--> embedding technology in all lines of business within the firm. In addition, Ms. Knapp is chairman of C&L's International Technology Management Group, providing strategy, policy, and standards to C&L member firms, and ensuring consistency of service to C&L's multi-national clients. C&L International, through its member firms, operates in 750 offices in 140 countries with a 1995 revenue of $5.8 billion. Ms. Knapp is responsible for developing pioneering uses of technology throughout all areas of the firm, including quality and efficiency of client services, internal operations, and creation of innovative services to clients. One of the country's primary authorities on the strategic use of technology, Knapp's role is to create competitive advantage and catalyze organizational change in C&L through the development and application of leading-edge technology. Formerly, Ms. Knapp was a senior partner in Coopers & Lybrand's management consulting services practice and national director of information technology consulting for the U.S. firm. Before joining C&L, Ms. Knapp was responsible for establishing the advanced technology consulting practice at Booz-Allen & Hamilton. She has provided both technical and management consulting services to a wide range of public and private sector clients, including transnational consumer products companies, telecommunications firms, large service sector organizations, and worldwide manufacturing enterprises. Ms. Knapp has received worldwide recognition for her work in advanced technologies. She has published professional papers, contributed to edited texts, and served as a speaker or moderator at numerous symposia, television appearances, and press conferences in the United States, Europe, and Asia. She is a featured speaker at the 1996 Women Shaping Technology conference and a juror for the 1996 Lemelson-MIT Award for Invention and Innovation. She has co-authored two books with Peter Keen, Every Manager's Guide to Business Processes (1995) and Process Payoffs: Building Value Through Business Process Investment (in publication), both published by Harvard Business School Press. She served on the committee that produced the CSTB report, Information Technology in the Service Society: A Twenty-First Century Lever. Robert W. Lucky, Bellcore Robert Lucky, a founding member of CSTB, is corporate vice president of applied research at Bellcore. Born in Pittsburgh, PA, he attended Purdue University, where he received a B.S. degree in electrical engineering in 1957, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in 1959 and 1961. After graduation, he joined AT&T Bell Laboratories in Holmdel, N J, where he was initially involved in studying ways of sending digital information over telephone lines. The best known outcome of this work was his invention of the adaptive equalizer—a technique for correcting distortion in telephone signals that is used in all high-speed data transmission today. The textbook on data communications that he co-authored became the most cited reference in the communications field over the period of a decade. At Bell Labs, Dr. Lucky became executive director of the Communications Sciences Research Division in 1982, where he was responsible for research on the methods and technologies for future communication systems. In 1992, he left Bell Labs to assume his present position at Bellcore. He has served as president of the Communications Society of the IEEE, and as vice president and executive vice president of the parent IEEE. He has been editor of several technical journals, including the Proceedings of the IEEE, and, since 1982, he has written the bi-monthly ''Reflections'' column of personalized observations about the engineering profession in Spectrum magazine. In 1993, these "Reflections" columns were collected in the IEEE Press book, Lucky Strikes. . .Again. Dr. Lucky is a fellow of the IEEE and a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He is also a consulting editor for a series of books on communications through Plenum Press. He has been on the advisory boards or committees of many universities and government organizations and was chairman of the Scientific Advisory Board of the U.S. Air Force from 1986-1989. He was the 1987 recipient of the prestigious Marconi Prize for his contributions to data communications and has been awarded honorary doctorates from Purdue University and the New Jersey Institute of Technology. He has also been awarded the Edison Medal of the IEEE and the Exceptional Civilian Contributions Medal of the U.S. Air Force. Dr. Lucky has been an invited lecturer at about 100 different universities, and has been the guest on a number of network television shows, including Bill Moyers' "A World of Ideas," where he has discussed the impacts of future technological advances. He is the author of the popular book, Silicon Dreams, which is a semi-technical and philosophical discussion of the ways in which both

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--> humans and computers deal with information. Dr. Lucky served on or advised the committees that produced the following CSTB reports' Keeping the U.S. Computer Industry Competitive: Defining the Agenda; Keeping the U.S. Computer Industry Competitive: Systems Integration; Keeping the U.S. Computer and Communications Industry Competitive: Convergence of Computing, Communications, and Entertainment; Realizing the Information Future: The Internet and Beyond; and The Unpredictable Certainty: Information Infrastructure Through 2000. John Major, Qualcomm, Inc. John Major, a current CSTB member, at the time of the symposium was the senior vice president and assistant chief corporate staff officer for Motorola. One of his responsibilities was leading Motorola' s initiative to become a global leader in software. Previously, he managed the Worldwide Systems Group that developed and manufactured private radio systems for voice and data for public safety and business users. Mr. Major holds a B.S. in mechanical and aerospace engineering from the University of Rochester, an M.S. in mechanical engineering from the University of Illinois, an M.B.A. with distinction from Northwestern University, and a J.D. from Loyola University. He serves as chairman of the board of directors of the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA), and he serves on the board of directors of the Electronics Industry Association (EIA). Mr. Major also serves on the board of directors of Littelfuse and Lennox Corporation, and is trustee of the Allendale School, which helps disadvantaged children. He currently chairs the board of health for Barrington Hills. Robert M. Metcalfe, International Data Group Robert Metcalfe, a founding member of CSTB, is executive correspondent, INFOWORLD, and vice president/ technology, International Data Group. He was born in 1946 in Brooklyn, New York, and grew up on Long Island. He graduated in 1969 after five years at MIT, receiving a bachelor's degree in electrical engineering and a bachelor's degree from the Sloan School of Management. In 1970, Bob received a master's degree in applied mathematics from Harvard University. In 1973, he received a Ph.D. from Harvard in computer science for research done at MIT's project Mac on packet switching in the DARPA and Aloha computer networks. In 1972, Dr. Metcalfe moved to the Computer Science Laboratory at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) to join in the early development of personal computing. In 1973, he invented Ethernet, the local-area networking technology on which he shares four patents. While at PARC, he began eight years of part-time teaching at Stanford University, finishing in 1983 as a consulting associate professor of electrical engineering with a new course on distributed computing. In 1976, Metcalfe moved to Xerox's Systems Development Division to manage microprocessor and communication developments that led, long after he left, to the Xerox Star workstation. Metcalfe left Xerox in 1979 to promote personal computer local-area networks (PC LANs) and, especially, Ethernet. Also in 1979, Metcalfe founded 3Com Corporation, the Fortune 500 computer networking company where he held various positions, including chairman of the board of directors, chief executive officer, president, vice president of engineering, vice president of sales and marketing, chief technical officer, and general manager consecutively of the software, workstation, and hardware divisions. Metcalfe retired from 3Com in 1990 after 11 years. In June 1996, Dr. Metcalfe was awarded the IEEE Medal of Honor for his exemplary and sustained leadership in the development, standardization, and commercialization of Ethernet. In 1980, he received the Grace Murray Hopper Award from the ACM, and, in 1988, the Alexander Graham Bell Medal from the IEEE—both for his invention, standardization, and commercialization of local-area networks. Metcalfe's many publications include Packet Communication, his groundbreaking Harvard Ph.D. dissertation published in book form in 1996; the often cited Ethernet: Distributed Packet Switching for Local Computer Networks, with David Boggs in the Communications of the ACM, July 1976; and Local Networks of Personal Computers, at the Ninth World Computer Congress in Paris in 1983. Dr. Metcalfe served for a year on the Executive Office of the President's Advisory Committee on Information Networks. For two years he was chairman of the Corporation for Open Systems, promoting worldwide computer and telephone networking standards. In 1991-92, Dr. Metcalfe was a visiting fellow at Wolfson College in the

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--> computer laboratory of the University of Cambridge, England. Dr. Metcalfe was conference chair for ACM97: The Next 50 Years of Computing, San Jose Convention Center, March 1-5, 1997. David B. Nelson, Department of Energy David Nelson is associate director of the Office of Energy Research for Computational and Technology Research in the U.S. Department of Energy. He manages programs that include technology research, technology transfer, mathematics, computer and computational science, the Energy Sciences data network (ESnet), and several supercomputer centers. He also serves as the Office of Energy Research member of the departmental standards committee, which is overseeing significant changes in the Department's approach to environment, safety, and health. Previously, he served as associate director of energy research, providing general assistance to the director of energy research. Specific responsibilities included: oversight of environment, safety, and health; technology transfer and industrial cooperation; computing, telecommunications, and information; and termination of the Superconducting Super Collider. He is past chairman of the National Science and Technology Council Subcommittee on High Performance Computing, Communications, and Information Technology, a multi-agency planning and coordinating body of the federal government organized under the President's Science Advisor. He is the Department's alternate representative on the administration's Information Infrastructure Task Force, organized under the National Economic Council. Dr. Nelson moved to the Department of Energy in 1979 from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), where he was a research scientist working mainly in theoretical plasma physics and its applications to fusion energy, and also in defense and environmental research. He headed the magneto-hydrodynamics theory group in the fusion energy division. Dr. Nelson received his A.B. cum laude from Harvard University, majoring in engineering sciences. After working as an electrical engineer in New York City, he studied at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences at New York University, where he received the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees, both in mathematics. He received additional graduate training in mathematics at the Freie Universitat, Berlin, and in physics at Columbia University and the University of Tennessee. In 1975-76, he returned to the Courant Institute as visiting member on leave from ORNL. He is the author of numerous papers in theoretical plasma physics, computational science, and research policy, and is a member of the American Physical Society. Michael Nelson, Federal Communications Commission Michael Nelson at the time of the symposium was special assistant for information technology at the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. He has worked closely with both Jack Gibbons, the President's Science Advisor, and Vice President Gore on a wide range of issues relating to the National Information Infrastructure (NII), including telecommunications policy, high-performance computing, encryption, and information policy. He has been part of the Information Infrastructure Task Force, which is responsible for coordinating the administration's NII Initiative, and has worked closely with the Vice President on the administration's new Global Information Infrastructure initiative to link together national and international networks in a seamless "network of networks." He is now responsible for technology policy at the Federal Communications Commission. Prior to moving to the White House, Dr. Nelson served for five years on the staff of the Senate Commerce Committee, where he worked closely with then-Senator Gore, the chairman of the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space. Among the issues he handled were global warming, high-performance computing research, earthquake issues, Antarctica, and biotechnology. He was the lead Senate staffer on Gore's High-Performance Computing Act of 1991, which authorized the $1-billion HPCC Program that is helping to develop the technologies needed for the NII. Dr. Nelson received a B.S. in geology from the California Institute of Technology in 1981 and a Ph.D. in geophysics from MIT in 1988. Raj Reddy, Carnegie Mellon University Raj Reddy, a founding member of CSTB, is dean of the School of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University and the Herbert A. Simon University professor of computer science and robotics. Dr. Reddy joined

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--> Carnegie Mellon's department of computer science in 1969 and served as director of the Robotics Institute from 1979 to 1992. Previously, he was an assistant professor of computer science at Stanford University from 1966 to 1969, and served as an applied science representative for IBM in Australia from 1960 to 1963. His research interests include the study of human-computer interaction and artificial intelligence. His current research projects include speech recognition and understanding systems; multi-media digital libraries; just-in-time learning technologies; and the automated machine shop project. His professional honors include: fellow of IEEE, ASA, and AAAI; member of the National Academy of Engineering; president of AAAI, 1987-89; IBM Research Ralph Gomory Fellow, 1991; and the Turing Award, 1994. Dr. Reddy was presented the Legion of Honor by President Mitterrand of France in 1984. He served on the committees that produced the CSTB reports, Computing the Future: A Broader Agenda for Computer Science and Engineering and Information Technology for Manufacturing. Charles L. Seitz, Myricom, Inc. Charles Seitz, vice chair of CSTB at the time of the symposium, is the president of Myricom, Inc., a startup company involved in research, development, production, and sales of high-speed computers and local-area networks. During the 16 years prior to founding Myricom, he was a professor of computer science at the California Institute of Technology, where his research and teaching were in the areas of VLSI design, computer architecture and programming, and concurrent computation. He earned S.B. (1965), S.M. (1967) and Ph.D. (1971) degrees from MIT, where he was also an instructor and the recipient of the Goodwin Medal "for conspicuously effective teaching." He was a consultant and member of the technical staff of the Evans & Sutherland Computer Corporation during its initial years (1968-72), an assistant professor of computer science at the University of Utah (1970-72), and a consultant and leader of several research and development projects for Burroughs Corporation (1971-78). His research in VLSI and concurrent computing at Caltech, including the development of the Cosmic Cube multicomputer, was selected by Science Digest as one of the top 100 innovations in 1985. Dr. Seitz was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1992 "for pioneering contributions to the design of asynchronous and concurrent computer systems." Dr. Seitz served on the committee that produced the CSTB report, Computing the Future: A Broader Agenda for Computer Science and Engineering. Mary Shaw, Carnegie Mellon University Mary Shaw, a founding member of CSTB, is the Alan J. Perlis professor of computer science, associate dean for professional programs, and member of the Human Computer Interaction Institute at Carnegie Mellon University. She has been a member of this faculty since completing the Ph.D. degree at Carnegie Mellon in 1972. From 1984 to 1987, she served as chief scientist of CMU's Software Engineering Institute. She had previously received a B.A (cum laude) from Rice University and worked in systems programming and research at the Research Analysis Corporation and Rice University. Her research interests in computer science lie primarily in the areas of programming systems and software engineering, particularly software architecture, programming languages, specifications, and abstraction techniques. Particular areas of interest and projects have included software architectures (Vitruvius, UniCon), technology transition (SEI), program organization for quality human interfaces (Descartes), programming language design (Alphard, Tartan), abstraction techniques for advanced programming methodologies (abstract data types, generic definitions), reliable software development (strong typing and modularity), evaluation techniques for software (performance specification, compiler contraction, software metrics), and analysis of algorithms (polynomial derivative evaluation). She has developed innovative curricula from the introductory to the doctoral level. Dr. Shaw is an author or editor of seven technical books and more than 100 papers and reports. In 1993, she received the Warnier prize for contributions to software engineering. She is a fellow of the ACM, IEEE, and AAAS. She is also a member of the Society of the Sigma Xi, the New York Academy of Sciences, and Working Group 2.4 (System Implementation Languages) of the International Federation of Information Processing Societies. In addition, she has served on a number of advisory and review panels, conference program committees, and

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--> editorial boards. Dr. Shaw served on the committee that produced the CSTB report, Scaling Up: A Research Agenda for Software Engineering . Edward H. Shortliffe, Stanford University Edward Shortliffe, a CSTB member at the time of the symposium, is professor of medicine and of computer science at Stanford University. He received an A.B. in applied mathematics from Harvard College in 1970, a Stanford Ph.D. in medical information sciences in 1975, and an M.D. at Stanford in 1976. During the early 1970s, he was principal developer of the medical expert system known as MYCIN. After a pause for internal medicine house-staff training at Harvard and Stanford between 1976 and 1979, he joined the Stanford internal medicine faculty, where he has directed an active research program in clinical information systems development. His interests include the broad range of issues related to integrated decision-support systems and their effective implementation. He has spearheaded the formation of a Stanford degree program in medical informatics, and continues to divide his time between clinical medicine and medical-informatics research. He is currently associate dean for information technology at Stanford University School of Medicine. Dr. Shortliffe is a member of the Institute of Medicine, the American Society for Clinical Investigation, the Association of American Physicians, and the American Clinical and Climatological Association. He has also been elected to fellowship in the American College of Medical Informatics, the American Association for Artificial Intelligence, and the American College of Physicians. He sits on the editorial boards of several medical computing and artificial intelligence publications. He has served on the Federal Networking Advisory Committee, the Biomedical Library Review Committee, and was recipient of a research career development award from the latter agency. In addition, he received the Grace Murray Hopper Award of the Association for Computing Machinery in 1976 and has been a Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation Faculty Scholar in General Internal Medicine. Dr. Shortliffe has authored over 150 articles and books in the fields of medical computing and artificial intelligence. Volumes include Computer-Based Medical Consultations: MYCIN (Elsevier/North Holland, 1976), Readings in Medical Artificial Intelligence: The First Decade (with W.J. Clancey; Addison-Wesley, 1984), Rule-Based Expert Systems: The MYCIN Experiments of the Stanford Heuristic Programming Project (with B.G. Buchanan; Addison-Wesley, 1984), and Medical Informatics: Computer Applications in Health Care (with L.E. Perreault, G. Wiederhold, and L.M. Fagan; Addison-Wesley, 1990). Dr. Shortliffe co-chaired the CSTB planning session on "The Roles of Information Infrastructure in Health and Health Care." William J. Spencer, Sematech Since October 1990, William Spencer, a former member of CSTB, has been president and chief executive officer of SEMATECH in Austin, Texas. SEMATECH is a research and development consortium jointly funded by semiconductor industry member companies and the U.S. government, established to solve the technical challenges required to keep the U.S. number one in the global semiconductor industry. Before joining SEMATECH, Dr. Spencer was group vice president and senior technical officer at Xerox Corporation in Stamford, Connecticut. He has also served as vice president of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, director of systems development at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, and director of microelectronics at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque. He began his career at Bell Telephone Laboratories. Dr. Spencer received an A.B. degree from William Jewell College in Liberty, Missouri, followed by an M.S. degree in mathematics and a Ph.D. in physics from Kansas State University. He was awarded the Regents Meritorious Service Medal from the University of New Mexico in 1981, and an honorary doctorate degree from William Jewell College in 1990. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, a fellow of IEEE, and serves on numerous advisory groups and boards. Joseph F. Traub, Columbia University Joseph Traub, founding chair of CSTB, is the Edwin Howard Armstrong professor of computer science at Columbia University and external professor at the Santa Fe Institute. From 1971 to 1979, he was head of the

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--> computer science department at Carnegie Mellon University. Beginning in 1959, Dr. Traub pioneered research in what is now called information-based complexity, which studies the computational complexity of problems with partial or contaminated information. His current work ranges from new fast methods for pricing financial derivatives to investigating what is scientifically knowable. As part of the latter, he directs a center for the study of limits to scientific knowledge at the Santa Fe Institute, partially funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Dr. Traub is the author or editor of eight books and some 100 journal articles. He is the founding editor of the Journal of Complexity. A Festschrift in celebration of his 60th birthday was recently published. Dr. Traub has received numerous honors, including election to the National Academy of Engineering (1985), and he is a fellow of both the AAAS (1972) and the ACM (1993). He received the 1991 Emanuel R. Piore Gold Medal Award of IEEE and the 1992 Distinguished Service Award of the Computing Research Association. He has been Sherman Fairchild distinguished scholar at the California Institute of Technology and received a Distinguished Senior Scientist Award from the Alexander yon Humboldt Foundation. He was selected by the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei in Rome to present the 1993 Lezioni Lincei, a cycle of six lectures that will be published by Cambridge University Press. He has served as advisor or consultant to the senior management of numerous organizations including IBM, Hewlett-Packard, Schlumberger, Stanford University, INRIA (Paris), the Federal Judiciary Center, DARPA, and NSF. Dr. Traub served on the committee that produced the CSTB report, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation's Information Infrastructure. Dr. Andries van Dam, Brown University Andries van Dam, a founding member of CSTB, has been on the faculty of Brown University since 1965. He was one of the founders of the department of computer science, and its first chairman from 1979 to 1985. He is also director of the NSF/DARPA National Science and Technology Center for Graphics and Visualization, a research consortium including Brown University, California Institute of Technology, Cornell University, University of North Carolina, and Utah University. His research has concerned computer graphics, text processing and hypermedia systems, and workstations. He has been working for nearly 30 years on systems for creating and reading "electronic books" with interactive illustrations, based on high-resolution interactive graphics systems, for use in teaching and research. Most recently, he has been concerned with teaching object-oriented programming and design to entering students. Dr. van Dam received the B.S. degree with Honors from Swarthmore College in 1960 and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Pennsylvania in 1963 and 1966, respectively. A member of Sigma Xi, IEEE Computer Society, and ACM, he helped to found, and from 1971 to 1981 was an editor of, Computer Graphics and Image Processing , and was an editor of ACM's Transactions on Graphics from 1981 to 1986. He became a member of the editorial board of the IEEE's Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics. In 1967, Professor van Dam co-founded ACM's SIGGRAPH. In 1974, Dr. van Dam received the Society for Information Display's "Special Recognition Award," and in 1984 the IEEE Centennial Medal. In 1988, he received the state of Rhode Island Governor's Science and Technology Award, and in 1990 he received the National Computer Graphics Association's Academic Award. In July 1991, he received SIGGRAPH's Steven A. Coons Award. In May 1992, Brown University named him to the L. Herbert Ballou university professor chair and in March of 1995 to the Thomas J. Watson, Jr., university professor of technology and education chair. In 1994, he received the Karl V. Karlstrom Outstanding Educator Award, the IEEE Fellow Award, and the ACM Fellow Award. In December 1995, he received an honorary Ph.D. from Darmstadt Technical University in Germany. In June 1996, he received an honorary Ph.D. from his alma matter, Swarthmore College. He is past chairman of the Computing Research Association, a founder and chief scientist of Electronic Book Technologies, a member of the technical advisory boards for Object Power, Inc., the Fraunhofer Center for Computer Graphics, and Microsoft. In 1996, he was elected to the National Academy of Engineering for his contributions to computer science education and graphics research. Paul R. Young, University of Washington Paul Young at the time of the symposium was the National Science Foundation's assistant director for the Directorate of Computer and Information Science and Engineering (CISE). Dr. Young was responsible for 25

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--> programs organized into six divisions representing the areas of Computer and Computation Research; Information, Robotics and Intelligent Systems; Advanced Scientific Computing; Microelectronic Information Processing Systems; Networking and Communications Research and Infrastructure; and Cross-Disciplinary Activities. Before joining the National Science Foundation, Dr. Young was professor of computer science and engineering and associate dean of engineering at the University of Washington. He is a graduate of Antioch College and received his Ph.D. from MIT in 1963. He joined the University of Washington in 1983, after 17 years at Purdue University, where he was one of the first half dozen faculty members in perhaps the first computer science department in the United States. Dr. Young has been a Brittingham visiting professor in computer science at the University of Wisconsin, has twice taught as a visiting professor in the electrical engineering and computer sciences department at the University of California, Berkeley, served briefly as chairman of the Computing and Information Sciences Department at the University of New Mexico, and has been a National Science Foundation postdoctoral fellow at Stanford University. His research interests are in theoretical computer science, with an emphasis on questions of computational complexity and on connections with mathematical logic. He is author or co-author of some 36 research papers and more than a half dozen expositories in this area, and is co-author of a graduate textbook on the general theory of algorithms. Dr. Young served on the board of directors of the Computing Research Association from 1983 to 1991 and was chairman from 1989-91. From 1983-1988, he served as chairman of the Computer Science Department at the University of Washington. In 1977-80, he served on the National Science Foundation's Advisory Subcommittee for Computer Science and served as chairman of this subcommittee in 1979-80. Dr. Young has served three times on the program committee for the ACM's Symposium on the Theory of Computing, and he has served on both the executive committee and the nominating committee for ACM's Special Interest Group on the Theory of Computing. He has also been chairman of the program committee for the IEEE Computer Society's Annual Symposium on the Foundations of Computer Science, and he has served as both vice chairman and chairman of the Computer Society's Technical Committee on the Mathematical Foundations of Computing. He has also served on the program committee, and later as chair of the program committee, for the IEEE Structural Complexity Theory Conference. In 1995, he was elected a fellow of both the IEEE and the ACM. Dr. Young served on the committee that produced the CSTB report, Computing Professionals: Changing Needs for the 1990s.