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Navy Support of NSW: An Overview The U.S. Navy provides environmental support for its Naval Special Warfare (NSW) units by means of an infrastructure that includes both the operational meteorological and oceanographic (METOC) community and an underlying science and technology (S&T) base. The Office of the Oceanographer of the Navy (N096) oversees the day-to-day operational aspects, and the Office of Naval Research (ONR) manages the S&T program. Generally, the Oceanographer and his staff are responsible for understanding the effects of the natural envi- ronment on the planning and execution of naval operations and for interpreting atmospheric and oceanic phenom- ena for the fighting forces. The two main objectives are (1) to ensure the safety of the fleet and the shore establishment in the face of adverse ocean and weather conditions and (2) to provide warfighters a decisive tactical advantage through exploitation of METOC processes. The METOC needs of NSW are an increasingly important aspect of this mission as the focus of naval warfare continues to move toward the littoral zone. The long-term success of the Navy's METOC community in satisfying the particular needs of NSW depends, to a large degree, on research and technology efforts coordinated by the Office of Naval Research (ONR). Most ONR-sponsored ocean research and technology development relevant to NSW is conducted within the Ocean, Atmosphere and Space Science and Technology Department (ONR 32~. The mission of ONR 32 is to provide the scientific and technological base that will maintain and expand the operational superiority of the Navy and the Marine Corps in the ocean, atmosphere, and utilization of space. ONR regards this core area as helping the Navy to "win the environment." Conducting research and developing technology to help U.S. naval forces obtain a tactical operational advantage is a major focus for ONR. This effort includes all areas of ocean science and engineering, from sensing and systems to processes and prediction. In an attempt to minimize the length of time needed to see tangible benefits (many operational Navy needs have recently been addressed by the results of basic research begun as much as 20 years ago), divisions within ONR have recently been vertically integrated to facilitate the transition of basic and applied research from the "lab bench," through exploratory and advanced development to the "marketplace," which for the Navy is the Fleet. ONR is expanding its efforts to involve science and technology team leaders in the operational exercises of the Fleet, providing an opportunity for ONR staff to gain a better understanding of the needs of their primary customers. This is also facilitated by teaming the federal funding category 6.3 (advanced development) managers with the 6.1 (basic research) and 6.2 (applied research) managers (NRC, 1996~. ONR 32 only rarely provides equipment, models, data, or methodologies directly to the operating components of NSW. Rather, its primary role in the Navy's METOC support infrastructure is to provide a technology base for 17

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8 OCEANOGRAPHY AND NAVAL SPECIAL WARFARE: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES the development and fielding of the next-generation of METOC capabilities for the infrastructure that supports warfighters including NSW. In a sense, ONR 32 supports N096, and N096 in turn supports NSW. As the Navy continues to adjust from the conditions of the Cold War to a "New World Order" in which the likelihood of smaller-scale naval operations nearshore is a primary concern, operational oceanography has had to confront a new set of challenges. This, in turn, is causing a sweeping reexamination of traditional METOC approaches and a new accommodation to natural environments that change much more rapidly in time and space than deep ocean settings. The coastal regions and adjacent hinterlands are a particular focus for NSW. Conse- quently, recent emphasis placed on characterization of the littoral zone should be especially useful in supporting NSW needs. In an effort to inform the academic research and military communities about the potential challenges facing the naval METOC and research communities, a series of presentations were made by key individuals from both the Office of the Oceanographer of the Navy and the Office of Naval Research (see Appendix A). Dr. Edward Whitman, Technical Director of the Office of the Oceanographer of the Navy, described the concept of operations (CONOPS) that underlies the existing informational infrastructure and a vision for the future. The following discussion is summarized from Dr. Whitman's presentation. SUPPORTING NSW IN A CHANGING WORLD The traditional top-level concept of operations that has evolved in the METOC community for assimilating observational data into ocean-atmosphere numerical models and generating tactical products for dissemination to the fleet is shown in Figure 3-1. Synoptic-scale guidance products are produced at two large supercomputer centers ashore: the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO; Stennis Space Center, Mississippi) and the Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC; Monterey, California). Both centers gather sensor data from a variety of sources and run large-scale numerical prediction models on a daily, scheduled basis. The model outputs are passed down the chain (normally as "ridded fields of parameter estimates) for use as numerical guidance in more focused regional forecast centers at Norfolk, Virginia; Pearl Harbor, Hawaii; Rota, Spain; and Guam. These regional centers add local value and produce forecast products tailored directly for afloat units and staffs in their areas of responsibility. In turn, at the tactical level, on-scene METOC staffs on command and aircraft-capable ships receive and display weather imagery from both Department of Defense (DoD) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellites. On-scene personnel produce local area forecasts for direct fleet support and processed data for infiltration into tactical decision aids. Both land-line and satellite communications links are used to tie this infrastructure together, and increasing use is being made of wide-band digital networks, for example, the Internet-like NIPRNET and SIPRNET. This tiered approach to fleet METOC support, beginning with a shore-generated, synoptic view and proceed- ing down the chain through successive stages of increasingly local focus, has served the Navy well in the deep ocean, Cold War scenarios of the past. For NSW (and for expeditionary warfare generally), however, the Navy's capabilities will have to expand. The Office of the Oceanographer envisions a shift in CONOPS in which the rapid assimilation of more densely spaced observations is the key to predicting warfighting conditions on the temporal and spatial scales of the smaller, more rapid operations typically conducted by NSW units. Essentially, the existing Cold War infra- structure will be refocused further forward, with rapid environmental assessment (REA) as a primary goal. REA comprises detailed and timely METOC characterization of a limited objective area, keyed to much closer and more timely support of the warfighters. Correspondingly, there is a growing dependence on the display and interpreta- tion of direct observations, with less emphasis on numerical prediction models. There are several key aspects under development. First is the transition to a much denser grid of local area observations and correspondingly more highly resolved data bases, both oceanographic and atmospheric. Second is a growing emphasis on local or "in-stride" capabilities for direct assimilation of both raw and processed data into tactical decision aids in near real time, with continual adaptation to changing conditions. Finally, there is a need

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NAVY SUPPORT OF NSW: AN OVERVIEW se.~r Data DMsl'mo~ Satellites; Imagery Ctob,~! Grids Sensor Data KNAVE/ 19 OMSEt~A Satellites Comm'! / BAT Tailored Products /' - Imagery Major Combatant ~ ~ / ~ L'nks ~TESITDAs FIGURE 3-1 Schematic depiction of the concept of operations that underlies the Navy's existing infrastructure for supplying environmental data to its combat units at sea. NOTE: DMSP Defense Meteorological Satellite Program; SHE Super High Frequency; NAVOCEANO Naval Oceanographic Office; NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; JWICS Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications Systems; SATCOM Satellite Communications; TDAs Tactical Decision Aids. SOURCE: Office of the Oceanographer of the Navy. for a more responsive information infrastructure that targets warfighters (not METOC specialists) directly. NAVOCEANO, in particular, with its Warfighting Support Center (WSC), is already fielding a unique capability for the integration or "fusion" and detailed analysis of all-source oceanographic, satellite, and imagery data and the quick turnaround of highly focused, multidisciplinary products, such as the Special Tactical Oceanographic Information Chart (STOIC; Plate I in rear pocket) and annotated imagery (Plate II). NSW components have been among the WSC' s key customers from the beginning. The more forward-leaning REA focus described above and its associated proliferation of sensor systems will require new concepts of operation and a new support architecture, both at sea and ashore. As illustrated in Figure 3-2, a number of architectural implications are identifiable, including the need to "close the decision loop" for REA as far forward as possible. This will, in turn, necessitate that more powerful tactical METOC fusion capabilities be deployed with the operators, along with access to the local grid of tactical METOC sensors, guidance products from the ashore infrastructure, satellite imagery, and other space-based observations. Sufficient computer power is needed for assimilating these data into tactical-scale fusion and analysis models whose outputs are directly usable as warfighting decision aids. Eventually, many of these capabilities will become available at the NSW tactical level. Although the scope of today's METOC support to NSW is unprecedented, the underlying paradigm has been inherited largely from the experiences of the Cold War. Recent contingencies in Somalia, Haiti, and the Adriatic have already defined new needs for which naval oceanography is only partially prepared. Significant changes are currently in progress as the Navy rises to the new challenges of small-scale wars (and operations short of war), near hostile and unknown coasts. In the words of N096, the METOC community will move the "center of gravity" forward toward the "tip of the spear," enabling better support for Naval Special Warfare.

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20 OCEANOGRAPHY AND NAVAL SPECIAL WARFARE: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES Global Sensor Net ~_~ Tailored _ Products ._ ~ NIPRNET/SIPRNET/JWICS ~ _~ Data Remote Sensors :, (a In-Situ :~: _ C; Sensors ) Rapid Environmental Assessment ~ 1~; ~Coccal. Tactical METOCc Fusion r~ nter FIGURE 3-2 Schematic depiction of the concept of operations underlying N096's vision for the future. The infrastructure depicted for supplying environmental data to naval combat units at sea would emphasize forward-deployed and enhanced observational capabilities. NOTE: SATCOM Satellite Communications; CDC Combatant Data Collection; JWICS- Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications Systems. SOURCE: Office of the Oceanographer of the Navy. ONR SUPPORT OF NAVAL SPECIAL WARFARE ONR supports the science and technology needs of Naval Special Warfare (NSW), and the Navy as a whole, through an integrated program of basic and applied research and through advanced development activities. NSW needs are expressed in formal requirements documents that typically call for relatively short time-scale completion (e.g., 2 to 3 years). NSW long-range requirements can be expressed in less formal long-term assessments and speculations on the future directions of NSW. ONR directs its basic and some applied research activities at these over-the-horizon needs. The latter activities are performed, whenever possible, in concert with the related activi- ties of the Office of the Oceanographer. Many of ONR's basic and applied research programs involve close cooperation with academia and industry, reflecting the Navy' s commitment to continue to develop strong ties to the nonmilitary private sector (NRC 1994, 1996~. As discussed previously, the main source of METOC support for NSW within ONR is the Ocean, Atmo- sphere, and Space Science and Technology Department (ONR 32) through a number of component programs and program officers (Appendix D). ONR also manages S&T projects for NSW in areas other than METOC, including materials, robotics, and hydrodynamics (Appendix D).1 The Ocean Engineering and Marine Systems Program collaborates with program officers throughout ONR, and its team leader is therefore an appropriate point of contact for non-METOC NSW support. Information obtained from http://www.Onr.Navy.Mil/sci_tech/ocean/onrpgahf.htm, October 10, 1997.

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NAVY SUPPORT OF NSW: AN OVERVIEW 21 ONR 32 consists of two divisions, Sensing and Systems and Processes and Prediction. The divisions manage integrated programs in the naval focus areas of battlespace environments; undersea warfare (antisubma- rine and mine); expeditionary warfare (including amphibious operations); maritime intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance, and space exploitation; joint explosive ordnance disposal; and Naval Special Warfare. Sensing and Systems Division This division supports scientific inquiry and technology development through a number of programs, includ- ing Ocean Acoustics; Remote Sensing and Space; Sensing Information Dominance; Coastal Dynamics; Sensors, Sources, and Arrays; Ocean Engineering and Marine Systems; Undersea Signal Processing; and Tactical Sensing Support. The division's interests directly relate to Navy and Marine Corps operations including undersea, expedi- tionary, and special warfare in littoral environments. In addition, the division manages the operation and mainte- nance of Navy research facilities, research ships, and other platforms. Programs within the division of specific interest to NSW are Remote Sensing and Space, Coastal Dynamics, and Ocean Engineering and Marine Systems. Remote Sensing and Space This program investigates physical and chemical processes that govern active and passive electromagnetic spectrum scattering from the Earth's surface and propagation through the upper atmosphere and the near space environment. Of particular interest for surface effects is short water wave rough- ness modulation mechanisms; surfactant effects; intermittence in wave breaking; and non-linear water waves. Research is directed toward improving the knowledge base for development of mechanistic EOIEM (electrooptical/ electromagnetic) clutter models and automatic target recognition, and to investigate techniques that invert sensor information for the development of algorithms for assimilation into environmental models. Additional interests include electromagnetic scattering theory, microwave properties, scattering surface characterization, and wave and flux modulation mechanisms. Space research interests include improved specification of the global ionosphere and studies of ionospheric irregularities which impact radio frequency propagation at all frequencies up to and including those used by the GPS (Global Positioning Satellite) system. Investigations of space weather phenomena are directed toward improved understanding and forecast of solar, heliospheric, and magnetospheric disturbances which destroy or degrade Naval space assets. Investigations of upper atmospheric composition and dynamics are supported to improve specification of satellite drag and other space applications. Additional research interests include precise time and time interval, Earth orientation, and astrometry for autonomous navigation and synchronization of Naval systems.2 Coastal Dynamics This program includes aspects of the fluid and sediment mechanics of the coastal ocean. At present, three areas are emphasized: (1) nearshore processes the fluid mechanics, sediment mechanics, and morphological response in the nearshore where waves begin to break because of shoaling (Fig. 3-3~; (2) shelf dynamics the fluid mechanics of the continental shelf, particularly the inner shelf, seaward of the surf zone but where surface and bottom boundary layers encompass much of the water column; and (3) surface wave mechanics and prediction over the continental shelf. There are collaborations with other programs to address issues such as coastal meteorology, littoral remote sensing, ocean models, and mine burial and migration. A nearshore processes experiment, Sandy Duck 97, will be held at Duck, North Carolina, during summer and fall 1997; additional information is located on the World Wide Web at http://www.frf.usace.army.mil/SandyDuck/ OverviewSandyDuck.html. A surface wave mechanics experiment is planned for the shelf off North Carolina in 1998 and 1999. Ocean Engineering and Marine Systems The goals of this program are to improve the knowledge base of fluid-structure interactions for engineering designs and to develop and demonstrate new technologies for expedi 2Information obtained from http://www.Onr.Navy.Mil/sci_tech/ocean/onrpgahf.htm, October 12, 1997.

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22 OCEANOGRAPHY AND NAVAL SPECIAL WARFARE: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FIGURE 3-3 Black and white images taken by the ARGUS video monitoring system located near Duck, North Carolina. Position of breaking surf visible on short time exposure (a) is controlled by location of submerged bars. A ten-minute time exposure of the same section of beach (b) results in an image with useful information about the geometry and distribution of these offshore features. Photo courtesy of the Office of Naval Research.

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NAVY SUPPORT OF NSW: AN OVERVIEW 23 tionary operations and special warfare. The investigators conduct multi-disciplinary science and technology efforts in the behavior of ocean systems in general as well as specifically for the Marine Corps, NSW units, and Navy Explosive Ordnance Disposal units. The basic research program focuses on fluid forcing and structural response mechanisms and the coupled nonlinear interactions of fluids with generic structural components and unmanned platform systems. Technology development efforts are primarily in the areas of detection and imaging technologies applicable to underwater and buried objects, technologies for neutralization of explosive devices, underwater life support technologies, surface and subsurface transport systems for NSW, autonomous search and surveillance system technologies, and technologies leading to a capability for rapid wide-area clearance of mines and obstacles from the surf zone. Processes and Prediction Division This division concentrates on improving the Navy and Marine Corps' understanding of environmental vari- ability and change, the assimilation of data, and the limits of predictability. It plans, fosters, and encourages an extensive program of scientific inquiry and technological development through a number of programs, including Biological and Chemical Oceanography, Marine Meteorology and Atmospheric Effects, Marine Geology and Geophysics, and High-Latitude Dynamics. In addition, the division supports programs of particular relevance to NSW, including: Environmental Optics, Physical Oceanography, and Ocean Modeling and Prediction. Environmental Optics The goal of this program is to further our understanding of how light interacts with the ocean, including the ocean boundaries (the sea surface and the ocean floor) and the atmosphere within tens of meters of the ocean surface. Funded basic research generally falls into one or more of the following categories: Radiative Transfer Modeling developing and testing state-of-the-art numerical models of radiance propa- gation within the ocean. Instrument Development developing the devices and techniques required to measure the inherent optical properties of ocean water and the ocean floor. Optical Process Studies quantifying the effects of light in the ocean regarding physical, biological, and chemical ocean processes. The products of this research are generally to support the development or application of ocean prediction models, new ocean remote sensing systems and the associated image analysis algorithms. Applied research is funded in areas of underwater imaging and hyperspectral remote sensing in support of mine warfare and special operations (Plate III) and LIDAR in support of submarine warfare.3 Physical Oceanography This program supports process oriented and hypothesis driven science and technol- ogy in the area of physical oceanography. In response to post-Cold War Naval strategy and tactics, increased emphasis is now given to the littoral. Attention still remains on open ocean processes with particular focus given to those processes that couple the open ocean with the littoral. Approximately 1/3 of the program is directed toward littoral processes, 1/3 toward open ocean processes, and 1/3 toward processes, tools, and techniques which have application to both the open ocean as well as to the littoral. Processes under study include western and eastern boundary currents, fronts, intrusions, eddies, air/sea fluxes of heat, mass, momentum, surface and internal waves, the upper surface mixed layer, the bottom boundary layer, fine structure, and microstructure. Research continues in open ocean processes, particularly those that foster understanding of analogous pro- cesses in the littoral environment. However, special emphasis is now being made in marginal and semi-enclosed seas and in straits. High priority is given to the dynamic linkage between these processes, their relationship to atmospheric forcing and boundary conditions, and their degree of predictability. Strong emphasis is given to their 3Information obtained from http://www.Onr.Navy.Mil/sci_tech/ocean/onrpgahk.htm, October 12, 1997.

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24 OCEANOGRAPHY AND NAVAL SPECIAL WARFARE: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES role in biological, geological, atmospheric, acoustic, and optical processes, particularly with respect to their impact on current and planned Navy operational systems and models. The program fosters transition of research products such as numerical and theoretical models, analysis algorithms, in situ data, and sea-going instrumentation and platforms into operational Navy systems.4 Ocean Modeling and Prediction" This program seeks to develop accurate representations of the ocean system as it evolves in time and space. Underlying fundamentals include ocean field estimation, scale interaction and boundary interaction which are now applied toward nowcast and forecast skill, subgrid scale parameterization, ocean-atmosphere and ocean-bottom coupling and nested domains. The system includes acoustic and electromag- netic propagation models linked to hydrodynamic models. The goal of enhanced predictability is achieved through research on better dynamical formulations, improved numerical methods, and optimal data assimilation through adaptive sampling. Basic and applied research are pursued jointly with environmental information and to motivate new understanding by operational experience.5 4Information obtained from http://www.Onr.Navy.Mil/sci_tech/ocean/onrpgabv.htm, October 12, 1997. 5Information obtained from http://www.Onr.Navy.Mil/sci_tech/ocean/onrpgahm.htm, October 12, 1997.