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Improving Theory and Research on Quality Enhancement in Organizations Report of a Workshop Tracy R. Wellens, W. Richard Scott, and Robert Cole, editors Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997
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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This study was supported by an agreement between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-05937-2 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418. Call 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area). This report is also available on line at http://www.nap.edu Printed in the United States of America Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
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--> WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS W. RICHARD SCOTT (Cochair), Department of Sociology, Stanford University ROBERT COLE (Cochair), Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley META BABA, Transformations to Quality Organizations Program, National Science Foundation SØREN BISGAARD-FRANTZEN, College of Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison WILLIAM BUTZ, Social, Behavioral, and Economic Research Program, National Science Foundation KIM CAMERON, Marriott School of Management, Brigham Young University JAMES DEAN, Transformations to Quality Organizations Program, National Science Foundation DANIEL DRUCKMAN, Division on Education, Labor, and Human Performance, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education GEORGE EASTON, Goizueta School of Business, Emory University KATHLEEN EISENHARDT, Terman Engineering Center, Stanford University HILLEARY EVERIST, Social, Behavioral, and Economic Research Program, National Science Foundation BARBARA FLYNN, Department of Management, Iowa State University RICHARD HACKMAN, Department of Psychology, Harvard University TOMOKO HAMADA, Department of Anthropology, College of William and Mary JANET HANSEN, Division on Education, Labor, and Human Performance, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education RACHELLE HOLLANDER, Ethics Program, National Science Foundation GARRY HUYSSE, Global Quality Improvement, Procter & Gamble THOMAS KOCHAN, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology DAVID LEVINE, Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley
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CORA MARRETT, College of Education, University of Wisconsin-Madison NELSON REPENNING, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology STANLEY SETTLES, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Southern California KATHRYN SHAW, Graduate School of Industrial Administration, Carnegie Mellon University SIM SITKIN, Fuqua School of Business, Duke University JOHN STERMAN, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology KATHLEEN SUTCLIFFE, School of Business, University of Michigan KARL WEICK, School of Business Administration, University of Michigan SIDNEY WINTER, Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania Staff MIRON STRAF, Director, Committee on National Statistics, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education TRACY WELLENS, Research Associate, Committee on National Statistics, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education KAREN HUIE, Research Assistant, Committee on National Statistics, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
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COMMISSION ON BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES AND EDUCATION 1996–1997 NEIL J. SMELSER (Chair), Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences DEBORAH L. BALL, Department of Teacher Education, University of Michigan AL BLUMSTEIN, The Heinz School of Urban and Public Affairs, Carnegie Mellon University ANTHONY S. BRYK, Center for School Improvement, University of Chicago RICHARD ELMORE, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University BARUCH FISCHHOFF, Department of Social and Decision Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University JAMES GREENO, School of Education, Stanford University JOHN F. KIHLSTROM, Department of Psychology, Yale University ELEANOR E. MACCOBY, Department of Psychology, Stanford University CHARLES F. MANSKI, Department of Economics, Northwestern University CORA B. MARRETT, Office of the Provost, University of Massachusetts BARBARA J. MCNEIL, Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School JANE MENKEN, Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania ROBERT A. MOFFITT, Department of Economics, John Hopkins University ROBERT D. REISCHAUER, Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C. T. PAUL SCHULTZ, Department of Economics, Economic Growth Center, Yale University CHRISTOPHER A. SIMS, Department of Economics, Yale University BURTON H. SINGER, Office of Population Research, Princeton University EDWARD E. SMITH, Department of Psychology, University of Michigan WILLIAM JULIUS WILSON, Malcom Wiener Center for Social Policy, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University
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Acknowledgments Many people contributed time and expertise to the workshop and the preparation of this report. The Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (CBASSE) and the Committee on National Statistics (CNSTAT) are most appreciative of their cooperation and assistance. We thank the CBASSE subcommittee on the workshop—W. Richard Scott, Alfred Blumstein, James Greeno, and John Swets—who designed and planned the workshop. We thank Richard Scott and Robert Cole, who served as cochairs of the workshop and as two of the editors for this report. Special recognition is due Tracy R. Wellens, who drafted the report and coordinated the editorial process while on loan from the Bureau of the Census in a personnel sharing program developed by CNSTAT with the federal statistical agencies. In expressing our gratitude to the staff, we single out Miron Straf for his helpful guidance and Karen Huie, who attended to the logistics for the workshop and also drafted the workshop paper summaries. Eugenia Grohman offered comments and guidance in editing the report for publication. Finally, we owe thanks to the workshop participants and to our many colleagues who offered valuable comments and suggestions for the workshop and this report. NEIL SMELSER, CHAIR COMMISSION ON BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES AND EDUCATION
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--> Contents Introduction 1 Bridging the Gap Between Practice and Theory 2 Research Perspectives: Paper Summaries 4 Historical Perspective 10 Definitions 11 Research Issues 16 References 20 Appendix: Workshop Papers 21
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