ASSESSMENT OF THE U.S. ARMY CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL DEFENSE COMMAND

REPORT 1

Technical Assessment of the Man-In-Simulant Test (MIST) Program

Standing Committee on Program and Technical Review of the U.S. Army Chemical and Biological Defense Command

Board on Army Science and Technology

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1997



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Technical Assessment of the Man-In-Simulant Test (MIST) Program: Report 1 ASSESSMENT OF THE U.S. ARMY CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL DEFENSE COMMAND REPORT 1 Technical Assessment of the Man-In-Simulant Test (MIST) Program Standing Committee on Program and Technical Review of the U.S. Army Chemical and Biological Defense Command Board on Army Science and Technology Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997

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Technical Assessment of the Man-In-Simulant Test (MIST) Program: Report 1 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is interim president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This is a report of work supported by Contract DAAM01-96-K-0002 between the U.S. Army Chemical and Biological Defense Command, and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-05940-2 Limited copies are available from: Board on Army Science and Technology National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 Additional copies are available for sale from: National Academy Press Box 285 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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Technical Assessment of the Man-In-Simulant Test (MIST) Program: Report 1 Standing Committee on Program and Technical Review of the U.S. Army Chemical and Biological Defense Command FRANCIS G. DWYER (chair), Mobil Research and Development Corporation (retired), West Chester, Pennsylvania JEROME S. SCHULTZ (vice chair), University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania KLAUS BIEMANN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge HAROLD S. BLACKMAN, Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company, Idaho Falls, Idaho BARBARA G. CALLAHAN, Fluor Daniel GTI, Norwood, Massachusetts JAMES M. CARUTHERS, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana CLEMENT E. FURLONG, University of Washington, Seattle JEAN H. FUTRELL, University of Delaware, Newark BERNARD D. GOLDSTEIN, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey MICHAEL T. KLEIN, University of Delaware, Newark SANFORD S. LEFFINGWELL, HLM Consultants, Dacula, Georgia MAJOR GENERAL WILLIAM L. MOORE, JR., U.S. Army (retired), Nashville, Tennessee DEREK L. RANSLEY, Chevron Research and Technology Company (retired), Richmond, California LUDWIG REBENFELD, TRI Princeton, Princeton, New Jersey WILLIAM REIFENRATH, Reifenrath Consulting & Research, Richmond, California K. ANNE STREET, DynCorp, Reston, Virginia J. THROCK WATSON, Michigan State University, East Lansing Board on Army Science and Technology Liaison CHRISTOPHER C. GREEN, General Motors Corporation, Warren, Michigan Army Liaisons MAJOR GENERAL GEORGE E. FRIEL, U.S. Army Chemical and Biological Defense Command (CBDCOM), Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland JOSEPH VERVIER, U.S. Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland JAMES BAKER, U.S. Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland Staff BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director, Board on Army Science and Technology ERIC SHIMOMURA, Senior Program Officer (to March 1997) GEORGE DAVATELIS, Senior Program Officer JACQUELINE A. CAMPBELL-JOHNSON, Senior Program Assistant

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Technical Assessment of the Man-In-Simulant Test (MIST) Program: Report 1 BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CHRISTOPHER C. GREEN (chair), General Motors Corporation, Warren, Michigan WILLIAM H. FORSTER (vice chair), Northrop Grumman Corporation, Baltimore, Maryland ROBERT A. BEAUDET, University of Southern California, Los Angeles GARY L. BORMAN, University of Wisconsin, Madison LAWRENCE J. DELANEY, Delaney Group, Inc., Potomac, Maryland MARYE ANNE FOX, University of Texas, Austin ROBERT J. HEASTON, Guidance and Control Information Analysis Center (retired), Chicago, Illinois KATHRYN V. LOGAN, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta THOMAS McNAUGHER, RAND, Washington, D.C. NORMAN F. PARKER, Varian Associates (retired), Cardiff by the Sea, California STEWART D. PERSONICK, Bell Communications Research, Inc., Morristown, New Jersey M. FRANK ROSE, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama HARVEY W. SCHADLER, General Electric Corporation (retired), Schenectady, New York CLARENCE G. THORNTON, Army Research Laboratories (retired), Colts Neck, New Jersey JOHN D. VENABLES, Venables & Associates, Towson, Maryland ALLEN C. WARD, Ward Synthesis, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan Staff BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director MARGO L. FRANCESCO, Administrative Associate ALVERA V. GIRCYS, Financial Associate PAMELA A. LEWIS, Project Assistant

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Technical Assessment of the Man-In-Simulant Test (MIST) Program: Report 1 Preface This report is the first of a two-phase response to a request from the technical director of the U.S. Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center (RDEC) that the National Research Council's (NRC) U.S. Army Chemical and Biological Defense Command Standing Committee (CSC) conduct technical assessments and program reviews within the command. Specifically, the CSC was asked to conduct a technical assessment of the man-in-simulant test (MIST) program and a program review of the mass spectrometry and bioremediation programs. These programs represent a continuum of technologies designed to protect, detect, and dispose of chemical and biological weapons that soldiers may face in future combat. This report focuses on the technical assessment of the MIST program. Members of the CSC have a wide range of expertise in chemical engineering, chemistry and biochemistry, toxicology and risk assessment, simulation and modeling, bioremediation of chemical warfare agents, physical chemistry and mass spectrometry, medicine, chemical modeling, epidemiology and industrial hazards, and military science. Members of the committee whose expertise was relevant to reviewing the MIST program were chosen to serve on the review panel. The panel met three times between October 1996 and April 1997 and heard testimony from several Army research and development experts, including representatives from the Edgewood RDEC, the U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, the Natick RDEC, and Dugway Proving Ground, in Utah, where the tests are conducted. In this report, the committee documents the methodology used by the Army to test protective suit ensembles and analyze data. The committee carefully considered the best way to present its findings

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Technical Assessment of the Man-In-Simulant Test (MIST) Program: Report 1 and organize the report, given the critical nature of the MIST program and its ramifications for Army personnel. The problem is complicated by the fact that the Edgewood RDEC is faced with operating in an environment of constrained defense budgets and reductions in military and civilian personnel. The Edgewood RDEC's workforce has been reduced by 20 percent since 1990, and the U.S. Army Material Command projects another 15 percent reduction by 2000. Funding that had been earmarked for defense research and development is also being transferred to military operations. These reductions in personnel and funding will require that priorities be precisely determined and that data be generated efficiently. To that end, the technical director of the Edgewood RDEC requested that the NRC provide expert, independent technical advice and counsel on selected aspects of the nuclear, biological, and chemical research, development, and acquisition program. The chair and the committee wish to express their gratitude for the staff assistance and support provided by the NRC. We are indebted to Bruce Braun, director, Board on Army Science and Technology; George Davatelis, study director; Jacqueline Campbell-Johnson, senior project assistant; Margo Francesco, staff associate; Alvera Gircys, financial associate; and William Holm, consultant. The work of the committee would not have been possible without these dedicated individuals. The committee also appreciates the comments and written submissions of the various groups who provided testimony and written material; Virginia Gildengorin, for reviewing the data analysis procedures; and the group of outside experts who graciously donated their time to review this report. Francis G. Dwyer, chair Standing Committee on Program and Technical Review of the U.S. Army Chemical and Biological Defense Command

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Technical Assessment of the Man-In-Simulant Test (MIST) Program: Report 1 Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   7     Background   7     Charge to the Committee   8     Study Approach   9 2   TEST PROTOCOL   11     Underlying Concepts   11     Methodology   14 3   SIMULANT SELECTION   30     Importance of Dermal Penetration   30     Use of Simulant to Predict Dermal Penetration   31     Selection of a Simulant   34     Toxicity of Methyl Salicylate   35     Final Choice of a Simulant for MIST   35 4   TEST METHODS AND SAMPLER SELECTION   37     Purposes of Monitoring   37     Rationale for the Selection of Monitoring Methods   38     Chamber Monitoring   39     Options for In-Suit Monitoring   41 5   ASSUMPTIONS AND LIMITATIONS   49     Test Protocol Considerations   49     Human Factors Considerations   51     Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition as a Biological Marker   52     Biological Interpretation of the MIST/BRHA   54

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Technical Assessment of the Man-In-Simulant Test (MIST) Program: Report 1 6   CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   56     Specific Conclusions and Recommendations   57     General Conclusions and Recommendations   60     REFERENCES   62     APPENDICES         A Body Region Hazard Analysis   67     B Panel and Committee Meetings   74

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Technical Assessment of the Man-In-Simulant Test (MIST) Program: Report 1 Tables and Figures TABLES 2-1   Techniques for Evaluating Protective Clothing   15 2-2   Estimated Topical Dose of VX That Would Cause a 70 Percent Depression in Red Blood Cell Cholinesterase in a 70-kg Human   20 2-3   Parameters for Local Body Region Hazard Analysis   22 2-4   Ranking of Protective Ensembles by Local Effective Ct   23 2-5   Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on Loge (Local Effective Ct) of Protective Ensembles   24 2-6   Ranking of Protective Ensembles by Systemic Effective Ct   26 2-7   Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on Loge (Systemic Ct) of Protective Ensembles   27 2-8   Comparison of Total Mass of Methyl Salicylate Collected in Passive Samplers versus Geometric Mean of Local Effective Ct (Local Analysis for Mustard Gas)   28 3-1   Characteristics of Chemical Agents and Methyl Salicylate   33 5-1   Regional Variations in Human Skin Permeability as a Function of Test Substance   50 FIGURES 2-1   Placement of passive sampling devices for the MIST   17 2-2   MIST system test chamber   18 2-3   Local effective Ct versus total sampler mass   29 3-1   Chemical structures of methyl salicylate, VX, and mustard   32 4-1   Diagram of Natick sampler   48

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Technical Assessment of the Man-In-Simulant Test (MIST) Program: Report 1 Acronyms ANOVA analysis of variance BRHA body region hazard analysis CB chemical and/or biological agent CBDCOM U.S. Army Chemical and Biological Defense Command CPE chemical protective ensemble CSC CBDCOM Standing Committee Ct concentration x time CWA chemical warfare agent GA nerve agent (chemical warfare agent) GB nerve agent (chemical warfare agent) H or HD mustard, blister agent (chemical warfare agent) HDPE high-density polyethylene MeS methyl salicylate MIRANS miniature infrared analyzers MIST man-in-simulant test NBC nuclear, biological, and chemical NRC National Research Council PF protection factor RDEC Research, Development and Engineering Center VX nerve agent (chemical warfare agent) WBEE whole body effective exposure