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I- '' rat' i' ~F r~:,-:rrl _ ~#_ \ \l ~ ~ ,'J,': Results of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study Alexandra Beatty, Editor Board on International Comparative Studies in Education Board on Testing and Assessment Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education Committee on Science Education K-12 Mathematical Sciences Education Board Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engi- neering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This report was supported by Cooperative Grant No. OSR-9355774 from the National Science Foundation, which includes funds from the National Center for Education Statistics of the U.S. Department of Education. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authorts) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-05975-5 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Lock Box 285 Washington, D.C. 20055 Call 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area). This report is also available on line at http://www.nap.edu Printed in the United States of America Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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BOARD ON INTERNATIONAL COMPARATIVE STUDIES IN EDUCATION Michael W. Kirst (Chair), School of Education, Stanford University Gordon M. Ambach (Ex officio), Council of Chief State School Officers, Washington, D.C. Christopher T. Cross, Council for Basic Education, Washington, D.C. John A. Dossey, Department of Mathematics, Illinois State University, Normal Ronald K. Hambleton, School of Education, University of Massachusetts, Amherst Ruth E.S. Hayhoe, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, Toronto Paul G. LeMahieu, Delaware Education Research and Development Center, University of Delaware, and Delaware Department of Public Instruction, Newark Mary M. Lindquist, School of Education, Columbus State University Marlaine E. Lockheed, Human Development Group, World Bank, Washington, D.C. Lynn W. Paine, Department of Teacher Education, Michigan State University Andrew C. Porter, Wisconsin Center for Educational Research. School of Education, University of Wisconsin, Madison Francisco O. Ramirez, School of Education, Stanford University Janet S. Hansen, Director Alexandra Beatty, Program Officer M. Jane Phillips, Senior Project Assistant . . .

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BOARD ON TESTING AND ASSESSMENT Richard ,l. Shavelson (Chair), School of Education, Stanford University Laurie ,l. Bassi (Vice Chair), American Society for Training and Development, Alexandria, Virginia Robert L. Linn (Vice Chair), School of Education, University of Colorado, Boulder Richard C. Atkinson, President, University of California Iraline G. Barnes, Potomac Electric Power Company, Washington, D.C. David C. Berliner, College of Education, Arizona State University, Tempe Paul ,l. Black, School of Education, King's College, London, England Richard P. Duran, Graduate School of Education, Univers California, S. ante B arbara Christopher F. Edley, fir., Harvard Law School Richard F. Elmore, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University ity of Arthur S. Goldberger, Department of Economics, University of Wisconsin, Madison Paul W. Holland, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Berkeley Carl F. Kaestle, Department of Education, University of Chicago Michael W. Kirst, School of Education, Stanford University Alan M. Lesgold, Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh Kenneth Pearlman, Lucent Technologies, Inc., Warren, New Jersey Paul R. Sackett, Industrial Relations Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis Alan H. Schoenfeld, Graduate School of Education, University of California William L. Taylor, Attorney at Law, Washington, D.C. Ewart A.C. Thomas, Department of Psychology, Stanford University Jack Whalen, Institute for Research on Learning, Menlo Park, California Michael ,l. Feuer, Director 1V

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COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE EDUCATION K-12 Lane Butler Kahle (Chair), Department of Teacher Education, Miami University Joseph McInerney (Vice Chair), Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs, Colorado ,l. Myron Atkin, Center for Educational Research, Stanford University Caryl Edward Buchwald, Department of Geology, Carleton College ~ v , , George Bugliarello, Chancellor, Polytechnic University Christine Chopyak-Minor, Keystone Science School, Keystone, Colorado Peter B. Dow, Buffalo Museum of Science, New York William E. Dugger, fir., Technology for All Americans, Blacksburg, Virginia Wade Ellis, fir., Department of Mathematics, West Valley College, Saratoga, California Norman Hackerman, The Robert A. Welch Foundation, Houston, Texas William D. Hammers, Optimal Solutions, Clearwater, Kansas Robert Hazen, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C. Leroy Hood, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, University of Washington, Seattle Michael G. Lang, Phoenix Urban Systemic Initiative, Maricopa Community College William Linder-Scholer, SciMathMN, St. Paul, Minnesota Maria Alicia Lopez-Freeman, Center for Teacher Leadership in Language and Status, California Science Project, Monterey Park John A. Moore, Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside Darlene Norfleet, Flynn Park Elementary School, University City, Missouri William Spooner, North Carolina Department of Public Instruction, Raleigh Judith Sydner-Gordon, Los Angeles County Office of Education, California Rachel Wood, Delaware State Department of Public Instruction, Dover Harold Pratt, Director v

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MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES EDUCATION BOARD Hyman Bass (Chair), Department of Mathematics, Columbia University Glenda T. Lappan (Vice Chair), Department of Mathematics, Connected Mathematics Project, Michigan State University Deborah Ball, School of Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Benjamin Blackhawk, St. Paul Academy and Summit School, Minnesota Sadie C. Bragg, Borough of Manhattan Community College, City University of New York Gail F. Burrill, National Center for Research in Mathematical Sciences Education, University of Wisconsin, Madison Patricia Campbell, Department of Curriculum and Instruction, University of Maryland, College Park Shari A.W. Coston, Arkansas Education Renewal Consortium, Henderson State University, Arkadelphia Ingrid Daubechies, Department of Mathematics and Programs in Applied and Computational Mathematics, Princeton University Shelly K. Ferguson, California Mathematics Project, San Diego Melvin D. George, President's Office, University of Missouri Systems, Columbia Roger E. Howe, Yale University Bruce Jacobs, Oakland ECRC, California Lee,lenkins, Enterprise School District, Redding, California Rick D. Jennings, Eisenhower High School, Yakima, Washington Harvey B. Keynes, Mathematics Department, University of Minnesota James R.C. Leitzel, Department of Mathematics, University of New Hampshire Tony Q. Martinez, Mathematics Department, Leander High School 1 exas Pamela E. Matthews, Mathematics and Statistics Department, American University David Moore, Department of Statistics, Purdue University Margaret H. Wright, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey Joan Ferrini-Mundy, Director V1

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Contents Introduction What Is TIMSS? The Achievement Study, 4 The Curriculum Study, 8 The Three-Country Qualitative Studies, 10 Critiques and Methodological Issues Linking the Components of TIMSS, 16 The Achievement Study, 17 The Curriculum Study, 18 The Three-Country Qualitative Studies, 18 Policy Issues Understanding the Differences Among Countries, 21 Support for Teachers, 24 Secondary Analyses of TIMSS Data, 25 Limitations of TIMSS, 27 Summary References Appendix A Symposium Participants Appendix B Symposium Agenda Appendix C Papers Presented at the Symposium Appendix D TIMSS Reports and Resources 1 3 15 21 29 31 33 39 41 42 . . V11

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rat A 17;U,.1 F3-Ll-I r -ret) A I_ =_ \ ~ ~--\1 s~-a_ _ Results of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study

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