Harnessing Light

Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century

Committee on Optical Science and Engineering

Board on Physics and Astronomy

National Materials Advisory Board

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

National Academy Press
Washington, D.C.
1998



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Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century Harnessing Light Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century Committee on Optical Science and Engineering Board on Physics and Astronomy National Materials Advisory Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1998

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Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This project was supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency under Contract No. MDA972-94-1-0015, the National Science Foundation under Contract No. ECS-9414956, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology under Contract No. 50-SBNB-4-C-8197. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily express the views of the sponsors. Cover: For photo credit and description, see p. 12. International Standard Book Number 0-309-05991-7 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 98-86525 Copyright 1998 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century COMMITTEE ON OPTICAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING CHARLES V. SHANK, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Chair ARAM MOORADIAN, Winchester, Massachusetts, Vice Chair DAVID ATTWOOD, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory GARY BJORKLUND, Optical Networks, Inc. ROBERT BYER, Stanford University MICHAEL CAMPBELL, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory STEVEN CHU, Stanford University THOMAS DEUTSCH, Massachusetts General Hospital ELSA GARMIRE, Dartmouth College ALASTAIR GLASS, Lucent Technologies JOHN GREIVENKAMP, University of Arizona ARTHUR GUENTHER, Sandia National Laboratories THOMAS S. HARTWICK, TRW (retired) ROBIN HOCHSTRASSER, University of Pennsylvania ERICH IPPEN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology KRISTINA JOHNSON, University of Colorado at Boulder DENNIS KILLINGER, University of South Florida HERWIG KOGELNIK, Lucent Technologies ROBERT SHANNON, University of Arizona GLENN T. SINCERBOX, University of Arizona BRIAN THOMPSON, University of Rochester ELI YABLONOVITCH, University of California, Los Angeles THOMAS BAER, Biometric Imaging Systems, Special Consultant DONALD SHAPERO, Director, Board on Physics and Astronomy ROBERT SCHAFRIK, Director, National Materials Advisory Board SANDRA HYLAND, Senior Program Officer, National Materials Advisory Board DANIEL MORGAN, Program Officer, Board on Physics and Astronomy

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Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY ROBERT C. DYNES, University of California, San Diego, Chair ROBERT C. RICHARDSON, Cornell University, Vice Chair IRA BERNSTEIN, Yale University STEVEN CHU, Stanford University VAL FITCH, Princeton University IVAR GIAEVER, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute JOHN HUCHRA, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics ANTHONY C.S. READHEAD, California Institute of Technology R.G. HAMISH ROBERTSON, University of Washington KATHLEEN C. TAYLOR, General Motors Corporation J. ANTHONY TYSON, Lucent Technologies GEORGE WHITESIDES, Harvard University DAVID WILKINSON, Princeton University DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director ROBERT L. RIEMER, Associate Director DANIEL F. MORGAN, Program Officer NATASHA CASEY, Program Associate GRACE WANG, Project Assistant

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Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD ROBERTA. LAUDISE, Lucent Technologies, Chair JAMES C. WILLIAMS, GE Aircraft Engines, Past Chair REZA ABBASCHIAN, University of Florida MICHAEL I. BASKES, Sandia National Laboratories JESSE (JACK) BEAUCHAMP, California Institute of Technology FRANCIS DISALVO, Cornell University EARL DOWELL, Duke University EDWARD C. DOWLING, Cleveland Cliffs, Inc. THOMAS EAGAR, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ANTHONY G. EVANS, Harvard University JOHN A.S. GREEN, The Aluminum Association, Inc. SIEGFRIED S. HECKER, Los Alamos National Laboratory JOHN H. HOPPS, JR., Morehouse College MICHAEL JAFFE, Hoechst Celanese Corporation (retired) SYLVIA M. JOHNSON, SRI International LISA KLEIN, Rutgers University HARRY LIPSITT, Wright State University ALAN G. MILLER, Boeing Commercial Airplane Group RICHARD S. MULLER, University of California, Berkeley ROBERT C. PFAHL, JR., Motorola ELSA REICHMANIS, Lucent Technologies KENNETH L. REIFSNIDER, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University JAMES WAGNER, Case Western Reserve University BILL G.W. YEE, Pratt & Whitney RICHARD CHAIT, Director ROBERT SCHAFRIK, Past Director ROBERT M. EHRENREICH, Senior Program Officer SANDRA HYLAND, Senior Program Officer THOMAS E. MUNNS, Senior Program Officer CHARLES HACH, Program Officer BONNIE SCARBOROUGH, Program Officer LOIS LOBO, Research Associate MARLENE CROWELL, Financial Analyst AIDA NEEL, Senior Project Assistant JANICE PRISCO, Senior Project Assistant PAT WILLIAMS, Senior Project Assistant

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Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS ROBERT J. HERMANN, United Technologies Corporation, Co-chair W. CARL LINEBERGER, University of Colorado, Co-chair PETER M. BANKS, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan WILLIAM BROWDER, Princeton University LAWRENCE D. BROWN, University of Pennsylvania RONALD G. DOUGLAS, Texas A&M University JOHN E. ESTES, University of California, Santa Barbara MARTHA P. HAYNES, Cornell University L. LOUIS HEGEDUS, Elf Atochem North America, Inc. JOHN E. HOPCROFT, Cornell University CAROL M. JANTZEN, Westinghouse Savannah River Company PAUL G. KAMINSKI, Technovation, Inc. KENNETH H. KELLER, University of Minnesota KENNETH I. KELLERMANN, National Radio Astronomy Observatory MARGARET G. KIVELSON, University of California, Los Angeles DANIEL KLEPPNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN KREICK, Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company MARSHA I. LESTER, University of Pennsylvania NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS, Brookhaven National Laboratory CHANG-LIN TIEN, University of California, Berkeley NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director

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Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century COMMISSION ON ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL SYSTEMS W. DALE COMPTON, Purdue University, Chair ELEANOR BAUM, The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art RUTH M. DAVIS, Pymatuning Group, Inc. HENRY J. HATCH, Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. STUART L. KNOOP, Oudens and Knoop, Architects, PC NANCY G. LEVESON, University of Washington ROBERT M. NEREM, Georgia Institute of Technology LAWRENCE T. PAPAY, Bechtel Technology and Consulting BRADFORD W. PARKINSON, Stanford University JERRY SCHUBEL, New England Aquarium BARRY M. TROST, Stanford University JAMES C. WILLIAMS, GE Aircraft Engines RONALD W. YATES, U.S. Air Force (retired), Consultant DOUGLAS C. BAUER, Executive Director

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Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century Preface In July 1994, the National Research Council (NRC) issued a report titled Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Science: An Investment in the Future (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.). The report found that optical science had become an integral part of a wide range of scientific disciplines and was a key contributor to economically important applications in many areas. Some aspects of optical science, however, and all of optical engineering, were beyond the scope of the 1994 report, which therefore recommended undertaking a more comprehensive assessment of the broad field of optical science and engineering. A program initiation and planning meeting was organized by the Board on Physics and Astronomy in cooperation with the National Materials Advisory Board. This effort resulted in the formation of the Committee on Optical Science and Engineering in early 1995, under the auspices of the two boards and with funding from three federal agencies: the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the National Science Foundation, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The charge to the committee was as follows: Survey the field of optical science and engineering (OS&E). Define the technical scope and institutional structure of the OS&E community. Examine progress over the last decade and project the future impact of OS&E on societal needs in the short (3-5 years) and long terms (5-20 years). Focus on leading-edge developments. Develop a vision for the future and identify some "grand challenges" that could give the field direction and could focus efforts in areas that have potential for benefit to society. Identify technical opportunities and prioritize them in the context of national needs. Identify institutional and educational innovations that are needed to develop and organize the field in a more coherent fashion and to optimize the contributions of OS&E to addressing critical national needs.

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Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century Determine how public policy influences the ability of OS&E to address national needs. Examine trends in private and public research activities and compare them with those in other countries. The committee met for the first time in March 1995. It held six workshops over the course of the following year to gather technical input from the optical science and engineering community. There were also presentations and public forums at several professional society meetings, to inform the community about the study, to solicit further input, and to begin building a foundation of community support for the study process. Based on these inputs, additional inquiries by members of the committee, and extensive discussion and debate within the committee, this report was prepared to present the study's findings, conclusions, and recommendations. The committee thanks the many members of the OS&E community who provided their assistance to the study by participating in the workshops and through other means (see Appendix B). Without such a broad range of input, no single group could have hoped to examine a field as broad and diverse as this one. Thanks are also due to Doug Vaughan of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for his assistance in writing the Overview. A final note on terminology: Many terms are used to describe this field and its various overlapping subfields. This report often simply uses the word optics, in its broadest sense, to include the whole spectrum of activity in the field, across all subfields, and from basic research to engineering.

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Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making their published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The contents of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Arthur Ashkin, AT&T Bell Laboratories (retired) David H. Auston, Rice University Arthur N. Chester, Hughes Research Laboratories Anthony J. DeMaria, DeMaria ElectroOptics Systems Paul A. Fleury, University of New Mexico John L. Hall, JILA/University of Colorado Wendell T. Hill, University of Maryland, College Park William Howard, Scottsdale, Arizona Daniel Kleppner, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Paul W. Kruse, Infrared Solutions Robert Laudise, Lucent Technologies Jacques I. Pankove, University of Colorado at Boulder Don W. Shaw, Texas Instruments (retired) Watt W. Webb, Cornell University and one anonymous reviewer While the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the NRC.

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Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century Contents   Executive Summary 1   Overview 5 1 Optics in Information Technology and Telecommunications 29 Information Transport 32 Long-Distance Transmission 34 Fiber to the Home 39 Analog Lightwave Transmission 42 Optical Space Communications 44 Information Processing 46 Optical Data Links 47 Optical Networking and Switching 49 Optical Image Processing and Computing 56 Overall Issues 58 Optical Storage 58 Market Size and Current Trends 58 Education Issues 63 International Competitiveness 63 Key Unresolved Issues 63 Opportunities, Challenges, Obstacles 64 Displays 67 Medium-Sized Displays 69 Small Displays 71 Projection Displays 72 Very Large Displays 72 Military and Avionics Displays 73 Educational and R&D Issues 73 Summary and Recommendations 74 Information Transport 74 Processing 76 Storage 78 Displays 80

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Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century 2 Optics in Health Care and the Life Sciences 83 Surgery and Medicine 84 Introduction of Lasers 85 Understanding the Interaction of Light with Tissue 87 Minimally Invasive Therapy 89 Advanced Therapeutic Applications of Lasers 92 Optical Diagnostic Techniques 97 Nontechnical Considerations 105 Tools for Biology 106 Visualization Techniques 106 Measurement and Analysis Techniques 112 Micromanipulation Techniques 116 Biotechnology 117 DNA Analysis 117 Pharmaceutical Screening 119 Summary and Recommendations 120 Surgery and Medicine 120 Tools for Biology 122 Biotechnology 123 References 123 3 Optical Sensing, Lighting, and Energy 125 Optical Sensors and Imaging Systems 127 Environmental and Atmospheric Monitoring 128 Earth and Global Surface Monitoring 133 Astronomy and Planetary Probes 136 Industrial Chemical Sensors 140 Digital, Video, and Thermal Imaging Cameras 141 Law Enforcement and Security 143 Common Everyday Optical Sensors 147 Lighting 148 Lighting History, Future Directions, and Standards 149 New Lighting Sources and Distribution Systems 150 Optical Sensors and Lighting in Transportation 155 Aircraft Applications 155 Automobile Applications 156 Energy 158 Inertial Confinement Fusion Using Lasers 158 Laser Isotope Separation of Uranium for Nuclear Energy 160 Space Solar Cells 160 Terrestrial Solar Cells 161 Solar Thermal Energy 163 Summary and Recommendations 164 Optical Sensors and Imaging Systems 164 Lighting 165 Optical Sensors and Lighting in Transportation 166 Energy 166 References 167

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Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century 4 Optics in National Defense 169 Surveillance 173 Night Vision 176 Laser Systems Operating in the Atmosphere and in Space 179 Laser Range Finders, Designators, Jammers, and Communicators 180 Laser Weapons 182 Fiber-Optic Systems 184 Displays 186 Special Techniques 188 Chemical and Biological Species Detection 188 Laser Gyros for Navigation 189 Optical Signal Processing 190 Summary and Recommendations 190 References 194 5 Optics in Industrial Manufacturing 195 Use of Light to Perform Manufacturing 197 Photolithography 197 Laser Materials Processing 201 Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing Using Optics 208 Use of Optics to Control Manufacturing 210 Metrology 211 Machine Vision 213 Sensors 215 Specific Industrial Applications 215 Automobile Manufacturing 215 The Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Industry 218 Display Manufacturing 221 The Chemical Industry 221 Aircraft Manufacturing 223 The Construction Industry 225 The Printing Industry 227 Increasing Use of Optics in Industrial Manufacturing 229 Summary and Recommendations 230 References 233 6 Manufacturing Optical Components and Systems 235 Introduction 235 A Brief History 237 An Overview of the Industry Today 237 Low-Volume Manufacturing of Specialty Optics 239 Spherical Lenses 240 Aspheres 242 Computer-Controlled Deterministic Grinding and Polishing 244 Diffractive Elements 245 Optical Coatings 246 Optical Glasses, Polymers, and Specialty Materials 248 Case Study: Photolithography Equipment 249 Case Study: Optics for the National Ignition Facility 251 Key Technical Challenges 253

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Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century High-Volume Manufacturing of Optics 253 Optical Fiber, Fiber Devices, and Waveguides 255 Semiconductor-Based Optoelectronic Components 257 Laser and Waveguide Packaging 260 Key Technical Challenges 262 Crosscutting Issues 262 Optical Design and the Impact of Increased Computer Power 262 Role of Metrology 265 Standards 267 Size and Composition of the Optics Industry 268 Summary and Recommendations 272 References 274 7 Optics Research and Education 275 Introduction 275 Research Opportunities 279 Quantum, Atomic, and Biological Optics 280 Femtosecond Optics 286 Semiconductor and Advanced Solid-State Lasers 291 Advanced Materials for the Generation and Control of Light 298 Extreme Ultraviolet and X-Ray Optics 304 Education in Optics 308 U.S. Optics Education Programs 309 Approaches to Academic Programs in Optics 310 Continuing Education 312 Summary and Recommendations 312 Broad Issues 312 Research Opportunities 313 Education in Optics 317 References 318   Appendixes   Appendix A: Collected Recommendations 321 Appendix B: Workshop Participants 331

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Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century HARNESSING LIGHT

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