Appendix A
Questions Addressed by the NRC Study

  1. What are the factors that determine the risk of transmission of Brucella abortus to cattle from bison in Yellowstone National Park and Grand Teton National Park?

    1. What is the state of scientific understanding of transmission of Brucella abortus between wildlife species and between wildlife and cattle?

    2. Does Brucella abortus affect the reproductive potential in bison generally, and specifically bison in the GYA?

    3. Does Brucella abortus pose a risk of transmission when it occurs in bison but is not present in the reproductive system? What risk is associated with infected males? (Is it dynamic?)

    4. What is the relationship among serology, culture test results, and likelihood of infectiousness?

    5. What is true prevalence of Brucella abortus in GYA bison and elk? What information is available regarding the prevalence of Brucella abortus in GYA bison and elk? What information is available regarding the prevalence of Brucella abortus in other mammals in the GYA?

    6. What is the risk of direct or indirect (via aborted fetus, placenta, body fluids deposited on the ground, etc.) transmission of Brucella abortus from bison to cattle, from elk to cattle, and from elk to bison or vice versa? What is known about the prevalence of Brucella abortus in GYA wildlife other than bison or elk and risk of transmission to cattle?

    7. In the event that Brucella abortus is removed from bison but not simultaneously from elk, what is the risk that elk will serve as a reinfection pathway for bison?

    8. What is the known risk of Brucella abortus transmission compared with other disease?



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OCR for page 144
Appendix A Questions Addressed by the NRC Study What are the factors that determine the risk of transmission of Brucella abortus to cattle from bison in Yellowstone National Park and Grand Teton National Park? What is the state of scientific understanding of transmission of Brucella abortus between wildlife species and between wildlife and cattle? Does Brucella abortus affect the reproductive potential in bison generally, and specifically bison in the GYA? Does Brucella abortus pose a risk of transmission when it occurs in bison but is not present in the reproductive system? What risk is associated with infected males? (Is it dynamic?) What is the relationship among serology, culture test results, and likelihood of infectiousness? What is true prevalence of Brucella abortus in GYA bison and elk? What information is available regarding the prevalence of Brucella abortus in GYA bison and elk? What information is available regarding the prevalence of Brucella abortus in other mammals in the GYA? What is the risk of direct or indirect (via aborted fetus, placenta, body fluids deposited on the ground, etc.) transmission of Brucella abortus from bison to cattle, from elk to cattle, and from elk to bison or vice versa? What is known about the prevalence of Brucella abortus in GYA wildlife other than bison or elk and risk of transmission to cattle? In the event that Brucella abortus is removed from bison but not simultaneously from elk, what is the risk that elk will serve as a reinfection pathway for bison? What is the known risk of Brucella abortus transmission compared with other disease?

OCR for page 144
What is the state of scientific understanding of the safety and effectiveness of existing vaccines to control brucellosis? Why are these vaccines less effective in bison than in cattle? If a vaccination program specific to bison were undertaken, would the outcome have a high likelihood of success given the presence of Brucella abortus in elk and other wildlife? Based solely on scientific considerations, what is known about the relative risk reduction potentials of the various optional approaches to reducing the risk of transmission of Brucella abortus from wildlife to cattle? Vaccinating bison Vaccinating cattle Separating cattle and bison during the bison abortion season or through the entire bison birthing season Limiting cattle on the proximity of the park borders to steers only What is the role of vaccine development for bison and elk? Can Brucella abortus be eliminated totally from the GYA by development and use of a vaccine? What would be the theoretical tradeoffs between a vaccine-only approach and a vaccination approach combined with a test and slaughter program?