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Appendix A An Annotated Guide to Earth Remote Sensing Data and Formation Resources for Social Science Applications Robert S. Chen The volume and diversity of earth remote sensing data and the range of applications to social science research are growing rapidly. This annotated guide presents a selected set of information resources and entry points for those inter- ested in exploring and using earth remote sensing data in interdisciplinary re- search, applications, and education. It focuses primarily on electronic data and information resources available via the Internet, since these tend to have the most up-to-date information on availability and access. The resources listed are organized into six categories, each with the subcat- egories shown: I. Basic Information and Documentation on Earth Remote Sensing I.A General Overviews and Compendia I.B Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) I.C Glossaries I.D Tutorials and Other Educational Materials II. Selected Listings of Earth Remote Sensing Data and Information Resources II.A Comprehensive Lists II.B Selective Lists III. Selected Remote Sensing Data Catalogs and Search Tools III.A Multiple Data Center Catalogs and Search Tools III.B Selected Data Center Catalogs and Search Tools 209

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210 GUIDE TO MOTH EMOTE SENSING DATA ED INFO~TION^SOURCES IV. Selected Earth Remote Sensing Data Systems and Centers IV.A Selected Mutilational Data Systems and Centers IV.B Selected National Centers V. Other Noteworthy Resources Related to Earth Remote Sensing Applications and Education VI. Selected E-Mail/WWW Gateways Within each subcategory, items are listed alphabetically. Suggested starting points for general readers are indicated with an asterisk. It should be noted that the inclusion of commercial data and information resources is not intended as an endorsement of any products or services provided. Moreover, given the rapidly expanding wealth of data and information resources, not all interesting and useful sites could be included in this guide. However, a sampling of noteworthy sites of likely interest to social scientists is provided to give potential users a flavor of what is now becoming available. This guide does not attempt to cover the wide range of sites related to geographic information systems or social science data, although many of the sites included here do contain information relevant to these subjects. Both the content and addresses of Internet sites tend to change over time. The annotations and Internet locations given here reflect the status of sites circa September 1997. For an up-to-date, hyperlinked version of this appendix, visit the Web site of the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) at the Uniform Resource Locator (URL):. Users are also encouraged to utilize the lists and search tools included here to obtain current information on existing and new resources. Users who do not have direct WWW access to the Internet may be able to access many of the data and information resources listed through an electronic mail (e-mail) WWW gateway. Section VI lists data services of this type. I. BASIC INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION ON EARTH REMOTE SENSING I.A General Overviews and Compendia *I.A-1 Atlas of Satellite Observations Related to Global Change. Pub- lished in 1993, this volume includes more than 25 articles on the use of satellite data and imagery to address key scientific questions concerning global environ- mental change. Topics covered include the earth's radiation balance, atmo- sphere, oceans, land, cryosphere, and the effects of human activities. An appen- dix describes both existing and planned operational and research satellites for earth observation, by country. AVA]LAB]~ITY: Printed volume available from Cambridge University Press (ISBN 0-521-43467-X).

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ROBERT S. CHEN 211 I.A-2 Earth Observations from Space: History, Promise, and Reality. The Space Studies Board of the U.S. National Research Council has prepared a detailed history of the Mission to Planet Earth Program and reviewed the overall development and organization of U.S. civil earth observation programs. Pub- lished in 1995, the report provides useful programmatic background for under- standing the current and planned suite of earth remote sensing satellites and associated instruments. AVA]LAB]~ITY: Printed version available from the Space Studies Board, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W., Wash- ington, D.C. 20418. Executive Summary available on line via the National Academy Press Reading Room at URL (search on title). A direct link to the summary is at URL . I.A-3 Manual of Photographic Interpretation, 2nd Edition. Updated in 1997 from the original published in 1960, this comprehensive manual reviews the history and fundamentals of photographic interpretation; methods for recogniz- ing and assessing landforms, soils, vegetation, hydrology, and structures and cultural features; and a range of applications including land-use and land-cover inventory, agriculture and forestry, wildlife and wetlands, urban planning and archaeology, military uses, and environmental monitoring. It includes two ap- pendices that list major imagery collections and sources of aerial photographs. AVA]LAB]~ITY: Printed volume available from the American Society for Photo- grammetry and Remote Sensing, 5420 Grosvenor Lane, Suite 210, Bethesda, Maryland 20814-2160 (ISBN 1-57083-039-8~. For additional information see URL . I.A-4 Manual of Remote Sensing, 3rd Edition (a series): Earth Observ- ing Platforms and Sensors. Now published in Windows-compatible CD-ROM format, this manual, updated in 1996, provides detailed information on more than 270 satellite and airborne platforms focusing on atmospheric, geophysical, and earth resources. The CD-ROM includes sample data sets, technical specifica- tions of hardware, and numerous color illustrations. AVA]LAB]~ITY: CD-ROM available from the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 5420 Grosvenor Lane, Suite 210, Bethesda, Maryland 20814-2160. For addi- tional information see URL . I.A-5 MTPE 1995 EOS Reference Handbook. The Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) Program of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administra- tion (NASA) maintains a reference handbook describing the status of the Earth Observing System (EOS). This document includes detailed information on planned EOS and related satellite missions, EOS instruments, EOS interdiscipli- nary science investigations, and MTPE pathfinder data sets (see item V-17~. AVAILABILITY: URL . Printed version available from EOS Project Science Office, Code 900, NASA/ Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, tel. (301) 286-3411.

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212 GUIDE TO MOTH EMOTE SENSING DATA ED INFO~TION^SOURCES *I.A-6 Thematic Guide on the Use of Satellite Remote Sensing To Study the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change. This on-line guide, developed by the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Net- work (CIESIN), provides an overview of satellite remote sensing in relationship to research on human interactions with global environmental change. It includes the full text of selected literature on remote sensing applications, as well as other bibliographic materials and direct links. As: URL . *I.A-7 Trends in Commercial Space 1996: Satellite Remote Sensing. This paper, prepared by the Office of Air and Space Commercialization of the U.S. Department of Commerce as part of an edited volume, provides an overview of commercial satellite remote sensing. It summarizes the Presidential Policy on Commercial Remote Sensing and lists planned worldwide commercial remote sensing capabilities. AVA~AB~: URL . I.B Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) I.B-1 A FAQ on Vegetation in Remote Sensing. This FAQ document addresses the use of remote sensing to assess vegetation characteristics. It in- cludes details on the derivation of standard indices and a bibliography. The on- line version is dated 13 October 1994. AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . *I.B-2 The Satellite Imagery FAQ. This five-part FAQ provides sum- mary information on satellite-based imagery of the earth. It deals with both general and technical questions and includes an extensive list of remote sensing satellites and instruments, with pointers to resources available on the Internet. The FAQ is updated approximately monthly by members of the Image Process- ing and Remote Sensing Listserver (IMAGRS-L). (See also item II.A-9.) AVA]~- As~TY: URL (latest version). I.C Glossaries I.C-1 CCRS Remote Sensing Glossary. This searchable database, main- tained by the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, contains a comprehensive list of terms related to radar, optical, and airborne remote sensing and a dictionary of acronyms. Results may be displayed in English or French. (See also items III.B- 1 and IV. B-2.) AVAILABILITY: URL . I.C-2 Dictionary of Abbreviations and Acronyms in Geographic Infor- mation Systems, Cartography, and Remote Sensing. An extensive list of ab- breviations and acronyms related to geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing is provided (dated October 1997~. AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL .

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ROBERT S. CHEN 213 I.C-3 Earth Observing System (EOS) Acronyms/Abbreviations. A com- prehensive list of acronyms and abbreviations is provided by the EOS Project Science Office at NASA'S Goddard Space Flight Center. AVA]:LAB]:~ITY: URL . I.C-4 Earth Observing System (EOS) Glossary. This is an extensive glos- sary of concepts and terms related to remote sensing and weather, aimed prima- rily at teachers and students in Grades 7-12. A short bibliography and a list of educational resources around the United States are also provided. AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . I.C-5 Global Land Information System (GLIS) Glossary. An exten- sive glossary of earth science acronyms and terms is available from the U.S. Geological Survey's GLIS, maintained by the Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Data Center (EDC) (see item III.B-4~. AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . I.C-6 Glossary of Remote Sensing Terminology and Acronyms. A brief list of remote sensing terms and acronyms and associated definitions is provided. AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . I.D Tutorials and Other Educational Materials *I.D-1 Community Colleges for Innovative Technology Transfer, Inc. (CCITT) Project in Remote Sensing, Image Processing and Geographic In- formation Systems. CCITT is a consortium of U.S. community colleges affili- ated with a local NASA Center. This project is developing a set of curriculum modules aimed at undergraduate courses in earth system sciences or related dis- ciplines. The project also offers periodic faculty workshops in remote sensing, image processing, and GIS. AVA]:LAB]:~ITY: URL . I.D-2 GLOBE Visualization Server. The visualization server of the Glo- bal Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program provides images of global environmental data, including both student measure- ments and reference data from the Environmental Modeling Center (EMC) and selected satellites. AVA1:LAB1:LITY: URL . *I.D-3 NASA's Observatorium. This is a public-access site for earth and space data, oriented primarily to precollege students. It includes an image gallery and selected exhibits on topics such as ozone and the use of remote sensing in agriculture and in the Mississippi flood of 1993. AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . *I.D-4 Remote Sensing Core Curriculum. Under development by a dis- tributed team involving the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC), the National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis (NCGIA), and the University of South Carolina, this curriculum provides an introduction to photo interpretation and photogrammetry, remote sensing of the environment, digital image processing, and remote sensing applications. It includes links to educa

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214 GUIDE TO MOTH EMOTE SENSING DATA ED INFO~TION^SOURCES tional and on-line data resources and provides both lecture and exercise materials on topics such as population estimation, environmental warfare, flood analysis, end rangeland management. AVA]:LAB]:~ITY: URLor . *I.D-5 Remote Sensing Task Force. The Remote Sensing Task Force of the National Council for Geographic Education (NCGE) has developed a set of instructional materials dealing with remote sensing of the environment. Specific topics include the Persian Gulf War, the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, fires in Yellowstone National Park, and the 1993 flood around St. Louis, Missouri. The Web site includes ordering information and samples of low- and high-resolution imagery. AVAILABILITY: URL . I.D-6 Remote Sensing Tutorial. This on-line tutorial under development by Goddard Space Flight Center focuses on the role of space technology in monitoring the earth's surface and atmosphere. It is aimed at both professional audiences and the general public and includes extensive materials on remote sensing applications. Although it is not yet complete, more than half of the planned chapters are available, and several more are apparently in progress. AVAILABILITY: URL . I.D-7 Satellite Meteorology Online Remote Sensing Guide. This instruc- tional module focuses on weather satellites, particularly Geostationary Opera- tional Environmental Satellites (GOES) and Polar Orbiting Environmental Satel- lites (POES). AVA]:LAB]:~ITY: URL . I-D-8 Satellite Training Application. This computer-based training ap- plication, under development by the Naval Research Laboratory in Monterey, California, presently includes a prototype satellite tutorial on interpretation of satellite imagery and training materials on the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). Additional materials are being prepared for other U.S. environmental satellites. AVA1LAB1L- : URL . II. SELECTED LISTINGS OF EARTH REMOTE SENSING DATA AND INFORMATION RESOURCES II.A Comprehensive Lists II.A-1 Commercial Remote Sensing Program (CRSP) Remote Sensing/ GIS Resource List. Developed by the CRSP Office at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, this directory of Web sites covers a range of remote sensing topics, including satellite and airborne remote sensing; radar, lidar, and hyper-spectral imaging; image processing and GIS software; and remote sensing and GIS in

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ROBERT S. CHEN 215 education. It includes information on both commercial and noncommercial sources. AVAILABILITY: URL . II.A-2 EWSE: Other Sites Search. This service generates an alphabetical list of Web sites related to earth observation. Users may then retrieve a short description of each Web site and link directly to that site. For a more specific search, see item III.A-5, the European Wide Service Exchange (EWSE). AVA]~- As~TY: URL . II.A-3 GeoData Information Sources. The Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research (CORER) at the University of Iowa maintains a list of hypertext links to digital cartographic and environmental data, including remotely sensed data. Subcategories include remote sensing data documentation, public domain and commercial sources, and meteorological satellite imagery. AVA]~- As~TY: URL . *II.A-4 The Journalists' Guide to Remote Sensing Resources. Main- tained by the American University School of Communication, this Web site provides extensive, annotated lists of remote sensing data and information re- sources. It includes a list of earth imagery resources and contact information for more than 50 countries and a large set of links to U.S. government remote sensing and mapping resources. AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . *II.A-5 Remote Sensing Data and Information Directory of Resources. The Public Use of Remote Sensing Data (RSD) Program at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center maintains a directory of resources covering weather and climate, space and astronomy, earth images from space, data archives, specific instruments, and projects and organizations. AVAILABILITY: URL . II.A-6 Remote Sensing Divisions: Recommended Links. The Department of Geography at the University of Zurich in Switzerland provides an extensive set of recommended links, focusing in particular on European resources and cover- ing organizations and institutes, data archives and services, satellites and instru- ments,navigation,pressreleases,andotherresources. AVAILABILITY: URL. II.A-7 Remote Sensing Guide. This well-organized listing is maintained at Brunel University in the United Kingdom. It includes direct links to major remote sensing lists and indexes, satellite and sensor sites, organizational infor- mation, publications, educational resources, software, and mailing lists and news groups. AvA~As~TY: URL . II.A-8 Remote Sensing Resources on the Web. This comprehensive list- ing of remote sensing resources covers satellites and sensors; remote sensing research programs; radar, aerial, and extraterrestrial remote sensing; and publica tions, software, and other resources. AvA ~rrY: URL .

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216 GUIDE TO MOTH EMOTE SENSING DATA ED INFO~TION^SOURCES *II.A-9 The Satellite Imagery FAQ, Parts 4 and 5. These sections of the FAQ (item I.B-2) provide a detailed inventory of remote sensing data sources, including lists of sites by satellite platform and country and a list of commercial sites. It is updated approximately monthly by members of the Image Processing and Remote Sensing Listserver (IMAGRS-L). As: URL ~ 1 a t e s t v e r s i o n ~ . II.A-10 Some Interesting WWW Pages. Developed as a service for mem- bers of The Remote Sensing Society in the United Kingdom, this page includes numerous links related to data, sensors, satellite platforms, publications, confer- ences,andothertopics. AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL. II.A- 1 1 Space Mission Acronym List and Hyperlink Guide. This on-line guide, developed by NASA' s Instrument and Sensing Technology Program, pro- vides information on a wide range of space missions, including earth observation satellites and direct links to relevant platform and instrument information. AVA]~- As~TY: URL . II.A-12 WWW Virtual Library: Remote Sensing. Developed by the Technical Research Centre of Finland, this directory provides a long list of links to remote sensing resources and related organizations around the world. Organi- zational lists are divided by region; other topics include data sources, societies, conferences, documents, journals, news groups, mailing lists, and related fields. AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . II.A- 13 Yahoo! Science/Geology_and_Geophysics/Remote_Sensing. This browse page provided by Yahoo lists a range of links relevant to remote sensing. Subcategories include conferences and institutes; cross-links are pro- vided to companies and earth pictures. AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . II. B Selective Lists II.B-1 Africa Data Dissemination Service (ADDS). Developed by the Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Data Center (see item IV.B-4), this service lists continental, regional, and national data for Africa, including holdings of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data based on the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). As: URL . II.B-2 CHAART Data Sources on the Internet. The Center for Health Applications of Aerospace Related Technologies (CHAART) at NASA's Ames Research Center has developed an annotated list of remote sensing and GIS data sites. The focus is primarily on federal data resources. AVAILABILITY: URL . II.B-3 Imaging Intelligence on the Web. Developed by the Intelligence Reform Project of the Federation of American Scientists, this site focuses on

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ROBERT S. CHEN 217 imagery intelligence resources on the WWW. It includes an image gallery and links to key intelligence documents and archives. AVA]:LAB]:~ITY: URL . II.B-4 ,Iapan GIS/Mapping Sciences Resource Guide. This is an on-line guide linking to an array of remote sensing, mapping, and imagery resources related to Japan, including distribution centers, software, organizations, and insti- tutes. (see also items III.B-3, IV.B-8, and IV.B-9.) AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . III. SELECTED REMOTE SENSING DATA CATALOGS AND SEARCH TOOLS III.A Multiple Data Center Catalogs and Search Tools *III.A-1 The CIESIN Gateway. The CIESIN Gateway, developed by the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), pro- vides integrated searching of multiple catalogs that conform to the Z39.50 inter- national standard, including the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD), various National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) catalogs, and CIESIN's own metadata holdings. The Gateway supports both full-text search and Boolean searches on specified fields. AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . III.A-2 Department of Defense Master Environmental Library (MEL). MEL is designed to provide a single point for searching U.S. Department of Defense environmental data. It provides access to metadata developed by distrib- uted regional sites. Users may specify a location, time period, keyword~s), and database of interest. Both Java and non-Java query interfaces are currently pro- v i d e d . A v A ~ ~ A s ~ ~ ~ T Y : U R L . *III.A-3 Earth Pages. Earth Pages is an on-line search and index tool for earth science data, information, and resources on the Internet. Resources are organized by topic or alphabetically or may be searched using keywords. Orga- nizations must register in order to be included in the database. AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . III.A-4 EOSDIS Information Management System (IMS). The IMS pro- vides access to the extensive data holdings of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). A graphical user interface (GUI) based on the X Window System_ supports data searching and browsing, access to directory and guide information, and data ordering. A WWW-based inter- face provides more limited search and access capabilities. AvA~As~TY: For the WWW interface, see URL . For the GUI, see URL for a list of telnet access points. III.A-5 European Wide Service Exchange (EWSE). The EWSE is an on

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218 GUIDE TO MOTH EMOTE SENSING DATA ED INFO~TION^SOURCES line information exchange testbed of the Centre for Earth Observation (CEO) Programme, designed to help the earth observation community find relevant data and resources (see also item IV.A-1~. The service supports free text searching, geographic and keyword searching, and browsing of a dynamic database. EWSE also provides access to gateways compatible with the NASA Information Man- agementSystem~seeitemIII.A-4~. AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL. *III.A-6 The Global Change Master Directory (GCMD). The GCMD provides access to an extensive set of metadata records describing remote sens- ing, in situ, and other earth science data. The GCMD search interface permits both free-text and controlled searches (using standard search terms). The GCMD is the American Coordinating Node of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites International Directory Network (CEOS IDN). AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . III.A-7 Global Environmental Information Locator Service (GELDS). GELOS is an alpha version search tool developed as part of the G7 Environment and Natural Resources Management project (G7-ENRM). The G7-ENRM project seeks to create a globally distributed virtual library of environmental and natural resource data. The current version of GELOS supports free-text, geographical, and keyword searches. AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . III.A-8 NOAA Environmental Services Data Directory. This catalog in- cludes metadata for the extensive environmental data holdings of the U.S. Na- tional Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). It includes the hold- ings of many NOAA data centers, such as the Satellite Active Archive (SAA), the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and the National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC). The catalog supports both full-text search and custom searches utilizing fields corresponding to the Governmental Information Locator System (OILS) or the Federal Geo- graphic Data Committee (FGDC) Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata. (See also item IV.B-10.) AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . III.B Selected Data Center Catalogs and Search Tools III.B-1 CCRS Earth Observation Catalogue (CEOCat). The Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (see items I.C-1 and IV.B-2) maintains an on-line inventory of "quick look" images for its holdings of Landsat, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), Systeme pour ['Observation de la Terre (SPOT), and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . III.B-2 CRISP Catalogue Browse. This resource permits browsing of Systeme pour ['Observation de la Terre (SPOT), European Remote Sensing Sat- ellite (ERS), and RADARSAT imagery for South and Southeast Asia available

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ROBERT S. CHEN 219 from the Center for Remote Imaging, Sensing and Processing (CRISP), the Na- tionalUniversityofSingapore. AVA]:LAB]:~ITY: URL. III.B-3 EOIS WWW Image Catalogue Service. This prototype interface provides inventory-level search for the holdings of the Earth Observation Infor- mation System (EOIS) of the Japanese National Space Development Agency (NASDA). Searches may be conducted based on area, satellite, sensor, date, and cloud cover for the Japan area or the globe. Both English and Japanese versions of the interface are available. (See also items II.B-4, IV.B-8, and IV.B-9.) AVA]~- A B ~ ~ ~ ~ : U R L . III.B-4 Global Land Information System (GLIS). The U.S. Geological Survey's GLIS provides on-line access to the extensive libraries of land-oriented remote sensing imagery held by the U.S. government and Canadian and Euro- pean sources (see also item I.C-5~. Three different interfaces are supported: an X Window_ client, a PC client, and a WWW interface (including both "frames" and "nonframes" versions). The client interfaces support more interactive and powerful search end browse functions. AvA~As~rrY: URL for WWW access and for information on downloading clients. IV. SELECTED EARTH REMOTE SENSING DATA SYSTEMS AND CENTERS IV.A Selected Multinational Data Systems and Centers IV.A-1 Centre for Earth Observation (CEO). The CEO Programme is a European Community program for advancing the use of earth observation data. The WWW site provides access to a set of demonstration case studies related to satellite orbit tracking, geographic information and visualization, and selected applications. CEO has developed the European Wide Service Exchange (EWSE) testbed (see item III.A-5) for the exchange of earth observation data. AvA~As~rrY: URL . *IV.A-2 Earthnet online. The European Space Agency (ESA) maintains access to its satellite data resources via the earthnet online service, including data from both European Remote Sensing Satellites (ERS) and non-ESA satellites. Instruments include microwave sounder, synthetic aperture radar, altimeter, Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR), and wind scatterometer. AVA]LAB]~- : URL . IV.A-3 The World Data Center System. Many of the World Data Centers (WDCs) of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) hold remote sensing data of various types. There are 13 discipline centers in the United States (WDC-A), 7 in Russia (WDC-B), 9 in Europe (WDC-C1), 7 in Japan and India (WDC-C2), and 9 in China (WDC-D). This Web site contains a guide to the WDC system and links to WDCs that maintain their own home pages. AVA]~- As~TY: URL .

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220 GUIDE TO MOTH EMOTE SENSING DATA ED INFO~TION SOURCES IV.B Selected National Centers IV-B-1 Australian Centre for Remote Sensing (ACRES). ACRES is Australia' s major satellite remote sensing organization, an element of the Austra- lian Surveying and Land Information Group (AUSLIG), Department of Adminis- trative Services. ACRES provides access to satellite data from Landsat, Systeme pour ['Observation de la Terre (SPOT), European Remote Sensing Satellites (ERS), RADARSAT, Japanese Remote Sensing Satellites (JERS), and other plat- forms. The Web site includes a digital catalogue of available data. AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . IV.B-2 Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS). The CCRS over- sees the acquisition of earth observation data and coordinates remote sensing applications in Canada. It provides access to the CCRS Earth Observation Cata- logue (CEOCat) image archive (see item III.B-1), including extensive Systeme pour ['Observation de la Terre (SPOT), Landsat, and RADARS AT imagery, and maintains a database of remote sensing companies in Canada. AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . IV.B-3 Global Hydrology Research Center (GlIRC). Formerly the Marshall Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), the GHRC continues to archive and disseminate hydrological data, including a range of cloud, water, and lightning data. The site provides access to an on-line search tool, Hydro, and to selected data sets via File Transfer Protocol (FTP). Avis rrY: URL . Also see URL for information about the transfer of data from the former Marshall DAAC to other DAACs (see item IV.B-4~. *IV.B-4 NASA Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs). Eight NASA DAACs provide data management and dissemination support for a wide range of existing NASA remote sensing data platforms and upcoming Earth Observing System (EOS) missions: Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Facility. Includes SAR data from the European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS)-1, the Japanese Earth Remote Sensing Satellite (JERS)-1, and the Canadian RADARS AT mission, plus se- lected Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), Landsat, and high-altitude aerial imagery. URL . Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Data Center. Archives data on land processes from Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C), Landsat pathfinders (see item V-17), global 1-km AVHRR, and selected airborne plat- forms. URL . Maps, photographs, and special project images are also available from the EROS home page at URL . Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) DAAC: Is responsible for data on upper atmosphere, global biosphere, and atmospheric dynamics, including data from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), Television InfraRed

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ROBERT S. CHEN 221 Observation Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), Sea-View- ing Wide-Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scan- ner (CZCS), and Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere-Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA-COARE). URL . Jet Propulsion Laboratory Physical Oceanography (IPL PO) DAAC. Manages physical oceanography data, including data from the Ocean Topogra- phy Experiment (TOPEX/Poseidon), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admin- istration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), Nim- bus 7, and Seasat. Future holdings will include scatterometer and altimeter data from multiple platforms. URL . Langley Research Center (LaRC) DAAC. Is responsible for data re- lated to the earth's radiation budget, tropospheric chemistry, clouds, and aero- sols, including remote sensing data from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE), Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement II (SAM II), Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE), First ISCCP Regional Ex- periment (FIRE), and Space Shuttle. URL . National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Oversees data related to snow and ice, cryosphere, and climate, including passive microwave-derived products, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) scenes, altim- eter data, and field experiment data. URL . Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) DAAC. Archives and dis- tributes data related to biogeochemical dynamics of the earth, including field data from the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) and the Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) Project. URL . . Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC). Facilitates ac- cess to and integrates socioeconomic and earth science data, including administra- tive boundary data, census and household survey data, agricultural and land-use/ land-cover data, international environmental treaties and associated status informa- tion, human health data, and associated metadata. (See also item VI.1.) URL . AvA~As~TY: For a current list of the DAACs and their access informa- tion, see URL . DAAC data holdings are described in the DAAC Science Data Plan database at . IV.B-5 National Cartography and Geospatial Center (NCG). NCG is the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) data archive and distribution center for spatial data and mapping products and services. AVA1LAB1LITY: URL . IV.B-6 National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). NCAR is a research center operated by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Re

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222 GUIDE TO MOTH EMOTE SENSING DATA ED INFO~TION SOURCES search (UCAR), which has extensive holdings of atmospheric and oceanographic data. The Web site provides access to real-time atmospheric and weather data from satellites, radar, and other sources (see Section V) and to various research data archives. AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . IV.B-7 National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) Data Centre. This is the data center for the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS)-1C, which provides very-high-resolution panchromatic data. AVA]:LAB]:~ITY: URL . Also see IRS-1C product information at URL . IV.B-8 National Space Development Agency (NASDA) Earth Observa- tion Center (EOC). The EOC is a field center of the Japanese NASDA, estab- lished to develop satellite remote sensing technology. This Web site provides information on a range of satellites, including the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS/MIDORI), the Marine Observation Satellite (MOS)-1, the Ja- pan Earth Resources Satellite (JERS)-1, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the Systeme pour ['Observation de la Terre (SPOT), Landsat, and the European Remote Sensing Satellites (ERS). It includes a range of satellite imag- ery concerning volcanoes, land-use change, weather, and other phenomena; 7 months of data from the ADEOS/MIDORI platform (November 1996-June 1997~; and access to a test release of the Earth Observation Information System (EOIS) WWW Image Catalogue Service. (See also items II.B-4, III.B-3, and IV.B-9.) AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . IV.B-9 National Space Development Agency (NASDA) Earth Observa- tion Research Center (EORC). The EORC is a research center of the Japanese NASDA that provides access to data and information regarding various existing and planned Japanese satellites, including the Marine Observation Satellite (MOS)-1, the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JERS)-1, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), and the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS). The Web site includes a data gallery and data library and links to both U.S. and Japanese Internet search engines. (See also items II.B-4, III.B-3, and IV.B-8.) AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . IV.B-10 NOAA Satellite Active Archive. The Satellite Active Archive is an online service of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration' s (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS). It provides direct access to data from the Television InfraRed Observation Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), De- fense Meteorological Satellite Program, and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). (See also item III.A-8.) AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . IV.B-ll Space Monitoring Information Support (SMIS) Laboratory. This laboratory of the Space Research Institute in Moscow provides access to data from the Geostationary Operational Meteorological Satellites (GOMS),

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ROBERT S. CHEN 223 RESURS 01, and U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellites. AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . V. OTHER NOTEWORTHY RESOURCES RELATED TO EARTH REMOTE SENSING APPLICATIONS AND EDUCATION V-1 Airborne Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) Flight Locator. AVIRIS is an optical sensor that delivers calibrated images of the upwelling spectral radiance in 224 contiguous bands with wavelengths from 400 to 2500 nanometers (nm). The instrument flies aboard a NASA ER-2 airplane at approximately 20 km above sea level. The Flight Locator illustrates the mean geographical path of AVIRIS flights (1992-1997) using the Topologically Inte- grated Geographic Encoding Reference (TIGER) Mapping Server developed by theU.S.BureauoftheCensus. AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL. V-2 Center for Remote Sensing and Spatial Analysis (CRSSA), Rutgers University. CRSSA's Web site provides information on a range of remote sens- ing and geographic information systems (GIS) projects, including the Global GRASS and GlobalARC CD-ROM Project, a cooperative activity with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (USA/ CERL). The five Global GRASS CD-ROMs contain a wide range of global data sets related to land, oceans, atmosphere, biosphere, and human activities. GlobalARC contains 84 themes and a total of 147 raster layers (grids) with cell resolutions of 4'48" or finer. Other CRSSA projects of interest include work related to the use of remote sensing in archaeology and mountain gorilla protec- t i o n . A V A ~ ~ A B ~ ~ ~ T Y : U R L . V-3 Core SW ImageNet~). Core Software Technology is a commercial vendor of satellite data. It provides access to Landsat 4 and 5 data from Earth Observation Satellite Corporation (EOSAT); SovInformSputnik (SIS) data from the Russian Space Agency; Systeme pour ['Observation de la Terre (SPOT) 1, 2, and 3 data from SPOT IMAGE Corporation; polar orbiting data from the Austra- lian Centre for Remote Sensing (ACRES); and European data from Eurimage. AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . V-4 Declassified Intelligence Satellite Imagery. A broad selection of satellite imagery from the 1960s and 1970s has been declassified by the U.S. intelligence community. Images may be browsed and ordered through the Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Data Center (see item IV.B-4~. AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . V-5 Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Home Page. This archive provides access to data from the DMSP satellites, including measurements from the Operational LineScan (OLS) instrument, the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), and other instruments. AVA1:LAB1:LITY: URL .

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224 GUIDE TO MOTH EMOTE SENSING DATA ED INFO~TION SOURCES V-6 Delft Institute for Earth-Oriented Space Research. Located at the Delft University of Technology in The Netherlands, this institute focuses on orbit determination, altimetry, and satellite geodesy. The Web site contains infor- mation on the European Remote Sensing Satellites ERS-1 and ERS-2, in- cluding the latest results from ERS-2 related to sea-surface variability, wind speed, wave height, and Gulf Stream velocities. AVA]:LAB]:~ITY: URL . *V-7 EarthRISE: Earth Remote Imagery for Science and Education. This database provides access to a collection of photographs of the earth taken from the NASA Space Shuttle during the past 15 years using hand-held cameras. The database interface supports searching by form, political unit, and topographi- cal features. AVA]:LAB]:~ITY: URL . V-8 Earth Satellite Corporation (EarthSat). The EarthSat home page describes a range of EarthSat applications related to geology, flooding, agricul- ture, environment, transportation, and weather. AVA]:LAB]:~ITY: URL . V-9 EarthWatch, Inc. EarthWatch provides high-resolution imagery, digital terrain models, and digital maps through its Digital Globe_ database. EarthWatch is planning to build and launch two commercial high-resolution imaging satellites, EarlyBird and QuickBird. EarlyBird was successfully launched on December 24, 1997. The Web site includes a short primer on remote sensing. AVA]:LAB]:~ITY: URL . A1SO see URL . V-10 Ecosystem Science and Technology Branch, NASA Ames Research Center. The Ecosystem Science and Technology Branch hosts a number of research efforts involving applications of remote sensing, including the Center for Health Applications of Aerospace Related Technologies (CHAART), the Global Monitoring and Human Health Program, the Landsat Program, tem- poral urban mapping, use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to investigate high-latitude wetlands, and new sensor development. AVAILABILITY: URL . *V-ll ENTRI Remote Sensing Gallery. As part of the on-line guide for the Environmental Treaties and Resource Indicators (ENTRI) service, the Socio- economic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) has developed examples of the use of remote sensing to monitor compliance with international environmental treaties. Av A]:LAB]:~ITY: U RL . V-12 Eurimage. Eurimage is a consortium of four European earth observa- tion companies: British Aerospace (U.K.), Dornier (Germany), SSC-Satellitbild (Sweden), and Nuova Telespazio (Italy). It provides access to current data from a range of platforms, including Landsat, European Remote Sensing Satellites ERS-1 and -2, Television InfraRed Observation Satellite (TIROS), RESURS-01, Japan Earth Resources Satellite (JERS)-1, Kosmos (KVR 1000, TK-350, and MK-4), and the Russian MIR Space Station, as well as archived data from the

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ROBERT S. CHEN 225 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM), the Marine Observing Satellite (MOS), Seasat Synthetic Aperture Ra- dar (SAR), and the Metric Camera. The Web site provides detailed technical information, a discussion of applications, and access to the EiNet on-line catalog (by subscription). AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . V- 13 The GeoTIFF Web Page. This Web site provides information on the effort to establish an interchange format based on the Tag Image File Format (TIFF_) or georeferenced raster imagery. Last updated in June 1996, the site provides access to the official release version of the GeoTIFF Specification and lists GeoTIFF data providers and software vendors. Links are provided to a GeoTIFF File Transfer Protocol (FTP) archive maintained by the SPOT IMAGE Corporation. AVAILABILITY: URL . *V-14 The Great Globe Gallery. This site provides more than 100 differ- ent links to images of the earth drawn from diverse sources. AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . V-15 Ionia "1 km AVHRR Global Land Data Set" Net-Browser. This service of the European Space Agency (ESA) European Space Research Institute (ESRIN) allows users to browse Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) land data from 1992 to the present. The Web site also provides access to a Fire Atlas (fire detection based on AVHRR data) and to the Global 1 km AVHRR Server. AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . Also see URL . V-16 Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Monterey Satellite Products. The Naval Research Laboratory in Monterey, California, provides near-real-time access to a range of meteorological satellite data products, including data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES)-8 and -9 and the Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS)-5. The site includes imagery, movies, documentation, forecasts, and other resources. AVA]LABI~TY: URL . V-17 NOAA/NASA Path~nder Programs. The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and NASA have sponsored a range of "pathfinder" activities to reprocess existing satellite data in support of global change research. Pathfinders include data based on the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), the Television InfraRed Observation Satellite (TIROS) Operational Ver- tical Sounder (TOVS), the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES), the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), and Landsat. AVA]~- As~TY: URL . V-18 ORBIMAGE. ORBIMAGE provides data from the OrbView 1 and 2 satellites and the planned OrbView 3 satellite. OrbView 1 includes two sensors, the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and the Global Positioning System Meteo- rology (GPS/MET) instrument. OrbView 2 (SeaStar_) was successfully launched on August 1, 1997, carrying the Sea-Viewing Wide-Field-of-View Sen

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226 GUIDE TO MOTH EMOTE SENSING DATA ED INFO~TION SOURCES sor (SeaWiFS) (see also item V-26. OrbView 2 data will be made available through an on-line OrbNetSM Digital Archive after launch. The ORBIMAGE Web site also provides access to the SunCast(D Data Service, which offers next- day forecasts of ultraviolet radiation to the general public. AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . V-l9 RADARSAT Program Official WWW Server. The RADARSAT Pro- gram of the Canadian Space Agency maintains a WWW server that provides general information on the RADARSAT mission and links to sites that are distributing and using RADARS AT data. AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . V-20 Remote Sensing and Modeling. The Center for Energy Studies at the Ecole des Mines de Paris has a Remote Sensing and Modeling group that focuses on earth observation from space and the modeling of processes contribut- ing to the signal measured by spaceborne sensors. Applications include urban climate and air quality, urban mapping, oceanography and coastal zones, and meteorology and solar meteorology. As: URL . V-21 Satellite Imagery, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science. This site provides near-real-time High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) and Local Area Coverage (LAC) daily image composites for selected marine areas in support of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS). AVA]~- As~TY: URL . V-22 Satellite Images in the Network Office Archive. This collection includes multiple satellite images of Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites, primarily from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Systeme pour ['Observation de la Terre (SPOT) from the late 1980s and early 1990s. AVA]:~- ABILITY: URL . *V-23 Satellite Observations of the Atmosphere. The Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology Division at the National Center for Atmospheric Re- search (see item IV.B-6) has developed a Web page on satellite observations of the atmosphere. The site includes access to real-time imagery from the Geosta- tionary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-8, an image gallery includ- ing selected animations, and a guide to satellite coverage and orbits (both geosta- tionary and polar orbiting). AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . V-24 Satellite Remote Sensing and Archaeology. This Web site, developed by M. J. F. Fowler in the United Kingdom, provides samples of satellite imagery used in remote sensing, a calendar of relevant meetings, a bibliography, and links to other related resources. AVA]:LAB]:~ITY: URL . *V-25 SatPasses: Predictions of Satellite Passes over North American Cities. This Web site delivers predictions of when the Space Shuttle, the MIR Space Station, and other satellites will pass over selected North American cities. It includes links to other satellite tracking resources (including a comparable

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ROBERT S. CHEN 227 service for cities in other regions of the world). AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . *V-26 SeaWiFS Project Home Page. This home page contains a wide range of data and information resources about the Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission (launched in August 1997) (See item V-18.) Included are technical documents, browse imagery, a teacher's guide, lists of ground stations, and current mission information. AVA]LAB]~ITY: URL . V-27 Space Imaging EOSAT's Online CARTERRA_ Archive. This commercial digital archive contains panchromatic, multispectral, and wide-field data from the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite IRS-1C, high-resolution digital photography, and selected radar and submeter products. AVA]:LAB]:~ITY: URL . V-28 Space Shuttle Earth Observations Project (SSEOP) Database of Photographic Information and Images. This is an on-line database of photo- graphs taken from the Space Shuttle using hand-held cameras. The database may be searched by feature and location and returns a jpeg image and text description of Shuttle photographs. Information on ordering hard-copy photographs is also provided. AVA]:LAB]:~ITY: URL . V-29 Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) Real-Time Data. The SSEC at the University of Wisconsin at Madison provides real-time data from geostationary satellites, such as the Geostationary Operational Environmen- talSatellites(GOES). This site contains browse-qualityimages only. AVA]:LAB]:~- : URL . V-30 SPOT IMAGE. The French Systeme pour ['Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellites 1, 2, and 3 have provided high-resolution, stereo imagery since 1986. SPOT 4 is scheduled for launch in early 1998. SPOT IMAGE Corporation offers a range of data products, including land classification data and high-reso- lution urban digital imagery (both satellite and aerial). The Worldwide SPOT Scene Catalogue is available on CD ROM, and an online catalog, DALI, pro- vides metadata for more than 4 million SPOT scenes and browse images for more than 1 million. AVA~AB~ITY: URL . V-3 1 Stratospheric Ozone and Human Health Project Home Page. This on-line service provides access to historical and near-real-time estimates of sur- face doses of ultraviolet radiation based on satellite measurements from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer and other instruments. The site includes an on- line bibliography on stratospheric ozone depletion, ultraviolet radiation, and hu- man health and provides links to other related data and Internet resources. AVA]:~- ABILITY: URL . *V-32 View from Satellite. This utility provides a view of the earth from the current position of the selected satellite in its orbit. Orbital data for hundreds of earth observing and communications satellites are updated regularly. AVA1:L- ABILITY: URL .

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228 GUIDE TO MOTH EMOTE SENSING DATA ED INFO~TION SOURCES VI. SELECTED E-MAIL/VVWW GATEWAYS VI.1 E-Mail Access to WWW Human Dimensions Data and Informa- tion Resources. The Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) main- tains a service to provide e-mail access to human dimensions data and informa- tion resources available over the WWW (see also item IV.B-4~. Users may re- trieve WWW documents either as plain text or in hypertext format for local viewing with a standard browser. The service currently utilizes the Agora soft- ware developed by the W3 Consortium, which does not yet support hypertext forms. The service is free, but registration is required. AVA]LAB]~ITY: Send an e- mail message to with the word "help" in the body of the message. For assistance, contact CIESIN User Services at . VI.2 GetWeb. SatelLife HealthNet's GetWeb server allows users to re- quest WWW pages via e-mail. It supports both text and hypertext format docu- ments and is capable of submitting keyword searches to standard Internet search services. SatelLife is an international not-for-profit organization serving health communication and information needs of developing countries. Avis rrY: URL , or send e-mail to with the subject line blank and the command "GET