II. CRIMINAL PROSECUTIONS

 

224

   

A. Detection Markers

 

224

   

1. Was There a Search?

 

225

   

a. The Waste-Heat Approach

 

226

   

b. The Canine-Sniff Approach

 

227

   

c. The Technological Approach

 

229

   

2. Administrative Searches

 

231

   

3. Stop-and-Frisk Exception

 

236

   

B. Identification Taggants

 

237

   

III. CIVIL LIABILITY

 

240

   

A. Introduction

 

240

   

B. Detecting Explosives, Preblast

 

241

   

1. Constitutional Torts

 

241

   

2. Invasion of Privacy

 

243

   

a. Intrusion upon Seclusion

 

244

   

b. Publication of Private Facts and False Light Privacy Invasions

 

245

   

3. Defamation

 

246

   

4. Intentional Torts

 

247

   

a. Battery

 

247

   

b. False Imprisonment and/or False Arrest

 

247

   

c. Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress

 

248

   

d. Trespass to Chattels/Conversion

 

249

   

e. Privileges and Defenses

 

249

   

5. Negligence

 

250

   

6. Ultrahazardous or Abnormally Dangerous Activities

 

252

   

a. Ultrahazardous Activities

 

252

   

b. Abnormally Dangerous Activities

 

253

   

7. Products Liability

 

254

   

a. Bad Product Theories

 

254

   

i. Negligence

 

254

   

ii. Implied Warranty of Merchantability

 

256

   

iii. Strict Products Liability

 

256

   

b. Bad Representation Theories

 

264

   

C. Identifying Bombers, Postblast

 

265

   

1. Trespass to Land and Nuisance

 

266

   

2. Trespass to Chattels/Conversion

 

267

   

3. Negligence

 

268

   

4. Ultrahazardous or Abnormally Dangerous Activities

 

268

   

5. Products Liability

 

269

   

a. Design Defects

 

270

   

b. Marketing Defects

 

271

   

c. Proof Problems

 

272



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